Remove verifysort/verifysort_nr from documentation
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523bad63 1.TH fio 1 "August 2017" "User Manual"
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2.SH NAME
3fio \- flexible I/O tester
4.SH SYNOPSIS
5.B fio
6[\fIoptions\fR] [\fIjobfile\fR]...
7.SH DESCRIPTION
8.B fio
9is a tool that will spawn a number of threads or processes doing a
10particular type of I/O action as specified by the user.
11The typical use of fio is to write a job file matching the I/O load
12one wants to simulate.
13.SH OPTIONS
14.TP
49da1240 15.BI \-\-debug \fR=\fPtype
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16Enable verbose tracing \fItype\fR of various fio actions. May be `all' for all \fItype\fRs
17or individual types separated by a comma (e.g. `\-\-debug=file,mem' will enable
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18file and memory debugging). `help' will list all available tracing options.
19.TP
7db7a5a0 20.BI \-\-parse\-only
bdd88be3 21Parse options only, don't start any I/O.
49da1240 22.TP
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23.BI \-\-output \fR=\fPfilename
24Write output to \fIfilename\fR.
25.TP
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26.BI \-\-output\-format \fR=\fPformat
27Set the reporting \fIformat\fR to `normal', `terse', `json', or
28`json+'. Multiple formats can be selected, separate by a comma. `terse'
29is a CSV based format. `json+' is like `json', except it adds a full
513e37ee 30dump of the latency buckets.
e28ee21d 31.TP
7db7a5a0 32.BI \-\-bandwidth\-log
d23ae827 33Generate aggregate bandwidth logs.
d60e92d1 34.TP
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35.BI \-\-minimal
36Print statistics in a terse, semicolon\-delimited format.
d60e92d1 37.TP
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38.BI \-\-append\-terse
39Print statistics in selected mode AND terse, semicolon\-delimited format.
40\fBDeprecated\fR, use \fB\-\-output\-format\fR instead to select multiple formats.
f6a7df53 41.TP
065248bf 42.BI \-\-terse\-version \fR=\fPversion
7db7a5a0 43Set terse \fIversion\fR output format (default `3', or `2', `4', `5').
49da1240 44.TP
7db7a5a0 45.BI \-\-version
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46Print version information and exit.
47.TP
7db7a5a0 48.BI \-\-help
bdd88be3 49Print a summary of the command line options and exit.
49da1240 50.TP
7db7a5a0 51.BI \-\-cpuclock\-test
bdd88be3 52Perform test and validation of internal CPU clock.
fec0f21c 53.TP
bdd88be3 54.BI \-\-crctest \fR=\fP[test]
7db7a5a0 55Test the speed of the built\-in checksumming functions. If no argument is given,
bdd88be3 56all of them are tested. Alternatively, a comma separated list can be passed, in which
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57case the given ones are tested.
58.TP
49da1240 59.BI \-\-cmdhelp \fR=\fPcommand
bdd88be3 60Print help information for \fIcommand\fR. May be `all' for all commands.
49da1240 61.TP
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62.BI \-\-enghelp \fR=\fP[ioengine[,command]]
63List all commands defined by \fIioengine\fR, or print help for \fIcommand\fR
64defined by \fIioengine\fR. If no \fIioengine\fR is given, list all
65available ioengines.
de890a1e 66.TP
d60e92d1 67.BI \-\-showcmd \fR=\fPjobfile
7db7a5a0 68Convert \fIjobfile\fR to a set of command\-line options.
d60e92d1 69.TP
bdd88be3 70.BI \-\-readonly
7db7a5a0 71Turn on safety read\-only checks, preventing writes. The \fB\-\-readonly\fR
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72option is an extra safety guard to prevent users from accidentally starting
73a write workload when that is not desired. Fio will only write if
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74`rw=write/randwrite/rw/randrw' is given. This extra safety net can be used
75as an extra precaution as \fB\-\-readonly\fR will also enable a write check in
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76the I/O engine core to prevent writes due to unknown user space bug(s).
77.TP
d60e92d1 78.BI \-\-eta \fR=\fPwhen
7db7a5a0 79Specifies when real\-time ETA estimate should be printed. \fIwhen\fR may
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80be `always', `never' or `auto'. `auto' is the default, it prints ETA when
81requested if the output is a TTY. `always' disregards the output type, and
82prints ETA when requested. `never' never prints ETA.
83.TP
84.BI \-\-eta\-interval \fR=\fPtime
85By default, fio requests client ETA status roughly every second. With this
86option, the interval is configurable. Fio imposes a minimum allowed time to
87avoid flooding the console, less than 250 msec is not supported.
d60e92d1 88.TP
30b5d57f 89.BI \-\-eta\-newline \fR=\fPtime
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90Force a new line for every \fItime\fR period passed. When the unit is omitted,
91the value is interpreted in seconds.
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92.TP
93.BI \-\-status\-interval \fR=\fPtime
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94Force a full status dump of cumulative (from job start) values at \fItime\fR
95intervals. This option does *not* provide per-period measurements. So
96values such as bandwidth are running averages. When the time unit is omitted,
97\fItime\fR is interpreted in seconds.
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98.TP
99.BI \-\-section \fR=\fPname
100Only run specified section \fIname\fR in job file. Multiple sections can be specified.
7db7a5a0 101The \fB\-\-section\fR option allows one to combine related jobs into one file.
bdd88be3 102E.g. one job file could define light, moderate, and heavy sections. Tell
7db7a5a0 103fio to run only the "heavy" section by giving `\-\-section=heavy'
bdd88be3 104command line option. One can also specify the "write" operations in one
7db7a5a0 105section and "verify" operation in another section. The \fB\-\-section\fR option
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106only applies to job sections. The reserved *global* section is always
107parsed and used.
c0a5d35e 108.TP
49da1240 109.BI \-\-alloc\-size \fR=\fPkb
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110Set the internal smalloc pool size to \fIkb\fR in KiB. The
111\fB\-\-alloc\-size\fR switch allows one to use a larger pool size for smalloc.
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112If running large jobs with randommap enabled, fio can run out of memory.
113Smalloc is an internal allocator for shared structures from a fixed size
114memory pool and can grow to 16 pools. The pool size defaults to 16MiB.
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115NOTE: While running `.fio_smalloc.*' backing store files are visible
116in `/tmp'.
d60e92d1 117.TP
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118.BI \-\-warnings\-fatal
119All fio parser warnings are fatal, causing fio to exit with an error.
9183788d 120.TP
49da1240 121.BI \-\-max\-jobs \fR=\fPnr
7db7a5a0 122Set the maximum number of threads/processes to support to \fInr\fR.
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123NOTE: On Linux, it may be necessary to increase the shared-memory limit
124(`/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax') if fio runs into errors while creating jobs.
d60e92d1 125.TP
49da1240 126.BI \-\-server \fR=\fPargs
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127Start a backend server, with \fIargs\fR specifying what to listen to.
128See \fBCLIENT/SERVER\fR section.
f57a9c59 129.TP
49da1240 130.BI \-\-daemonize \fR=\fPpidfile
7db7a5a0 131Background a fio server, writing the pid to the given \fIpidfile\fR file.
49da1240 132.TP
bdd88be3 133.BI \-\-client \fR=\fPhostname
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134Instead of running the jobs locally, send and run them on the given \fIhostname\fR
135or set of \fIhostname\fRs. See \fBCLIENT/SERVER\fR section.
bdd88be3 136.TP
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137.BI \-\-remote\-config \fR=\fPfile
138Tell fio server to load this local \fIfile\fR.
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139.TP
140.BI \-\-idle\-prof \fR=\fPoption
7db7a5a0 141Report CPU idleness. \fIoption\fR is one of the following:
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142.RS
143.RS
144.TP
145.B calibrate
146Run unit work calibration only and exit.
147.TP
148.B system
149Show aggregate system idleness and unit work.
150.TP
151.B percpu
7db7a5a0 152As \fBsystem\fR but also show per CPU idleness.
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153.RE
154.RE
155.TP
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156.BI \-\-inflate\-log \fR=\fPlog
157Inflate and output compressed \fIlog\fR.
bdd88be3 158.TP
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159.BI \-\-trigger\-file \fR=\fPfile
160Execute trigger command when \fIfile\fR exists.
bdd88be3 161.TP
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162.BI \-\-trigger\-timeout \fR=\fPtime
163Execute trigger at this \fItime\fR.
bdd88be3 164.TP
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165.BI \-\-trigger \fR=\fPcommand
166Set this \fIcommand\fR as local trigger.
bdd88be3 167.TP
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168.BI \-\-trigger\-remote \fR=\fPcommand
169Set this \fIcommand\fR as remote trigger.
bdd88be3 170.TP
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171.BI \-\-aux\-path \fR=\fPpath
172Use this \fIpath\fR for fio state generated files.
d60e92d1 173.SH "JOB FILE FORMAT"
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174Any parameters following the options will be assumed to be job files, unless
175they match a job file parameter. Multiple job files can be listed and each job
7db7a5a0 176file will be regarded as a separate group. Fio will \fBstonewall\fR execution
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177between each group.
178
179Fio accepts one or more job files describing what it is
180supposed to do. The job file format is the classic ini file, where the names
181enclosed in [] brackets define the job name. You are free to use any ASCII name
182you want, except *global* which has special meaning. Following the job name is
183a sequence of zero or more parameters, one per line, that define the behavior of
184the job. If the first character in a line is a ';' or a '#', the entire line is
185discarded as a comment.
186
187A *global* section sets defaults for the jobs described in that file. A job may
188override a *global* section parameter, and a job file may even have several
189*global* sections if so desired. A job is only affected by a *global* section
190residing above it.
191
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192The \fB\-\-cmdhelp\fR option also lists all options. If used with an \fIcommand\fR
193argument, \fB\-\-cmdhelp\fR will detail the given \fIcommand\fR.
7a14cf18 194
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195See the `examples/' directory for inspiration on how to write job files. Note
196the copyright and license requirements currently apply to
197`examples/' files.
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198.SH "JOB FILE PARAMETERS"
199Some parameters take an option of a given type, such as an integer or a
200string. Anywhere a numeric value is required, an arithmetic expression may be
201used, provided it is surrounded by parentheses. Supported operators are:
d59aa780 202.RS
7db7a5a0 203.P
d59aa780 204.B addition (+)
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205.P
206.B subtraction (\-)
207.P
d59aa780 208.B multiplication (*)
7db7a5a0 209.P
d59aa780 210.B division (/)
7db7a5a0 211.P
d59aa780 212.B modulus (%)
7db7a5a0 213.P
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214.B exponentiation (^)
215.RE
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216.P
217For time values in expressions, units are microseconds by default. This is
218different than for time values not in expressions (not enclosed in
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219parentheses).
220.SH "PARAMETER TYPES"
221The following parameter types are used.
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222.TP
223.I str
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224String. A sequence of alphanumeric characters.
225.TP
226.I time
227Integer with possible time suffix. Without a unit value is interpreted as
228seconds unless otherwise specified. Accepts a suffix of 'd' for days, 'h' for
229hours, 'm' for minutes, 's' for seconds, 'ms' (or 'msec') for milliseconds and 'us'
230(or 'usec') for microseconds. For example, use 10m for 10 minutes.
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231.TP
232.I int
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233Integer. A whole number value, which may contain an integer prefix
234and an integer suffix.
