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1 | .TH fiologparser_hist.py 1 "August 18, 2016" |

2 | .SH NAME | |

3 | fiologparser_hist.py \- Calculate statistics from fio histograms | |

4 | .SH SYNOPSIS | |

5 | .B fiologparser_hist.py | |

6 | [\fIoptions\fR] [clat_hist_files]... | |

7 | .SH DESCRIPTION | |

8 | .B fiologparser_hist.py | |

9 | is a utility for converting *_clat_hist* files | |

10 | generated by fio into a CSV of latency statistics including minimum, | |

4a11e9d7 | 11 | average, maximum latency, and selectable percentiles. |

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12 | .SH EXAMPLES |

13 | .PP | |

14 | .nf | |

15 | $ fiologparser_hist.py *_clat_hist* | |

16 | end-time, samples, min, avg, median, 90%, 95%, 99%, max | |

17 | 1000, 15, 192, 1678.107, 1788.859, 1856.076, 1880.040, 1899.208, 1888.000 | |

18 | 2000, 43, 152, 1642.368, 1714.099, 1816.659, 1845.552, 1888.131, 1888.000 | |

19 | 4000, 39, 1152, 1546.962, 1545.785, 1627.192, 1640.019, 1691.204, 1744 | |

afc764cc | 20 | \[char46].. |

d1f6fcad KC |
21 | .fi |

22 | .PP | |

23 | ||

24 | .SH OPTIONS | |

25 | .TP | |

26 | .BR \-\-help | |

27 | Print these options. | |

28 | .TP | |

29 | .BR \-\-buff_size \fR=\fPint | |

30 | Number of samples to buffer into numpy at a time. Default is 10,000. | |

31 | This can be adjusted to help performance. | |

32 | .TP | |

33 | .BR \-\-max_latency \fR=\fPint | |

34 | Number of seconds of data to process at a time. Defaults to 20 seconds, | |

35 | in order to handle the 17 second upper bound on latency in histograms | |

36 | reported by fio. This should be increased if fio has been | |

37 | run with a larger maximum latency. Lowering this when a lower maximum | |

38 | latency is known can improve performance. See NOTES for more details. | |

39 | .TP | |

40 | .BR \-i ", " \-\-interval \fR=\fPint | |

41 | Interval at which statistics are reported. Defaults to 1000 ms. This | |

42 | should be set a minimum of the value for \fBlog_hist_msec\fR as given | |

43 | to fio. | |

44 | .TP | |

4a11e9d7 | 45 | .BR \-\-noweight |

46 | Do not perform weighting of samples between output intervals. Default is False. | |

47 | .TP | |

d1f6fcad KC |
48 | .BR \-d ", " \-\-divisor \fR=\fPint |

49 | Divide statistics by this value. Defaults to 1. Useful if you want to | |

50 | convert latencies from milliseconds to seconds (\fBdivisor\fR=\fP1000\fR). | |

51 | .TP | |

52 | .BR \-\-warn | |

53 | Enables warning messages printed to stderr, useful for debugging. | |

54 | .TP | |

55 | .BR \-\-group_nr \fR=\fPint | |

56 | Set this to the value of \fIFIO_IO_U_PLAT_GROUP_NR\fR as defined in | |

57 | \fPstat.h\fR if fio has been recompiled. Defaults to 19, the | |

58 | current value used in fio. See NOTES for more details. | |

4a11e9d7 | 59 | .TP |

60 | .BR \-\-percentiles \fR=\fPstr | |

61 | Pass desired list of comma or colon separated percentiles to print. | |

62 | The default is "90.0:95.0:99.0", but min, median(50%) and max percentiles are always printed | |

63 | .TP | |

64 | .BR \-\-usbin | |

65 | Use to indicate to parser that histogram bin latencies values are in microseconds. | |

66 | The default is to use nanoseconds, but histogram logs from fio versions <= 2.99 are in microseconds. | |