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235.RS
236.RS
237.P
6b86fc18 238[*integer prefix*] **number** [*integer suffix*]
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239.RE
240.P
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241The optional *integer prefix* specifies the number's base. The default
242is decimal. *0x* specifies hexadecimal.
0b43a833 243.P
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244The optional *integer suffix* specifies the number's units, and includes an
245optional unit prefix and an optional unit. For quantities of data, the
246default unit is bytes. For quantities of time, the default unit is seconds
247unless otherwise specified.
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248.P
249With `kb_base=1000', fio follows international standards for unit
7db7a5a0 250prefixes. To specify power\-of\-10 decimal values defined in the
6b86fc18 251International System of Units (SI):
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252.RS
253.P
7db7a5a0 254.PD 0
eccce61a 255K means kilo (K) or 1000
7db7a5a0 256.P
eccce61a 257M means mega (M) or 1000**2
7db7a5a0 258.P
eccce61a 259G means giga (G) or 1000**3
7db7a5a0 260.P
eccce61a 261T means tera (T) or 1000**4
7db7a5a0 262.P
eccce61a 263P means peta (P) or 1000**5
7db7a5a0 264.PD
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265.RE
266.P
7db7a5a0 267To specify power\-of\-2 binary values defined in IEC 80000\-13:
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268.RS
269.P
7db7a5a0 270.PD 0
eccce61a 271Ki means kibi (Ki) or 1024
7db7a5a0 272.P
eccce61a 273Mi means mebi (Mi) or 1024**2
7db7a5a0 274.P
eccce61a 275Gi means gibi (Gi) or 1024**3
7db7a5a0 276.P
eccce61a 277Ti means tebi (Ti) or 1024**4
7db7a5a0 278.P
eccce61a 279Pi means pebi (Pi) or 1024**5
7db7a5a0 280.PD
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281.RE
282.P
283With `kb_base=1024' (the default), the unit prefixes are opposite
7db7a5a0 284from those specified in the SI and IEC 80000\-13 standards to provide
6b86fc18 285compatibility with old scripts. For example, 4k means 4096.
0b43a833 286.P
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287For quantities of data, an optional unit of 'B' may be included
288(e.g., 'kB' is the same as 'k').
0b43a833 289.P
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290The *integer suffix* is not case sensitive (e.g., m/mi mean mebi/mega,
291not milli). 'b' and 'B' both mean byte, not bit.
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292.P
293Examples with `kb_base=1000':
294.RS
295.P
7db7a5a0 296.PD 0
6d500c2e 2974 KiB: 4096, 4096b, 4096B, 4k, 4kb, 4kB, 4K, 4KB
7db7a5a0 298.P
6d500c2e 2991 MiB: 1048576, 1m, 1024k
7db7a5a0 300.P
6d500c2e 3011 MB: 1000000, 1mi, 1000ki
7db7a5a0 302.P
6d500c2e 3031 TiB: 1073741824, 1t, 1024m, 1048576k
7db7a5a0 304.P
6d500c2e 3051 TB: 1000000000, 1ti, 1000mi, 1000000ki
7db7a5a0 306.PD
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307.RE
308.P
309Examples with `kb_base=1024' (default):
310.RS
311.P
7db7a5a0 312.PD 0
6d500c2e 3134 KiB: 4096, 4096b, 4096B, 4k, 4kb, 4kB, 4K, 4KB
7db7a5a0 314.P
6d500c2e 3151 MiB: 1048576, 1m, 1024k
7db7a5a0 316.P
6d500c2e 3171 MB: 1000000, 1mi, 1000ki
7db7a5a0 318.P
6d500c2e 3191 TiB: 1073741824, 1t, 1024m, 1048576k
7db7a5a0 320.P
6d500c2e 3211 TB: 1000000000, 1ti, 1000mi, 1000000ki
7db7a5a0 322.PD
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323.RE
324.P
6d500c2e 325To specify times (units are not case sensitive):
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326.RS
327.P
7db7a5a0 328.PD 0
6d500c2e 329D means days
7db7a5a0 330.P
6d500c2e 331H means hours
7db7a5a0 332.P
6d500c2e 333M mean minutes
7db7a5a0 334.P
6d500c2e 335s or sec means seconds (default)
7db7a5a0 336.P
6d500c2e 337ms or msec means milliseconds
7db7a5a0 338.P
6d500c2e 339us or usec means microseconds
7db7a5a0 340.PD
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341.RE
342.P
6b86fc18 343If the option accepts an upper and lower range, use a colon ':' or
7db7a5a0 344minus '\-' to separate such values. See \fIirange\fR parameter type.
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345If the lower value specified happens to be larger than the upper value
346the two values are swapped.
0b43a833 347.RE
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348.TP
349.I bool
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350Boolean. Usually parsed as an integer, however only defined for
351true and false (1 and 0).
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352.TP
353.I irange
6b86fc18 354Integer range with suffix. Allows value range to be given, such as
7db7a5a0 3551024\-4096. A colon may also be used as the separator, e.g. 1k:4k. If the
6b86fc18 356option allows two sets of ranges, they can be specified with a ',' or '/'
7db7a5a0 357delimiter: 1k\-4k/8k\-32k. Also see \fIint\fR parameter type.
83349190
YH
358.TP
359.I float_list
6b86fc18 360A list of floating point numbers, separated by a ':' character.
523bad63 361.SH "JOB PARAMETERS"
54eb4569 362With the above in mind, here follows the complete list of fio job parameters.
523bad63 363.SS "Units"
d60e92d1 364.TP
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365.BI kb_base \fR=\fPint
366Select the interpretation of unit prefixes in input parameters.
367.RS
368.RS
d60e92d1 369.TP
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370.B 1000
371Inputs comply with IEC 80000\-13 and the International
372System of Units (SI). Use:
373.RS
374.P
375.PD 0
376\- power\-of\-2 values with IEC prefixes (e.g., KiB)
377.P
378\- power\-of\-10 values with SI prefixes (e.g., kB)
379.PD
380.RE
381.TP
382.B 1024
383Compatibility mode (default). To avoid breaking old scripts:
384.P
385.RS
386.PD 0
387\- power\-of\-2 values with SI prefixes
388.P
389\- power\-of\-10 values with IEC prefixes
390.PD
391.RE
392.RE
393.P
394See \fBbs\fR for more details on input parameters.
395.P
396Outputs always use correct prefixes. Most outputs include both
397side\-by\-side, like:
398.P
399.RS
400bw=2383.3kB/s (2327.4KiB/s)
401.RE
402.P
403If only one value is reported, then kb_base selects the one to use:
404.P
405.RS
406.PD 0
4071000 \-\- SI prefixes
408.P
4091024 \-\- IEC prefixes
410.PD
411.RE
412.RE
413.TP
414.BI unit_base \fR=\fPint
415Base unit for reporting. Allowed values are:
416.RS
417.RS
418.TP
419.B 0
420Use auto\-detection (default).
421.TP
422.B 8
423Byte based.
424.TP
425.B 1
426Bit based.
427.RE
428.RE
429.SS "Job description"
430.TP
431.BI name \fR=\fPstr
432ASCII name of the job. This may be used to override the name printed by fio
433for this job. Otherwise the job name is used. On the command line this
434parameter has the special purpose of also signaling the start of a new job.
9cc8cb91 435.TP
d60e92d1 436.BI description \fR=\fPstr
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437Text description of the job. Doesn't do anything except dump this text
438description when this job is run. It's not parsed.
439.TP
440.BI loops \fR=\fPint
441Run the specified number of iterations of this job. Used to repeat the same
442workload a given number of times. Defaults to 1.
443.TP
444.BI numjobs \fR=\fPint
445Create the specified number of clones of this job. Each clone of job
446is spawned as an independent thread or process. May be used to setup a
447larger number of threads/processes doing the same thing. Each thread is
448reported separately; to see statistics for all clones as a whole, use
449\fBgroup_reporting\fR in conjunction with \fBnew_group\fR.
450See \fB\-\-max\-jobs\fR. Default: 1.
451.SS "Time related parameters"
452.TP
453.BI runtime \fR=\fPtime
454Tell fio to terminate processing after the specified period of time. It
455can be quite hard to determine for how long a specified job will run, so
456this parameter is handy to cap the total runtime to a given time. When
f1dd3fb1 457the unit is omitted, the value is interpreted in seconds.
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458.TP
459.BI time_based
460If set, fio will run for the duration of the \fBruntime\fR specified
461even if the file(s) are completely read or written. It will simply loop over
462the same workload as many times as the \fBruntime\fR allows.
463.TP
464.BI startdelay \fR=\fPirange(int)
465Delay the start of job for the specified amount of time. Can be a single
466value or a range. When given as a range, each thread will choose a value
467randomly from within the range. Value is in seconds if a unit is omitted.
468.TP
469.BI ramp_time \fR=\fPtime
470If set, fio will run the specified workload for this amount of time before
471logging any performance numbers. Useful for letting performance settle
472before logging results, thus minimizing the runtime required for stable
473results. Note that the \fBramp_time\fR is considered lead in time for a job,
474thus it will increase the total runtime if a special timeout or
475\fBruntime\fR is specified. When the unit is omitted, the value is
476given in seconds.
477.TP
478.BI clocksource \fR=\fPstr
479Use the given clocksource as the base of timing. The supported options are:
480.RS
481.RS
482.TP
483.B gettimeofday
484\fBgettimeofday\fR\|(2)
485.TP
486.B clock_gettime
487\fBclock_gettime\fR\|(2)
488.TP
489.B cpu
490Internal CPU clock source
491.RE
492.P
493\fBcpu\fR is the preferred clocksource if it is reliable, as it is very fast (and
494fio is heavy on time calls). Fio will automatically use this clocksource if
495it's supported and considered reliable on the system it is running on,
496unless another clocksource is specifically set. For x86/x86\-64 CPUs, this
497means supporting TSC Invariant.
498.RE
499.TP
500.BI gtod_reduce \fR=\fPbool
501Enable all of the \fBgettimeofday\fR\|(2) reducing options
502(\fBdisable_clat\fR, \fBdisable_slat\fR, \fBdisable_bw_measurement\fR) plus
503reduce precision of the timeout somewhat to really shrink the
504\fBgettimeofday\fR\|(2) call count. With this option enabled, we only do
505about 0.4% of the \fBgettimeofday\fR\|(2) calls we would have done if all
506time keeping was enabled.
507.TP
508.BI gtod_cpu \fR=\fPint
509Sometimes it's cheaper to dedicate a single thread of execution to just
510getting the current time. Fio (and databases, for instance) are very
511intensive on \fBgettimeofday\fR\|(2) calls. With this option, you can set
512one CPU aside for doing nothing but logging current time to a shared memory
513location. Then the other threads/processes that run I/O workloads need only
514copy that segment, instead of entering the kernel with a
515\fBgettimeofday\fR\|(2) call. The CPU set aside for doing these time
516calls will be excluded from other uses. Fio will manually clear it from the
517CPU mask of other jobs.
518.SS "Target file/device"
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519.TP
520.BI directory \fR=\fPstr
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TK
521Prefix \fBfilename\fRs with this directory. Used to place files in a different
522location than `./'. You can specify a number of directories by
523separating the names with a ':' character. These directories will be
524assigned equally distributed to job clones created by \fBnumjobs\fR as
525long as they are using generated filenames. If specific \fBfilename\fR(s) are
526set fio will use the first listed directory, and thereby matching the
527\fBfilename\fR semantic which generates a file each clone if not specified, but
528let all clones use the same if set.
529.RS
530.P
531See the \fBfilename\fR option for information on how to escape ':' and '\'
532characters within the directory path itself.
533.RE
d60e92d1
AC
534.TP
535.BI filename \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
536Fio normally makes up a \fBfilename\fR based on the job name, thread number, and
537file number (see \fBfilename_format\fR). If you want to share files
538between threads in a job or several
539jobs with fixed file paths, specify a \fBfilename\fR for each of them to override
540the default. If the ioengine is file based, you can specify a number of files
541by separating the names with a ':' colon. So if you wanted a job to open
542`/dev/sda' and `/dev/sdb' as the two working files, you would use
543`filename=/dev/sda:/dev/sdb'. This also means that whenever this option is
544specified, \fBnrfiles\fR is ignored. The size of regular files specified
545by this option will be \fBsize\fR divided by number of files unless an
546explicit size is specified by \fBfilesize\fR.
547.RS
548.P
549Each colon and backslash in the wanted path must be escaped with a '\'
550character. For instance, if the path is `/dev/dsk/foo@3,0:c' then you
551would use `filename=/dev/dsk/foo@3,0\\:c' and if the path is
552`F:\\\\filename' then you would use `filename=F\\:\\\\filename'.
553.P
554On Windows, disk devices are accessed as `\\\\\\\\.\\\\PhysicalDrive0' for
555the first device, `\\\\\\\\.\\\\PhysicalDrive1' for the second etc.
556Note: Windows and FreeBSD prevent write access to areas
557of the disk containing in\-use data (e.g. filesystems).
558.P
559The filename `\-' is a reserved name, meaning *stdin* or *stdout*. Which
560of the two depends on the read/write direction set.
561.RE
d60e92d1 562.TP
de98bd30 563.BI filename_format \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
564If sharing multiple files between jobs, it is usually necessary to have fio
565generate the exact names that you want. By default, fio will name a file
de98bd30 566based on the default file format specification of
523bad63 567`jobname.jobnumber.filenumber'. With this option, that can be
de98bd30
JA
568customized. Fio will recognize and replace the following keywords in this
569string:
570.RS
571.RS
572.TP
573.B $jobname
574The name of the worker thread or process.
575.TP
576.B $jobnum
577The incremental number of the worker thread or process.
578.TP
579.B $filenum
580The incremental number of the file for that worker thread or process.
581.RE
582.P
523bad63
TK
583To have dependent jobs share a set of files, this option can be set to have
584fio generate filenames that are shared between the two. For instance, if
585`testfiles.$filenum' is specified, file number 4 for any job will be
586named `testfiles.4'. The default of `$jobname.$jobnum.$filenum'
de98bd30 587will be used if no other format specifier is given.
645943c0
JB
588.P
589If you specify a path then the directories will be created up to the main
590directory for the file. So for example if you specify `a/b/c/$jobnum` then the
591directories a/b/c will be created before the file setup part of the job. If you
592specify \fBdirectory\fR then the path will be relative that directory, otherwise
593it is treated as the absolute path.
de98bd30 594.RE
de98bd30 595.TP
922a5be8 596.BI unique_filename \fR=\fPbool
523bad63
TK
597To avoid collisions between networked clients, fio defaults to prefixing any
598generated filenames (with a directory specified) with the source of the
599client connecting. To disable this behavior, set this option to 0.
600.TP
601.BI opendir \fR=\fPstr
602Recursively open any files below directory \fIstr\fR.
922a5be8 603.TP
3ce9dcaf 604.BI lockfile \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
605Fio defaults to not locking any files before it does I/O to them. If a file
606or file descriptor is shared, fio can serialize I/O to that file to make the
607end result consistent. This is usual for emulating real workloads that share
608files. The lock modes are:
3ce9dcaf
JA
609.RS
610.RS
611.TP
612.B none
523bad63 613No locking. The default.
3ce9dcaf
JA
614.TP
615.B exclusive
523bad63 616Only one thread or process may do I/O at a time, excluding all others.
3ce9dcaf
JA
617.TP
618.B readwrite
523bad63
TK
619Read\-write locking on the file. Many readers may
620access the file at the same time, but writes get exclusive access.
3ce9dcaf 621.RE
ce594fbe 622.RE
523bad63
TK
623.TP
624.BI nrfiles \fR=\fPint
625Number of files to use for this job. Defaults to 1. The size of files
626will be \fBsize\fR divided by this unless explicit size is specified by
627\fBfilesize\fR. Files are created for each thread separately, and each
628file will have a file number within its name by default, as explained in
629\fBfilename\fR section.
630.TP
631.BI openfiles \fR=\fPint
632Number of files to keep open at the same time. Defaults to the same as
633\fBnrfiles\fR, can be set smaller to limit the number simultaneous
634opens.
635.TP
636.BI file_service_type \fR=\fPstr
637Defines how fio decides which file from a job to service next. The following
638types are defined:
639.RS
640.RS
641.TP
642.B random
643Choose a file at random.
644.TP
645.B roundrobin
646Round robin over opened files. This is the default.
647.TP
648.B sequential
649Finish one file before moving on to the next. Multiple files can
650still be open depending on \fBopenfiles\fR.
651.TP
652.B zipf
653Use a Zipf distribution to decide what file to access.
654.TP
655.B pareto
656Use a Pareto distribution to decide what file to access.
657.TP
658.B normal
659Use a Gaussian (normal) distribution to decide what file to access.
660.TP
661.B gauss
662Alias for normal.
663.RE
3ce9dcaf 664.P
523bad63
TK
665For \fBrandom\fR, \fBroundrobin\fR, and \fBsequential\fR, a postfix can be appended to
666tell fio how many I/Os to issue before switching to a new file. For example,
667specifying `file_service_type=random:8' would cause fio to issue
6688 I/Os before selecting a new file at random. For the non\-uniform
669distributions, a floating point postfix can be given to influence how the
670distribution is skewed. See \fBrandom_distribution\fR for a description
671of how that would work.
672.RE
673.TP
674.BI ioscheduler \fR=\fPstr
675Attempt to switch the device hosting the file to the specified I/O scheduler
676before running.
677.TP
678.BI create_serialize \fR=\fPbool
679If true, serialize the file creation for the jobs. This may be handy to
680avoid interleaving of data files, which may greatly depend on the filesystem
681used and even the number of processors in the system. Default: true.
682.TP
683.BI create_fsync \fR=\fPbool
684\fBfsync\fR\|(2) the data file after creation. This is the default.
685.TP
686.BI create_on_open \fR=\fPbool
687If true, don't pre\-create files but allow the job's open() to create a file
688when it's time to do I/O. Default: false \-\- pre\-create all necessary files
689when the job starts.
690.TP
691.BI create_only \fR=\fPbool
692If true, fio will only run the setup phase of the job. If files need to be
693laid out or updated on disk, only that will be done \-\- the actual job contents
694are not executed. Default: false.
695.TP
696.BI allow_file_create \fR=\fPbool
697If true, fio is permitted to create files as part of its workload. If this
698option is false, then fio will error out if
699the files it needs to use don't already exist. Default: true.
700.TP
701.BI allow_mounted_write \fR=\fPbool
702If this isn't set, fio will abort jobs that are destructive (e.g. that write)
703to what appears to be a mounted device or partition. This should help catch
704creating inadvertently destructive tests, not realizing that the test will
705destroy data on the mounted file system. Note that some platforms don't allow
706writing against a mounted device regardless of this option. Default: false.
707.TP
708.BI pre_read \fR=\fPbool
709If this is given, files will be pre\-read into memory before starting the
710given I/O operation. This will also clear the \fBinvalidate\fR flag,
711since it is pointless to pre\-read and then drop the cache. This will only
712work for I/O engines that are seek\-able, since they allow you to read the
713same data multiple times. Thus it will not work on non\-seekable I/O engines
714(e.g. network, splice). Default: false.
715.TP
716.BI unlink \fR=\fPbool
717Unlink the job files when done. Not the default, as repeated runs of that
718job would then waste time recreating the file set again and again. Default:
719false.
720.TP
721.BI unlink_each_loop \fR=\fPbool
722Unlink job files after each iteration or loop. Default: false.
723.TP
724.BI zonesize \fR=\fPint
725Divide a file into zones of the specified size. See \fBzoneskip\fR.
726.TP
727.BI zonerange \fR=\fPint
728Give size of an I/O zone. See \fBzoneskip\fR.
729.TP
730.BI zoneskip \fR=\fPint
731Skip the specified number of bytes when \fBzonesize\fR data has been
732read. The two zone options can be used to only do I/O on zones of a file.
733.SS "I/O type"
734.TP
735.BI direct \fR=\fPbool
736If value is true, use non\-buffered I/O. This is usually O_DIRECT. Note that
8e889110 737OpenBSD and ZFS on Solaris don't support direct I/O. On Windows the synchronous
523bad63
TK
738ioengines don't support direct I/O. Default: false.
739.TP
740.BI atomic \fR=\fPbool
741If value is true, attempt to use atomic direct I/O. Atomic writes are
742guaranteed to be stable once acknowledged by the operating system. Only
743Linux supports O_ATOMIC right now.
744.TP
745.BI buffered \fR=\fPbool
746If value is true, use buffered I/O. This is the opposite of the
747\fBdirect\fR option. Defaults to true.
d60e92d1
AC
748.TP
749.BI readwrite \fR=\fPstr "\fR,\fP rw" \fR=\fPstr
523bad63 750Type of I/O pattern. Accepted values are:
d60e92d1
AC
751.RS
752.RS
753.TP
754.B read
d1429b5c 755Sequential reads.
d60e92d1
AC
756.TP
757.B write
d1429b5c 758Sequential writes.
d60e92d1 759.TP
fa769d44 760.B trim
169c098d 761Sequential trims (Linux block devices only).
fa769d44 762.TP
d60e92d1 763.B randread
d1429b5c 764Random reads.
d60e92d1
AC
765.TP
766.B randwrite
d1429b5c 767Random writes.
d60e92d1 768.TP
fa769d44 769.B randtrim
169c098d 770Random trims (Linux block devices only).
fa769d44 771.TP
523bad63
TK
772.B rw,readwrite
773Sequential mixed reads and writes.
d60e92d1 774.TP
ff6bb260 775.B randrw
523bad63 776Random mixed reads and writes.
82a90686
JA
777.TP
778.B trimwrite
523bad63
TK
779Sequential trim+write sequences. Blocks will be trimmed first,
780then the same blocks will be written to.
d60e92d1
AC
781.RE
782.P
523bad63
TK
783Fio defaults to read if the option is not specified. For the mixed I/O
784types, the default is to split them 50/50. For certain types of I/O the
785result may still be skewed a bit, since the speed may be different.
786.P
787It is possible to specify the number of I/Os to do before getting a new
788offset by appending `:<nr>' to the end of the string given. For a
789random read, it would look like `rw=randread:8' for passing in an offset
790modifier with a value of 8. If the suffix is used with a sequential I/O
791pattern, then the `<nr>' value specified will be added to the generated
792offset for each I/O turning sequential I/O into sequential I/O with holes.