67 | .TP | |

68 | .BR \-\-directions \fR=\fPstr | |

69 | By default, all directions (e.g read and write) histogram bins are combined | |

70 | producing one 'mixed' result. | |

71 | To produce independent directional results, pass some combination of | |

72 | \'rwtm\' characters with the \-\-directions\fR=\fPrwtm option. | |

73 | A \'dir\' column is added indicating the result direction for a row. | |

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74 | |

75 | .SH NOTES | |

76 | end-times are calculated to be uniform increments of the \fB\-\-interval\fR value given, | |

77 | regardless of when histogram samples are reported. Of note: | |

78 | ||

79 | .RS | |

80 | Intervals with no samples are omitted. In the example above this means | |

81 | "no statistics from 2 to 3 seconds" and "39 samples influenced the statistics | |

82 | of the interval from 3 to 4 seconds". | |

83 | .LP | |

84 | Intervals with a single sample will have the same value for all statistics | |

85 | .RE | |

86 | ||

87 | .PP | |

88 | The number of samples is unweighted, corresponding to the total number of samples | |

89 | which have any effect whatsoever on the interval. | |

90 | ||

91 | Min statistics are computed using value of the lower boundary of the first bin | |

92 | (in increasing bin order) with non-zero samples in it. Similarly for max, | |

93 | we take the upper boundary of the last bin with non-zero samples in it. | |

94 | This is semantically identical to taking the 0th and 100th percentiles with a | |

95 | 50% bin-width buffer (because percentiles are computed using mid-points of | |

96 | the bins). This enforces the following nice properties: | |

97 | ||

98 | .RS | |

99 | min <= 50th <= 90th <= 95th <= 99th <= max | |

100 | .LP | |

101 | min and max are strict lower and upper bounds on the actual | |

102 | min / max seen by fio (and reported in *_clat.* with averaging turned off). | |

103 | .RE | |

104 | ||

105 | .PP | |

106 | Average statistics use a standard weighted arithmetic mean. | |

107 | ||

4a11e9d7 | 108 | When --noweights option is false (the default) |

109 | percentile statistics are computed using the weighted percentile method as | |

d1f6fcad KC |
110 | described here: \fIhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percentile#Weighted_percentile\fR. |

111 | See weights() method for details on how weights are computed for individual | |

112 | samples. In process_interval() we further multiply by the height of each bin | |

113 | to get weighted histograms. | |

114 | ||

115 | We convert files given on the command line, assumed to be fio histogram files, | |

116 | An individual histogram file can contain the | |

117 | histograms for multiple different r/w directions (notably when \fB\-\-rw\fR=\fPrandrw\fR). This | |

118 | is accounted for by tracking each r/w direction separately. In the statistics | |

119 | reported we ultimately merge *all* histograms (regardless of r/w direction). | |

120 | ||

121 | The value of *_GROUP_NR in \fIstat.h\fR (and *_BITS) determines how many latency bins | |

122 | fio outputs when histogramming is enabled. Namely for the current default of | |

123 | GROUP_NR=19, we get 1,216 bins with a maximum latency of approximately 17 | |

124 | seconds. For certain applications this may not be sufficient. With GROUP_NR=24 | |

125 | we have 1,536 bins, giving us a maximum latency of 541 seconds (~ 9 minutes). If | |

126 | you expect your application to experience latencies greater than 17 seconds, | |

127 | you will need to recompile fio with a larger GROUP_NR, e.g. with: | |

128 | ||

129 | .RS | |

130 | .PP | |

131 | .nf | |

132 | sed -i.bak 's/^#define FIO_IO_U_PLAT_GROUP_NR 19\n/#define FIO_IO_U_PLAT_GROUP_NR 24/g' stat.h | |

133 | make fio | |

134 | .fi | |

135 | .PP | |

136 | .RE | |

137 | ||

138 | .PP | |

139 | Quick reference table for the max latency corresponding to a sampling of | |