793For instance, using `rw=write:4k' will skip 4k for every write. Also see
794the \fBrw_sequencer\fR option.
d60e92d1
AC
795.RE
796.TP
38dad62d 797.BI rw_sequencer \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
798If an offset modifier is given by appending a number to the `rw=\fIstr\fR'
799line, then this option controls how that number modifies the I/O offset
800being generated. Accepted values are:
38dad62d
JA
801.RS
802.RS
803.TP
804.B sequential
523bad63 805Generate sequential offset.
38dad62d
JA
806.TP
807.B identical
523bad63 808Generate the same offset.
38dad62d
JA
809.RE
810.P
523bad63
TK
811\fBsequential\fR is only useful for random I/O, where fio would normally
812generate a new random offset for every I/O. If you append e.g. 8 to randread,
813you would get a new random offset for every 8 I/Os. The result would be a
814seek for only every 8 I/Os, instead of for every I/O. Use `rw=randread:8'
815to specify that. As sequential I/O is already sequential, setting
816\fBsequential\fR for that would not result in any differences. \fBidentical\fR
817behaves in a similar fashion, except it sends the same offset 8 number of
818times before generating a new offset.
38dad62d 819.RE
90fef2d1 820.TP
771e58be
JA
821.BI unified_rw_reporting \fR=\fPbool
822Fio normally reports statistics on a per data direction basis, meaning that
523bad63
TK
823reads, writes, and trims are accounted and reported separately. If this
824option is set fio sums the results and report them as "mixed" instead.
771e58be 825.TP
d60e92d1 826.BI randrepeat \fR=\fPbool
523bad63
TK
827Seed the random number generator used for random I/O patterns in a
828predictable way so the pattern is repeatable across runs. Default: true.
56e2a5fc
CE
829.TP
830.BI allrandrepeat \fR=\fPbool
831Seed all random number generators in a predictable way so results are
523bad63 832repeatable across runs. Default: false.
d60e92d1 833.TP
04778baf
JA
834.BI randseed \fR=\fPint
835Seed the random number generators based on this seed value, to be able to
836control what sequence of output is being generated. If not set, the random
837sequence depends on the \fBrandrepeat\fR setting.
838.TP
a596f047 839.BI fallocate \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
840Whether pre\-allocation is performed when laying down files.
841Accepted values are:
a596f047
EG
842.RS
843.RS
844.TP
845.B none
523bad63 846Do not pre\-allocate space.
a596f047 847.TP
2c3e17be 848.B native
523bad63
TK
849Use a platform's native pre\-allocation call but fall back to
850\fBnone\fR behavior if it fails/is not implemented.
2c3e17be 851.TP
a596f047 852.B posix
523bad63 853Pre\-allocate via \fBposix_fallocate\fR\|(3).
a596f047
EG
854.TP
855.B keep
523bad63
TK
856Pre\-allocate via \fBfallocate\fR\|(2) with
857FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE set.
a596f047
EG
858.TP
859.B 0
523bad63 860Backward\-compatible alias for \fBnone\fR.
a596f047
EG
861.TP
862.B 1
523bad63 863Backward\-compatible alias for \fBposix\fR.
a596f047
EG
864.RE
865.P
523bad63
TK
866May not be available on all supported platforms. \fBkeep\fR is only available
867on Linux. If using ZFS on Solaris this cannot be set to \fBposix\fR
868because ZFS doesn't support pre\-allocation. Default: \fBnative\fR if any
869pre\-allocation methods are available, \fBnone\fR if not.
a596f047 870.RE
7bc8c2cf 871.TP
ecb2083d 872.BI fadvise_hint \fR=\fPstr
c712c97a
JA
873Use \fBposix_fadvise\fR\|(2) or \fBposix_madvise\fR\|(2) to advise the kernel
874what I/O patterns are likely to be issued. Accepted values are:
ecb2083d
JA
875.RS
876.RS
877.TP
878.B 0
879Backwards compatible hint for "no hint".
880.TP
881.B 1
882Backwards compatible hint for "advise with fio workload type". This
523bad63 883uses FADV_RANDOM for a random workload, and FADV_SEQUENTIAL
ecb2083d
JA
884for a sequential workload.
885.TP
886.B sequential
523bad63 887Advise using FADV_SEQUENTIAL.
ecb2083d
JA
888.TP
889.B random
523bad63 890Advise using FADV_RANDOM.
ecb2083d
JA
891.RE
892.RE
d60e92d1 893.TP
8f4b9f24 894.BI write_hint \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
895Use \fBfcntl\fR\|(2) to advise the kernel what life time to expect
896from a write. Only supported on Linux, as of version 4.13. Accepted
8f4b9f24
JA
897values are:
898.RS
899.RS
900.TP
901.B none
902No particular life time associated with this file.
903.TP
904.B short
905Data written to this file has a short life time.
906.TP
907.B medium
908Data written to this file has a medium life time.
909.TP
910.B long
911Data written to this file has a long life time.
912.TP
913.B extreme
914Data written to this file has a very long life time.
915.RE
523bad63
TK
916.P
917The values are all relative to each other, and no absolute meaning
918should be associated with them.
8f4b9f24 919.RE
37659335 920.TP
523bad63
TK
921.BI offset \fR=\fPint
922Start I/O at the provided offset in the file, given as either a fixed size in
83c8b093
JF
923bytes or a percentage. If a percentage is given, the generated offset will be
924aligned to the minimum \fBblocksize\fR or to the value of \fBoffset_align\fR if
925provided. Data before the given offset will not be touched. This
523bad63
TK
926effectively caps the file size at `real_size \- offset'. Can be combined with
927\fBsize\fR to constrain the start and end range of the I/O workload.
928A percentage can be specified by a number between 1 and 100 followed by '%',
929for example, `offset=20%' to specify 20%.
6d500c2e 930.TP
83c8b093
JF
931.BI offset_align \fR=\fPint
932If set to non-zero value, the byte offset generated by a percentage \fBoffset\fR
933is aligned upwards to this value. Defaults to 0 meaning that a percentage
934offset is aligned to the minimum block size.
935.TP
523bad63
TK
936.BI offset_increment \fR=\fPint
937If this is provided, then the real offset becomes `\fBoffset\fR + \fBoffset_increment\fR
938* thread_number', where the thread number is a counter that starts at 0 and
939is incremented for each sub\-job (i.e. when \fBnumjobs\fR option is
940specified). This option is useful if there are several jobs which are
941intended to operate on a file in parallel disjoint segments, with even
942spacing between the starting points.
6d500c2e 943.TP
523bad63
TK
944.BI number_ios \fR=\fPint
945Fio will normally perform I/Os until it has exhausted the size of the region
946set by \fBsize\fR, or if it exhaust the allocated time (or hits an error
947condition). With this setting, the range/size can be set independently of
948the number of I/Os to perform. When fio reaches this number, it will exit
949normally and report status. Note that this does not extend the amount of I/O
950that will be done, it will only stop fio if this condition is met before
951other end\-of\-job criteria.
d60e92d1 952.TP
523bad63
TK
953.BI fsync \fR=\fPint
954If writing to a file, issue an \fBfsync\fR\|(2) (or its equivalent) of
955the dirty data for every number of blocks given. For example, if you give 32
956as a parameter, fio will sync the file after every 32 writes issued. If fio is
957using non\-buffered I/O, we may not sync the file. The exception is the sg
958I/O engine, which synchronizes the disk cache anyway. Defaults to 0, which
959means fio does not periodically issue and wait for a sync to complete. Also
960see \fBend_fsync\fR and \fBfsync_on_close\fR.
6d500c2e 961.TP
523bad63
TK
962.BI fdatasync \fR=\fPint
963Like \fBfsync\fR but uses \fBfdatasync\fR\|(2) to only sync data and
964not metadata blocks. In Windows, FreeBSD, and DragonFlyBSD there is no
965\fBfdatasync\fR\|(2) so this falls back to using \fBfsync\fR\|(2).
966Defaults to 0, which means fio does not periodically issue and wait for a
967data\-only sync to complete.
d60e92d1 968.TP
523bad63
TK
969.BI write_barrier \fR=\fPint
970Make every N\-th write a barrier write.
901bb994 971.TP
523bad63
TK
972.BI sync_file_range \fR=\fPstr:int
973Use \fBsync_file_range\fR\|(2) for every \fIint\fR number of write
974operations. Fio will track range of writes that have happened since the last
975\fBsync_file_range\fR\|(2) call. \fIstr\fR can currently be one or more of:
976.RS
977.RS
fd68418e 978.TP
523bad63
TK
979.B wait_before
980SYNC_FILE_RANGE_WAIT_BEFORE
c5751c62 981.TP
523bad63
TK
982.B write
983SYNC_FILE_RANGE_WRITE
c5751c62 984.TP
523bad63
TK
985.B wait_after
986SYNC_FILE_RANGE_WRITE_AFTER
2fa5a241 987.RE
523bad63
TK
988.P
989So if you do `sync_file_range=wait_before,write:8', fio would use
990`SYNC_FILE_RANGE_WAIT_BEFORE | SYNC_FILE_RANGE_WRITE' for every 8
991writes. Also see the \fBsync_file_range\fR\|(2) man page. This option is
992Linux specific.
2fa5a241 993.RE
ce35b1ec 994.TP
523bad63
TK
995.BI overwrite \fR=\fPbool
996If true, writes to a file will always overwrite existing data. If the file
997doesn't already exist, it will be created before the write phase begins. If
998the file exists and is large enough for the specified write phase, nothing
999will be done. Default: false.
5c94b008 1000.TP
523bad63
TK
1001.BI end_fsync \fR=\fPbool
1002If true, \fBfsync\fR\|(2) file contents when a write stage has completed.
1003Default: false.
d60e92d1 1004.TP
523bad63
TK
1005.BI fsync_on_close \fR=\fPbool
1006If true, fio will \fBfsync\fR\|(2) a dirty file on close. This differs
1007from \fBend_fsync\fR in that it will happen on every file close, not
1008just at the end of the job. Default: false.
d60e92d1 1009.TP
523bad63
TK
1010.BI rwmixread \fR=\fPint
1011Percentage of a mixed workload that should be reads. Default: 50.
1012.TP
1013.BI rwmixwrite \fR=\fPint
1014Percentage of a mixed workload that should be writes. If both
1015\fBrwmixread\fR and \fBrwmixwrite\fR is given and the values do not
1016add up to 100%, the latter of the two will be used to override the
1017first. This may interfere with a given rate setting, if fio is asked to
1018limit reads or writes to a certain rate. If that is the case, then the
1019distribution may be skewed. Default: 50.
1020.TP
1021.BI random_distribution \fR=\fPstr:float[,str:float][,str:float]
1022By default, fio will use a completely uniform random distribution when asked
1023to perform random I/O. Sometimes it is useful to skew the distribution in
1024specific ways, ensuring that some parts of the data is more hot than others.