140 | values for GROUP_NR: | |

141 | ||

142 | .RS | |

143 | .PP | |

144 | .nf | |

145 | GROUP_NR | # bins | max latency bin value | |

146 | 19 | 1216 | 16.9 sec | |

147 | 20 | 1280 | 33.8 sec | |

148 | 21 | 1344 | 67.6 sec | |

149 | 22 | 1408 | 2 min, 15 sec | |

150 | 23 | 1472 | 4 min, 32 sec | |

151 | 24 | 1536 | 9 min, 4 sec | |

152 | 25 | 1600 | 18 min, 8 sec | |

153 | 26 | 1664 | 36 min, 16 sec | |

154 | .fi | |

155 | .PP | |

156 | .RE | |

157 | ||

158 | .PP | |

159 | At present this program automatically detects the number of histogram bins in | |

160 | the log files, and adjusts the bin latency values accordingly. In particular if | |

161 | you use the \fB\-\-log_hist_coarseness\fR parameter of fio, you get output files with | |

162 | a number of bins according to the following table (note that the first | |

163 | row is identical to the table above): | |

164 | ||

165 | .RS | |

166 | .PP | |

167 | .nf | |

168 | coarse \\ GROUP_NR | |

169 | 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 | |

170 | ------------------------------------------------------- | |

171 | 0 [[ 1216, 1280, 1344, 1408, 1472, 1536, 1600, 1664], | |

172 | 1 [ 608, 640, 672, 704, 736, 768, 800, 832], | |

173 | 2 [ 304, 320, 336, 352, 368, 384, 400, 416], | |

174 | 3 [ 152, 160, 168, 176, 184, 192, 200, 208], | |

175 | 4 [ 76, 80, 84, 88, 92, 96, 100, 104], | |

176 | 5 [ 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52], | |

177 | 6 [ 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26], | |

178 | 7 [ N/A, 10, N/A, 11, N/A, 12, N/A, 13], | |

179 | 8 [ N/A, 5, N/A, N/A, N/A, 6, N/A, N/A]] | |

180 | .fi | |

181 | .PP | |

182 | .RE | |

183 | ||

184 | .PP | |

185 | For other values of GROUP_NR and coarseness, this table can be computed like this: | |

186 | ||

187 | .RS | |

188 | .PP | |

189 | .nf | |

190 | bins = [1216,1280,1344,1408,1472,1536,1600,1664] | |

191 | max_coarse = 8 | |

192 | fncn = lambda z: list(map(lambda x: z/2**x if z % 2**x == 0 else nan, range(max_coarse + 1))) | |

193 | np.transpose(list(map(fncn, bins))) | |

194 | .fi | |

195 | .PP | |

196 | .RE | |

197 | ||

198 | .PP | |

199 | If you have not adjusted GROUP_NR for your (high latency) application, then you | |

200 | will see the percentiles computed by this tool max out at the max latency bin | |

201 | value as in the first table above, and in this plot (where GROUP_NR=19 and thus we see | |

202 | a max latency of ~16.7 seconds in the red line): | |

203 | ||

204 | .RS | |

205 | \fIhttps://www.cronburg.com/fio/max_latency_bin_value_bug.png | |

206 | .RE | |

207 | ||

208 | .PP | |

209 | Motivation for, design decisions, and the implementation process are | |

210 | described in further detail here: | |

211 | ||

212 | .RS | |

213 | \fIhttps://www.cronburg.com/fio/cloud-latency-problem-measurement/ | |

214 | .RE | |

215 | ||

216 | .SH AUTHOR | |

217 | .B fiologparser_hist.py | |

218 | and this manual page were written by Karl Cronburg <karl.cronburg@gmail.com>. | |

219 | .SH "REPORTING BUGS" | |

220 | Report bugs to the \fBfio\fR mailing list <fio@vger.kernel.org>. |