1025fio includes the following distribution models:
d60e92d1
AC
1026.RS
1027.RS
1028.TP
1029.B random
523bad63 1030Uniform random distribution
8c07860d
JA
1031.TP
1032.B zipf
523bad63 1033Zipf distribution
8c07860d
JA
1034.TP
1035.B pareto
523bad63 1036Pareto distribution
8c07860d 1037.TP
dd3503d3 1038.B normal
523bad63 1039Normal (Gaussian) distribution
dd3503d3 1040.TP
523bad63
TK
1041.B zoned
1042Zoned random distribution
59466396
JA
1043.B zoned_abs
1044Zoned absolute random distribution
d60e92d1
AC
1045.RE
1046.P
523bad63
TK
1047When using a \fBzipf\fR or \fBpareto\fR distribution, an input value is also
1048needed to define the access pattern. For \fBzipf\fR, this is the `Zipf theta'.
1049For \fBpareto\fR, it's the `Pareto power'. Fio includes a test
1050program, \fBfio\-genzipf\fR, that can be used visualize what the given input
1051values will yield in terms of hit rates. If you wanted to use \fBzipf\fR with
1052a `theta' of 1.2, you would use `random_distribution=zipf:1.2' as the
1053option. If a non\-uniform model is used, fio will disable use of the random
1054map. For the \fBnormal\fR distribution, a normal (Gaussian) deviation is
1055supplied as a value between 0 and 100.
1056.P
1057For a \fBzoned\fR distribution, fio supports specifying percentages of I/O
1058access that should fall within what range of the file or device. For
1059example, given a criteria of:
d60e92d1 1060.RS
523bad63
TK
1061.P
1062.PD 0
106360% of accesses should be to the first 10%
1064.P
106530% of accesses should be to the next 20%
1066.P
10678% of accesses should be to the next 30%
1068.P
10692% of accesses should be to the next 40%
1070.PD
1071.RE
1072.P
1073we can define that through zoning of the random accesses. For the above
1074example, the user would do:
1075.RS
1076.P
1077random_distribution=zoned:60/10:30/20:8/30:2/40
1078.RE
1079.P
59466396
JA
1080A \fBzoned_abs\fR distribution works exactly like the\fBzoned\fR, except that
1081it takes absolute sizes. For example, let's say you wanted to define access
1082according to the following criteria:
1083.RS
1084.P
1085.PD 0
108660% of accesses should be to the first 20G
1087.P
108830% of accesses should be to the next 100G
1089.P
109010% of accesses should be to the next 500G
1091.PD
1092.RE
1093.P
1094we can define an absolute zoning distribution with:
1095.RS
1096.P
1097random_distribution=zoned:60/10:30/20:8/30:2/40
1098.RE
1099.P
6a16ece8
JA
1100For both \fBzoned\fR and \fBzoned_abs\fR, fio supports defining up to 256
1101separate zones.
1102.P
59466396 1103Similarly to how \fBbssplit\fR works for setting ranges and percentages
523bad63
TK
1104of block sizes. Like \fBbssplit\fR, it's possible to specify separate
1105zones for reads, writes, and trims. If just one set is given, it'll apply to
1106all of them.
1107.RE
1108.TP
1109.BI percentage_random \fR=\fPint[,int][,int]
1110For a random workload, set how big a percentage should be random. This
1111defaults to 100%, in which case the workload is fully random. It can be set
1112from anywhere from 0 to 100. Setting it to 0 would make the workload fully
1113sequential. Any setting in between will result in a random mix of sequential
1114and random I/O, at the given percentages. Comma\-separated values may be
1115specified for reads, writes, and trims as described in \fBblocksize\fR.
1116.TP
1117.BI norandommap
1118Normally fio will cover every block of the file when doing random I/O. If
1119this option is given, fio will just get a new random offset without looking
1120at past I/O history. This means that some blocks may not be read or written,
1121and that some blocks may be read/written more than once. If this option is
1122used with \fBverify\fR and multiple blocksizes (via \fBbsrange\fR),
1123only intact blocks are verified, i.e., partially\-overwritten blocks are
1124ignored.
1125.TP
1126.BI softrandommap \fR=\fPbool
1127See \fBnorandommap\fR. If fio runs with the random block map enabled and
1128it fails to allocate the map, if this option is set it will continue without
1129a random block map. As coverage will not be as complete as with random maps,
1130this option is disabled by default.
1131.TP
1132.BI random_generator \fR=\fPstr
1133Fio supports the following engines for generating I/O offsets for random I/O:
1134.RS
1135.RS
1136.TP
1137.B tausworthe
1138Strong 2^88 cycle random number generator.
1139.TP
1140.B lfsr
1141Linear feedback shift register generator.
1142.TP
1143.B tausworthe64
1144Strong 64\-bit 2^258 cycle random number generator.
1145.RE
1146.P
1147\fBtausworthe\fR is a strong random number generator, but it requires tracking
1148on the side if we want to ensure that blocks are only read or written
1149once. \fBlfsr\fR guarantees that we never generate the same offset twice, and
1150it's also less computationally expensive. It's not a true random generator,
1151however, though for I/O purposes it's typically good enough. \fBlfsr\fR only
1152works with single block sizes, not with workloads that use multiple block
1153sizes. If used with such a workload, fio may read or write some blocks
1154multiple times. The default value is \fBtausworthe\fR, unless the required
1155space exceeds 2^32 blocks. If it does, then \fBtausworthe64\fR is
1156selected automatically.
1157.RE
1158.SS "Block size"
1159.TP
1160.BI blocksize \fR=\fPint[,int][,int] "\fR,\fB bs" \fR=\fPint[,int][,int]
1161The block size in bytes used for I/O units. Default: 4096. A single value
1162applies to reads, writes, and trims. Comma\-separated values may be
1163specified for reads, writes, and trims. A value not terminated in a comma
1164applies to subsequent types. Examples:
1165.RS
1166.RS
1167.P
1168.PD 0
1169bs=256k means 256k for reads, writes and trims.
1170.P
1171bs=8k,32k means 8k for reads, 32k for writes and trims.
1172.P
1173bs=8k,32k, means 8k for reads, 32k for writes, and default for trims.
1174.P
1175bs=,8k means default for reads, 8k for writes and trims.
1176.P
1177bs=,8k, means default for reads, 8k for writes, and default for trims.
1178.PD
1179.RE
1180.RE
1181.TP
1182.BI blocksize_range \fR=\fPirange[,irange][,irange] "\fR,\fB bsrange" \fR=\fPirange[,irange][,irange]
1183A range of block sizes in bytes for I/O units. The issued I/O unit will
1184always be a multiple of the minimum size, unless
1185\fBblocksize_unaligned\fR is set.
1186Comma\-separated ranges may be specified for reads, writes, and trims as
1187described in \fBblocksize\fR. Example:
1188.RS
1189.RS
1190.P
1191bsrange=1k\-4k,2k\-8k
1192.RE
1193.RE
1194.TP
1195.BI bssplit \fR=\fPstr[,str][,str]
1196Sometimes you want even finer grained control of the block sizes issued, not
1197just an even split between them. This option allows you to weight various
1198block sizes, so that you are able to define a specific amount of block sizes
1199issued. The format for this option is:
1200.RS
1201.RS
1202.P
1203bssplit=blocksize/percentage:blocksize/percentage
1204.RE
1205.P
1206for as many block sizes as needed. So if you want to define a workload that
1207has 50% 64k blocks, 10% 4k blocks, and 40% 32k blocks, you would write:
1208.RS
1209.P
1210bssplit=4k/10:64k/50:32k/40
1211.RE
1212.P
1213Ordering does not matter. If the percentage is left blank, fio will fill in
1214the remaining values evenly. So a bssplit option like this one:
1215.RS
1216.P
1217bssplit=4k/50:1k/:32k/
1218.RE
1219.P
1220would have 50% 4k ios, and 25% 1k and 32k ios. The percentages always add up
1221to 100, if bssplit is given a range that adds up to more, it will error out.
1222.P
1223Comma\-separated values may be specified for reads, writes, and trims as
1224described in \fBblocksize\fR.
1225.P
1226If you want a workload that has 50% 2k reads and 50% 4k reads, while having
122790% 4k writes and 10% 8k writes, you would specify:
1228.RS
1229.P
1230bssplit=2k/50:4k/50,4k/90,8k/10
1231.RE
6a16ece8
JA
1232.P
1233Fio supports defining up to 64 different weights for each data direction.
523bad63
TK
1234.RE
1235.TP
1236.BI blocksize_unaligned "\fR,\fB bs_unaligned"
1237If set, fio will issue I/O units with any size within
1238\fBblocksize_range\fR, not just multiples of the minimum size. This
1239typically won't work with direct I/O, as that normally requires sector
1240alignment.
1241.TP
1242.BI bs_is_seq_rand \fR=\fPbool
1243If this option is set, fio will use the normal read,write blocksize settings
1244as sequential,random blocksize settings instead. Any random read or write
1245will use the WRITE blocksize settings, and any sequential read or write will
1246use the READ blocksize settings.
1247.TP
1248.BI blockalign \fR=\fPint[,int][,int] "\fR,\fB ba" \fR=\fPint[,int][,int]
1249Boundary to which fio will align random I/O units. Default:
1250\fBblocksize\fR. Minimum alignment is typically 512b for using direct
1251I/O, though it usually depends on the hardware block size. This option is
1252mutually exclusive with using a random map for files, so it will turn off
1253that option. Comma\-separated values may be specified for reads, writes, and
1254trims as described in \fBblocksize\fR.
1255.SS "Buffers and memory"
1256.TP
1257.BI zero_buffers
1258Initialize buffers with all zeros. Default: fill buffers with random data.
1259.TP
1260.BI refill_buffers
1261If this option is given, fio will refill the I/O buffers on every
1262submit. The default is to only fill it at init time and reuse that
1263data. Only makes sense if zero_buffers isn't specified, naturally. If data
1264verification is enabled, \fBrefill_buffers\fR is also automatically enabled.
1265.TP
1266.BI scramble_buffers \fR=\fPbool
1267If \fBrefill_buffers\fR is too costly and the target is using data
1268deduplication, then setting this option will slightly modify the I/O buffer
1269contents to defeat normal de\-dupe attempts. This is not enough to defeat
1270more clever block compression attempts, but it will stop naive dedupe of
1271blocks. Default: true.
1272.TP
1273.BI buffer_compress_percentage \fR=\fPint
72592780
SW
1274If this is set, then fio will attempt to provide I/O buffer content
1275(on WRITEs) that compresses to the specified level. Fio does this by
1276providing a mix of random data followed by fixed pattern data. The
1277fixed pattern is either zeros, or the pattern specified by
1278\fBbuffer_pattern\fR. If the \fBbuffer_pattern\fR option is used, it
1279might skew the compression ratio slightly. Setting
1280\fBbuffer_compress_percentage\fR to a value other than 100 will also
1281enable \fBrefill_buffers\fR in order to reduce the likelihood that
1282adjacent blocks are so similar that they over compress when seen
1283together. See \fBbuffer_compress_chunk\fR for how to set a finer or
1284coarser granularity of the random/fixed data regions. Defaults to unset
1285i.e., buffer data will not adhere to any compression level.
523bad63
TK
1286.TP
1287.BI buffer_compress_chunk \fR=\fPint
72592780
SW
1288This setting allows fio to manage how big the random/fixed data region
1289is when using \fBbuffer_compress_percentage\fR. When
1290\fBbuffer_compress_chunk\fR is set to some non-zero value smaller than the
1291block size, fio can repeat the random/fixed region throughout the I/O
1292buffer at the specified interval (which particularly useful when
1293bigger block sizes are used for a job). When set to 0, fio will use a
1294chunk size that matches the block size resulting in a single
1295random/fixed region within the I/O buffer. Defaults to 512. When the
1296unit is omitted, the value is interpreted in bytes.
523bad63
TK
1297.TP
1298.BI buffer_pattern \fR=\fPstr
1299If set, fio will fill the I/O buffers with this pattern or with the contents
1300of a file. If not set, the contents of I/O buffers are defined by the other
1301options related to buffer contents. The setting can be any pattern of bytes,
1302and can be prefixed with 0x for hex values. It may also be a string, where
1303the string must then be wrapped with "". Or it may also be a filename,
1304where the filename must be wrapped with '' in which case the file is
1305opened and read. Note that not all the file contents will be read if that
1306would cause the buffers to overflow. So, for example:
1307.RS
1308.RS
1309.P
1310.PD 0
1311buffer_pattern='filename'
1312.P
1313or:
1314.P
1315buffer_pattern="abcd"
1316.P
1317or:
1318.P
1319buffer_pattern=\-12
1320.P
1321or:
1322.P
1323buffer_pattern=0xdeadface
1324.PD
1325.RE
1326.P
1327Also you can combine everything together in any order:
1328.RS
1329.P
1330buffer_pattern=0xdeadface"abcd"\-12'filename'
1331.RE
1332.RE
1333.TP
1334.BI dedupe_percentage \fR=\fPint
1335If set, fio will generate this percentage of identical buffers when
1336writing. These buffers will be naturally dedupable. The contents of the
1337buffers depend on what other buffer compression settings have been set. It's
1338possible to have the individual buffers either fully compressible, or not at
72592780
SW
1339all \-\- this option only controls the distribution of unique buffers. Setting
1340this option will also enable \fBrefill_buffers\fR to prevent every buffer
1341being identical.
523bad63
TK
1342.TP
1343.BI invalidate \fR=\fPbool
1344Invalidate the buffer/page cache parts of the files to be used prior to
1345starting I/O if the platform and file type support it. Defaults to true.
1346This will be ignored if \fBpre_read\fR is also specified for the
1347same job.
1348.TP
1349.BI sync \fR=\fPbool
1350Use synchronous I/O for buffered writes. For the majority of I/O engines,
1351this means using O_SYNC. Default: false.
1352.TP
1353.BI iomem \fR=\fPstr "\fR,\fP mem" \fR=\fPstr
1354Fio can use various types of memory as the I/O unit buffer. The allowed
1355values are:
1356.RS
1357.RS
1358.TP
1359.B malloc
1360Use memory from \fBmalloc\fR\|(3) as the buffers. Default memory type.
1361.TP
1362.B shm
1363Use shared memory as the buffers. Allocated through \fBshmget\fR\|(2).
1364.TP
1365.B shmhuge
1366Same as \fBshm\fR, but use huge pages as backing.
1367.TP
1368.B mmap
1369Use \fBmmap\fR\|(2) to allocate buffers. May either be anonymous memory, or can
1370be file backed if a filename is given after the option. The format
1371is `mem=mmap:/path/to/file'.
1372.TP
1373.B mmaphuge
1374Use a memory mapped huge file as the buffer backing. Append filename
1375after mmaphuge, ala `mem=mmaphuge:/hugetlbfs/file'.
1376.TP
1377.B mmapshared
1378Same as \fBmmap\fR, but use a MMAP_SHARED mapping.
1379.TP
1380.B cudamalloc
1381Use GPU memory as the buffers for GPUDirect RDMA benchmark.
1382The \fBioengine\fR must be \fBrdma\fR.
1383.RE
1384.P
1385The area allocated is a function of the maximum allowed bs size for the job,
1386multiplied by the I/O depth given. Note that for \fBshmhuge\fR and
1387\fBmmaphuge\fR to work, the system must have free huge pages allocated. This
1388can normally be checked and set by reading/writing
1389`/proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages' on a Linux system. Fio assumes a huge page
1390is 4MiB in size. So to calculate the number of huge pages you need for a
1391given job file, add up the I/O depth of all jobs (normally one unless
1392\fBiodepth\fR is used) and multiply by the maximum bs set. Then divide
1393that number by the huge page size. You can see the size of the huge pages in
1394`/proc/meminfo'. If no huge pages are allocated by having a non\-zero
1395number in `nr_hugepages', using \fBmmaphuge\fR or \fBshmhuge\fR will fail. Also
1396see \fBhugepage\-size\fR.
1397.P
1398\fBmmaphuge\fR also needs to have hugetlbfs mounted and the file location
1399should point there. So if it's mounted in `/huge', you would use
1400`mem=mmaphuge:/huge/somefile'.
1401.RE
1402.TP
1403.BI iomem_align \fR=\fPint "\fR,\fP mem_align" \fR=\fPint
1404This indicates the memory alignment of the I/O memory buffers. Note that
1405the given alignment is applied to the first I/O unit buffer, if using
1406\fBiodepth\fR the alignment of the following buffers are given by the
1407\fBbs\fR used. In other words, if using a \fBbs\fR that is a
1408multiple of the page sized in the system, all buffers will be aligned to
1409this value. If using a \fBbs\fR that is not page aligned, the alignment
1410of subsequent I/O memory buffers is the sum of the \fBiomem_align\fR and
1411\fBbs\fR used.
1412.TP
1413.BI hugepage\-size \fR=\fPint
1414Defines the size of a huge page. Must at least be equal to the system
1415setting, see `/proc/meminfo'. Defaults to 4MiB. Should probably
1416always be a multiple of megabytes, so using `hugepage\-size=Xm' is the
1417preferred way to set this to avoid setting a non\-pow\-2 bad value.
1418.TP
1419.BI lockmem \fR=\fPint
1420Pin the specified amount of memory with \fBmlock\fR\|(2). Can be used to
1421simulate a smaller amount of memory. The amount specified is per worker.
1422.SS "I/O size"
1423.TP
1424.BI size \fR=\fPint
1425The total size of file I/O for each thread of this job. Fio will run until
1426this many bytes has been transferred, unless runtime is limited by other options
1427(such as \fBruntime\fR, for instance, or increased/decreased by \fBio_size\fR).
1428Fio will divide this size between the available files determined by options
1429such as \fBnrfiles\fR, \fBfilename\fR, unless \fBfilesize\fR is
1430specified by the job. If the result of division happens to be 0, the size is
1431set to the physical size of the given files or devices if they exist.
1432If this option is not specified, fio will use the full size of the given
1433files or devices. If the files do not exist, size must be given. It is also
1434possible to give size as a percentage between 1 and 100. If `size=20%' is
1435given, fio will use 20% of the full size of the given files or devices.
1436Can be combined with \fBoffset\fR to constrain the start and end range
1437that I/O will be done within.
1438.TP
1439.BI io_size \fR=\fPint "\fR,\fB io_limit" \fR=\fPint
1440Normally fio operates within the region set by \fBsize\fR, which means
1441that the \fBsize\fR option sets both the region and size of I/O to be
1442performed. Sometimes that is not what you want. With this option, it is
1443possible to define just the amount of I/O that fio should do. For instance,
1444if \fBsize\fR is set to 20GiB and \fBio_size\fR is set to 5GiB, fio
1445will perform I/O within the first 20GiB but exit when 5GiB have been
1446done. The opposite is also possible \-\- if \fBsize\fR is set to 20GiB,
1447and \fBio_size\fR is set to 40GiB, then fio will do 40GiB of I/O within
1448the 0..20GiB region.
1449.TP
1450.BI filesize \fR=\fPirange(int)
1451Individual file sizes. May be a range, in which case fio will select sizes
1452for files at random within the given range and limited to \fBsize\fR in
1453total (if that is given). If not given, each created file is the same size.
1454This option overrides \fBsize\fR in terms of file size, which means
1455this value is used as a fixed size or possible range of each file.
1456.TP
1457.BI file_append \fR=\fPbool
1458Perform I/O after the end of the file. Normally fio will operate within the
1459size of a file. If this option is set, then fio will append to the file
1460instead. This has identical behavior to setting \fBoffset\fR to the size
1461of a file. This option is ignored on non\-regular files.
1462.TP
1463.BI fill_device \fR=\fPbool "\fR,\fB fill_fs" \fR=\fPbool
1464Sets size to something really large and waits for ENOSPC (no space left on
1465device) as the terminating condition. Only makes sense with sequential
1466write. For a read workload, the mount point will be filled first then I/O
1467started on the result. This option doesn't make sense if operating on a raw
1468device node, since the size of that is already known by the file system.
1469Additionally, writing beyond end\-of\-device will not return ENOSPC there.
1470.SS "I/O engine"
1471.TP
1472.BI ioengine \fR=\fPstr
1473Defines how the job issues I/O to the file. The following types are defined:
1474.RS
1475.RS
1476.TP
1477.B sync
1478Basic \fBread\fR\|(2) or \fBwrite\fR\|(2)
1479I/O. \fBlseek\fR\|(2) is used to position the I/O location.
1480See \fBfsync\fR and \fBfdatasync\fR for syncing write I/Os.
1481.TP
1482.B psync
1483Basic \fBpread\fR\|(2) or \fBpwrite\fR\|(2) I/O. Default on
1484all supported operating systems except for Windows.
1485.TP
1486.B vsync
1487Basic \fBreadv\fR\|(2) or \fBwritev\fR\|(2) I/O. Will emulate
1488queuing by coalescing adjacent I/Os into a single submission.
1489.TP
1490.B pvsync
1491Basic \fBpreadv\fR\|(2) or \fBpwritev\fR\|(2) I/O.
a46c5e01 1492.TP
2cafffbe
JA
1493.B pvsync2
1494Basic \fBpreadv2\fR\|(2) or \fBpwritev2\fR\|(2) I/O.
1495.TP
d60e92d1 1496.B libaio
523bad63
TK
1497Linux native asynchronous I/O. Note that Linux may only support
1498queued behavior with non\-buffered I/O (set `direct=1' or
1499`buffered=0').
1500This engine defines engine specific options.
d60e92d1
AC
1501.TP
1502.B posixaio
523bad63
TK
1503POSIX asynchronous I/O using \fBaio_read\fR\|(3) and
1504\fBaio_write\fR\|(3).
03e20d68
BC
1505.TP
1506.B solarisaio
1507Solaris native asynchronous I/O.
1508.TP
1509.B windowsaio
38f8c318 1510Windows native asynchronous I/O. Default on Windows.
d60e92d1
AC
1511.TP
1512.B mmap
523bad63
TK
1513File is memory mapped with \fBmmap\fR\|(2) and data copied
1514to/from using \fBmemcpy\fR\|(3).
d60e92d1
AC
1515.TP
1516.B splice
523bad63
TK
1517\fBsplice\fR\|(2) is used to transfer the data and
1518\fBvmsplice\fR\|(2) to transfer data from user space to the
1519kernel.
d60e92d1 1520.TP
d60e92d1 1521.B sg
523bad63
TK
1522SCSI generic sg v3 I/O. May either be synchronous using the SG_IO
1523ioctl, or if the target is an sg character device we use
1524\fBread\fR\|(2) and \fBwrite\fR\|(2) for asynchronous
1525I/O. Requires \fBfilename\fR option to specify either block or
52b81b7c 1526character devices. The sg engine includes engine specific options.
d60e92d1
AC
1527.TP
1528.B null
523bad63
TK
1529Doesn't transfer any data, just pretends to. This is mainly used to
1530exercise fio itself and for debugging/testing purposes.
d60e92d1
AC
1531.TP
1532.B net
523bad63
TK
1533Transfer over the network to given `host:port'. Depending on the
1534\fBprotocol\fR used, the \fBhostname\fR, \fBport\fR,
1535\fBlisten\fR and \fBfilename\fR options are used to specify
1536what sort of connection to make, while the \fBprotocol\fR option
1537determines which protocol will be used. This engine defines engine
1538specific options.
d60e92d1
AC
1539.TP
1540.B netsplice
523bad63
TK
1541Like \fBnet\fR, but uses \fBsplice\fR\|(2) and
1542\fBvmsplice\fR\|(2) to map data and send/receive.
1543This engine defines engine specific options.
d60e92d1 1544.TP
53aec0a4 1545.B cpuio
523bad63
TK
1546Doesn't transfer any data, but burns CPU cycles according to the
1547\fBcpuload\fR and \fBcpuchunks\fR options. Setting
1548\fBcpuload\fR\=85 will cause that job to do nothing but burn 85%
1549of the CPU. In case of SMP machines, use `numjobs=<nr_of_cpu>'
1550to get desired CPU usage, as the cpuload only loads a
1551single CPU at the desired rate. A job never finishes unless there is
1552at least one non\-cpuio job.
d60e92d1
AC
1553.TP
1554.B guasi
f1dd3fb1 1555The GUASI I/O engine is the Generic Userspace Asynchronous Syscall
523bad63
TK
1556Interface approach to async I/O. See \fIhttp://www.xmailserver.org/guasi\-lib.html\fR
1557for more info on GUASI.
d60e92d1 1558.TP
21b8aee8 1559.B rdma
523bad63
TK
1560The RDMA I/O engine supports both RDMA memory semantics
1561(RDMA_WRITE/RDMA_READ) and channel semantics (Send/Recv) for the
609ac152
SB
1562InfiniBand, RoCE and iWARP protocols. This engine defines engine
1563specific options.
d54fce84
DM
1564.TP
1565.B falloc
523bad63
TK
1566I/O engine that does regular fallocate to simulate data transfer as
1567fio ioengine.
1568.RS
1569.P
1570.PD 0
1571DDIR_READ does fallocate(,mode = FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE,).
1572.P
1573DIR_WRITE does fallocate(,mode = 0).
1574.P
1575DDIR_TRIM does fallocate(,mode = FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE|FALLOC_FL_PUNCH_HOLE).
1576.PD
1577.RE
1578.TP
1579.B ftruncate
1580I/O engine that sends \fBftruncate\fR\|(2) operations in response
1581to write (DDIR_WRITE) events. Each ftruncate issued sets the file's
1582size to the current block offset. \fBblocksize\fR is ignored.
d54fce84
DM
1583.TP
1584.B e4defrag
523bad63
TK
1585I/O engine that does regular EXT4_IOC_MOVE_EXT ioctls to simulate
1586defragment activity in request to DDIR_WRITE event.
0d978694 1587.TP
d5f9b0ea
IF
1588.B rados
1589I/O engine supporting direct access to Ceph Reliable Autonomic Distributed
1590Object Store (RADOS) via librados. This ioengine defines engine specific
1591options.
1592.TP
0d978694 1593.B rbd
523bad63
TK
1594I/O engine supporting direct access to Ceph Rados Block Devices
1595(RBD) via librbd without the need to use the kernel rbd driver. This
1596ioengine defines engine specific options.
a7c386f4 1597.TP
1598.B gfapi
523bad63
TK
1599Using GlusterFS libgfapi sync interface to direct access to
1600GlusterFS volumes without having to go through FUSE. This ioengine
1601defines engine specific options.
cc47f094 1602.TP
1603.B gfapi_async
523bad63
TK
1604Using GlusterFS libgfapi async interface to direct access to
1605GlusterFS volumes without having to go through FUSE. This ioengine
1606defines engine specific options.
1b10477b 1607.TP
b74e419e 1608.B libhdfs
523bad63
TK
1609Read and write through Hadoop (HDFS). The \fBfilename\fR option
1610is used to specify host,port of the hdfs name\-node to connect. This
1611engine interprets offsets a little differently. In HDFS, files once
1612created cannot be modified so random writes are not possible. To
1613imitate this the libhdfs engine expects a bunch of small files to be
1614created over HDFS and will randomly pick a file from them
1615based on the offset generated by fio backend (see the example
1616job file to create such files, use `rw=write' option). Please
1617note, it may be necessary to set environment variables to work
1618with HDFS/libhdfs properly. Each job uses its own connection to
1619HDFS.
65fa28ca
DE
1620.TP
1621.B mtd
523bad63
TK
1622Read, write and erase an MTD character device (e.g.,
1623`/dev/mtd0'). Discards are treated as erases. Depending on the
1624underlying device type, the I/O may have to go in a certain pattern,
1625e.g., on NAND, writing sequentially to erase blocks and discarding
1626before overwriting. The \fBtrimwrite\fR mode works well for this
65fa28ca 1627constraint.
5c4ef02e
JA
1628.TP
1629.B pmemblk
523bad63 1630Read and write using filesystem DAX to a file on a filesystem
363a5f65 1631mounted with DAX on a persistent memory device through the PMDK
523bad63 1632libpmemblk library.
104ee4de 1633.TP
523bad63
TK
1634.B dev\-dax
1635Read and write using device DAX to a persistent memory device (e.g.,
363a5f65 1636/dev/dax0.0) through the PMDK libpmem library.
d60e92d1 1637.TP
523bad63
TK
1638.B external
1639Prefix to specify loading an external I/O engine object file. Append
1640the engine filename, e.g. `ioengine=external:/tmp/foo.o' to load
d243fd6d
TK
1641ioengine `foo.o' in `/tmp'. The path can be either
1642absolute or relative. See `engines/skeleton_external.c' in the fio source for
1643details of writing an external I/O engine.
1216cc5a
JB
1644.TP
1645.B filecreate
b71968b1
SW
1646Simply create the files and do no I/O to them. You still need to set
1647\fBfilesize\fR so that all the accounting still occurs, but no actual I/O will be
1648done other than creating the file.
ae0db592
TI
1649.TP
1650.B libpmem
1651Read and write using mmap I/O to a file on a filesystem
363a5f65 1652mounted with DAX on a persistent memory device through the PMDK
ae0db592 1653libpmem library.
523bad63
TK
1654.SS "I/O engine specific parameters"
1655In addition, there are some parameters which are only valid when a specific
1656\fBioengine\fR is in use. These are used identically to normal parameters,
1657with the caveat that when used on the command line, they must come after the
1658\fBioengine\fR that defines them is selected.
d60e92d1 1659.TP
523bad63
TK
1660.BI (libaio)userspace_reap
1661Normally, with the libaio engine in use, fio will use the
1662\fBio_getevents\fR\|(3) system call to reap newly returned events. With
1663this flag turned on, the AIO ring will be read directly from user\-space to
1664reap events. The reaping mode is only enabled when polling for a minimum of
16650 events (e.g. when `iodepth_batch_complete=0').
3ce9dcaf 1666.TP
523bad63
TK
1667.BI (pvsync2)hipri
1668Set RWF_HIPRI on I/O, indicating to the kernel that it's of higher priority
1669than normal.
82407585 1670.TP
523bad63
TK
1671.BI (pvsync2)hipri_percentage
1672When hipri is set this determines the probability of a pvsync2 I/O being high
1673priority. The default is 100%.
d60e92d1 1674.TP
523bad63
TK
1675.BI (cpuio)cpuload \fR=\fPint
1676Attempt to use the specified percentage of CPU cycles. This is a mandatory
1677option when using cpuio I/O engine.
997b5680 1678.TP
523bad63
TK
1679.BI (cpuio)cpuchunks \fR=\fPint
1680Split the load into cycles of the given time. In microseconds.
1ad01bd1 1681.TP
523bad63
TK
1682.BI (cpuio)exit_on_io_done \fR=\fPbool
1683Detect when I/O threads are done, then exit.
d60e92d1 1684.TP
523bad63
TK
1685.BI (libhdfs)namenode \fR=\fPstr
1686The hostname or IP address of a HDFS cluster namenode to contact.
d01612f3 1687.TP
523bad63
TK
1688.BI (libhdfs)port
1689The listening port of the HFDS cluster namenode.
d60e92d1 1690.TP
523bad63
TK
1691.BI (netsplice,net)port
1692The TCP or UDP port to bind to or connect to. If this is used with
1693\fBnumjobs\fR to spawn multiple instances of the same job type, then
1694this will be the starting port number since fio will use a range of
1695ports.
d60e92d1 1696.TP
609ac152
SB
1697.BI (rdma)port
1698The port to use for RDMA-CM communication. This should be the same
1699value on the client and the server side.
1700.TP
1701.BI (netsplice,net, rdma)hostname \fR=\fPstr
1702The hostname or IP address to use for TCP, UDP or RDMA-CM based I/O.
1703If the job is a TCP listener or UDP reader, the hostname is not used
1704and must be omitted unless it is a valid UDP multicast address.
591e9e06 1705.TP
523bad63
TK
1706.BI (netsplice,net)interface \fR=\fPstr
1707The IP address of the network interface used to send or receive UDP
1708multicast.
ddf24e42 1709.TP
523bad63
TK
1710.BI (netsplice,net)ttl \fR=\fPint
1711Time\-to\-live value for outgoing UDP multicast packets. Default: 1.
d60e92d1 1712.TP
523bad63
TK
1713.BI (netsplice,net)nodelay \fR=\fPbool
1714Set TCP_NODELAY on TCP connections.
fa769d44 1715.TP
523bad63
TK
1716.BI (netsplice,net)protocol \fR=\fPstr "\fR,\fP proto" \fR=\fPstr
1717The network protocol to use. Accepted values are:
1718.RS
e76b1da4
JA
1719.RS
1720.TP
523bad63
TK
1721.B tcp
1722Transmission control protocol.
e76b1da4 1723.TP
523bad63
TK
1724.B tcpv6
1725Transmission control protocol V6.
e76b1da4 1726.TP
523bad63
TK
1727.B udp
1728User datagram protocol.
1729.TP
1730.B udpv6
1731User datagram protocol V6.
e76b1da4 1732.TP
523bad63
TK
1733.B unix
1734UNIX domain socket.
e76b1da4
JA
1735.RE
1736.P
523bad63
TK
1737When the protocol is TCP or UDP, the port must also be given, as well as the
1738hostname if the job is a TCP listener or UDP reader. For unix sockets, the
1739normal \fBfilename\fR option should be used and the port is invalid.
1740.RE
1741.TP
1742.BI (netsplice,net)listen
1743For TCP network connections, tell fio to listen for incoming connections
1744rather than initiating an outgoing connection. The \fBhostname\fR must
1745be omitted if this option is used.
1746.TP
1747.BI (netsplice,net)pingpong
1748Normally a network writer will just continue writing data, and a network
1749reader will just consume packages. If `pingpong=1' is set, a writer will
1750send its normal payload to the reader, then wait for the reader to send the
1751same payload back. This allows fio to measure network latencies. The
1752submission and completion latencies then measure local time spent sending or
1753receiving, and the completion latency measures how long it took for the
1754other end to receive and send back. For UDP multicast traffic
1755`pingpong=1' should only be set for a single reader when multiple readers
1756are listening to the same address.
1757.TP
1758.BI (netsplice,net)window_size \fR=\fPint
1759Set the desired socket buffer size for the connection.
e76b1da4 1760.TP
523bad63
TK
1761.BI (netsplice,net)mss \fR=\fPint
1762Set the TCP maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG).
d60e92d1 1763.TP
523bad63
TK
1764.BI (e4defrag)donorname \fR=\fPstr
1765File will be used as a block donor (swap extents between files).
d60e92d1 1766.TP
523bad63
TK
1767.BI (e4defrag)inplace \fR=\fPint
1768Configure donor file blocks allocation strategy:
1769.RS
1770.RS
d60e92d1 1771.TP
523bad63
TK
1772.B 0
1773Default. Preallocate donor's file on init.
d60e92d1 1774.TP
523bad63
TK
1775.B 1
1776Allocate space immediately inside defragment event, and free right
1777after event.
1778.RE
1779.RE
d60e92d1 1780.TP
d5f9b0ea 1781.BI (rbd,rados)clustername \fR=\fPstr
523bad63 1782Specifies the name of the Ceph cluster.
92d42d69 1783.TP
523bad63
TK
1784.BI (rbd)rbdname \fR=\fPstr
1785Specifies the name of the RBD.
92d42d69 1786.TP
d5f9b0ea
IF
1787.BI (rbd,rados)pool \fR=\fPstr
1788Specifies the name of the Ceph pool containing RBD or RADOS data.
92d42d69 1789.TP
d5f9b0ea 1790.BI (rbd,rados)clientname \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
1791Specifies the username (without the 'client.' prefix) used to access the
1792Ceph cluster. If the \fBclustername\fR is specified, the \fBclientname\fR shall be
1793the full *type.id* string. If no type. prefix is given, fio will add 'client.'
1794by default.
92d42d69 1795.TP
d5f9b0ea
IF
1796.BI (rbd,rados)busy_poll \fR=\fPbool
1797Poll store instead of waiting for completion. Usually this provides better
1798throughput at cost of higher(up to 100%) CPU utilization.
1799.TP
523bad63
TK
1800.BI (mtd)skip_bad \fR=\fPbool
1801Skip operations against known bad blocks.
8116fd24 1802.TP
523bad63
TK
1803.BI (libhdfs)hdfsdirectory
1804libhdfs will create chunk in this HDFS directory.
e0a04ac1 1805.TP
523bad63
TK
1806.BI (libhdfs)chunk_size
1807The size of the chunk to use for each file.
609ac152
SB
1808.TP
1809.BI (rdma)verb \fR=\fPstr
1810The RDMA verb to use on this side of the RDMA ioengine
1811connection. Valid values are write, read, send and recv. These
1812correspond to the equivalent RDMA verbs (e.g. write = rdma_write
1813etc.). Note that this only needs to be specified on the client side of
1814the connection. See the examples folder.
1815.TP
1816.BI (rdma)bindname \fR=\fPstr
1817The name to use to bind the local RDMA-CM connection to a local RDMA
1818device. This could be a hostname or an IPv4 or IPv6 address. On the
1819server side this will be passed into the rdma_bind_addr() function and
1820on the client site it will be used in the rdma_resolve_add()
1821function. This can be useful when multiple paths exist between the
1822client and the server or in certain loopback configurations.
52b81b7c
KD
1823.TP
1824.BI (sg)readfua \fR=\fPbool
1825With readfua option set to 1, read operations include the force
1826unit access (fua) flag. Default: 0.
1827.TP
1828.BI (sg)writefua \fR=\fPbool
1829With writefua option set to 1, write operations include the force
1830unit access (fua) flag. Default: 0.
523bad63
TK
1831.SS "I/O depth"
1832.TP
1833.BI iodepth \fR=\fPint
1834Number of I/O units to keep in flight against the file. Note that
1835increasing \fBiodepth\fR beyond 1 will not affect synchronous ioengines (except
1836for small degrees when \fBverify_async\fR is in use). Even async
1837engines may impose OS restrictions causing the desired depth not to be
1838achieved. This may happen on Linux when using libaio and not setting
1839`direct=1', since buffered I/O is not async on that OS. Keep an
1840eye on the I/O depth distribution in the fio output to verify that the
1841achieved depth is as expected. Default: 1.
1842.TP
1843.BI iodepth_batch_submit \fR=\fPint "\fR,\fP iodepth_batch" \fR=\fPint
1844This defines how many pieces of I/O to submit at once. It defaults to 1
1845which means that we submit each I/O as soon as it is available, but can be
1846raised to submit bigger batches of I/O at the time. If it is set to 0 the
1847\fBiodepth\fR value will be used.
1848.TP
1849.BI iodepth_batch_complete_min \fR=\fPint "\fR,\fP iodepth_batch_complete" \fR=\fPint
1850This defines how many pieces of I/O to retrieve at once. It defaults to 1
1851which means that we'll ask for a minimum of 1 I/O in the retrieval process
1852from the kernel. The I/O retrieval will go on until we hit the limit set by
1853\fBiodepth_low\fR. If this variable is set to 0, then fio will always
1854check for completed events before queuing more I/O. This helps reduce I/O
1855latency, at the cost of more retrieval system calls.
1856.TP
1857.BI iodepth_batch_complete_max \fR=\fPint
1858This defines maximum pieces of I/O to retrieve at once. This variable should
1859be used along with \fBiodepth_batch_complete_min\fR=\fIint\fR variable,
1860specifying the range of min and max amount of I/O which should be
1861retrieved. By default it is equal to \fBiodepth_batch_complete_min\fR
1862value. Example #1:
e0a04ac1 1863.RS
e0a04ac1 1864.RS
e0a04ac1 1865.P
523bad63
TK
1866.PD 0
1867iodepth_batch_complete_min=1
e0a04ac1 1868.P
523bad63
TK
1869iodepth_batch_complete_max=<iodepth>
1870.PD
e0a04ac1
JA
1871.RE
1872.P
523bad63
TK
1873which means that we will retrieve at least 1 I/O and up to the whole
1874submitted queue depth. If none of I/O has been completed yet, we will wait.
1875Example #2:
e8b1961d 1876.RS
523bad63
TK
1877.P
1878.PD 0
1879iodepth_batch_complete_min=0
1880.P
1881iodepth_batch_complete_max=<iodepth>
1882.PD
e8b1961d
JA
1883.RE
1884.P
523bad63
TK
1885which means that we can retrieve up to the whole submitted queue depth, but
1886if none of I/O has been completed yet, we will NOT wait and immediately exit
1887the system call. In this example we simply do polling.
1888.RE
e8b1961d 1889.TP
523bad63
TK
1890.BI iodepth_low \fR=\fPint
1891The low water mark indicating when to start filling the queue
1892again. Defaults to the same as \fBiodepth\fR, meaning that fio will
1893attempt to keep the queue full at all times. If \fBiodepth\fR is set to
1894e.g. 16 and \fBiodepth_low\fR is set to 4, then after fio has filled the queue of
189516 requests, it will let the depth drain down to 4 before starting to fill
1896it again.
d60e92d1 1897.TP
523bad63
TK
1898.BI serialize_overlap \fR=\fPbool
1899Serialize in-flight I/Os that might otherwise cause or suffer from data races.
1900When two or more I/Os are submitted simultaneously, there is no guarantee that
1901the I/Os will be processed or completed in the submitted order. Further, if
1902two or more of those I/Os are writes, any overlapping region between them can
1903become indeterminate/undefined on certain storage. These issues can cause
1904verification to fail erratically when at least one of the racing I/Os is
1905changing data and the overlapping region has a non-zero size. Setting
1906\fBserialize_overlap\fR tells fio to avoid provoking this behavior by explicitly
1907serializing in-flight I/Os that have a non-zero overlap. Note that setting
1908this option can reduce both performance and the \fBiodepth\fR achieved.
1909Additionally this option does not work when \fBio_submit_mode\fR is set to
1910offload. Default: false.
d60e92d1 1911.TP
523bad63
TK
1912.BI io_submit_mode \fR=\fPstr
1913This option controls how fio submits the I/O to the I/O engine. The default
1914is `inline', which means that the fio job threads submit and reap I/O
1915directly. If set to `offload', the job threads will offload I/O submission
1916to a dedicated pool of I/O threads. This requires some coordination and thus
1917has a bit of extra overhead, especially for lower queue depth I/O where it
1918can increase latencies. The benefit is that fio can manage submission rates
1919independently of the device completion rates. This avoids skewed latency
1920reporting if I/O gets backed up on the device side (the coordinated omission
1921problem).
1922.SS "I/O rate"
d60e92d1 1923.TP
523bad63
TK
1924.BI thinktime \fR=\fPtime
1925Stall the job for the specified period of time after an I/O has completed before issuing the
1926next. May be used to simulate processing being done by an application.
1927When the unit is omitted, the value is interpreted in microseconds. See
1928\fBthinktime_blocks\fR and \fBthinktime_spin\fR.
d60e92d1 1929.TP
523bad63
TK
1930.BI thinktime_spin \fR=\fPtime
1931Only valid if \fBthinktime\fR is set \- pretend to spend CPU time doing
1932something with the data received, before falling back to sleeping for the
1933rest of the period specified by \fBthinktime\fR. When the unit is
1934omitted, the value is interpreted in microseconds.
d60e92d1
AC
1935.TP
1936.BI thinktime_blocks \fR=\fPint
523bad63
TK
1937Only valid if \fBthinktime\fR is set \- control how many blocks to issue,
1938before waiting \fBthinktime\fR usecs. If not set, defaults to 1 which will make
1939fio wait \fBthinktime\fR usecs after every block. This effectively makes any
1940queue depth setting redundant, since no more than 1 I/O will be queued
1941before we have to complete it and do our \fBthinktime\fR. In other words, this
1942setting effectively caps the queue depth if the latter is larger.
d60e92d1 1943.TP
6d500c2e 1944.BI rate \fR=\fPint[,int][,int]
523bad63
TK
1945Cap the bandwidth used by this job. The number is in bytes/sec, the normal
1946suffix rules apply. Comma\-separated values may be specified for reads,
1947writes, and trims as described in \fBblocksize\fR.
1948.RS
1949.P
1950For example, using `rate=1m,500k' would limit reads to 1MiB/sec and writes to
1951500KiB/sec. Capping only reads or writes can be done with `rate=,500k' or
1952`rate=500k,' where the former will only limit writes (to 500KiB/sec) and the
1953latter will only limit reads.
1954.RE
d60e92d1 1955.TP
6d500c2e 1956.BI rate_min \fR=\fPint[,int][,int]
523bad63
TK
1957Tell fio to do whatever it can to maintain at least this bandwidth. Failing
1958to meet this requirement will cause the job to exit. Comma\-separated values
1959may be specified for reads, writes, and trims as described in
1960\fBblocksize\fR.
d60e92d1 1961.TP
6d500c2e 1962.BI rate_iops \fR=\fPint[,int][,int]
523bad63
TK
1963Cap the bandwidth to this number of IOPS. Basically the same as
1964\fBrate\fR, just specified independently of bandwidth. If the job is
1965given a block size range instead of a fixed value, the smallest block size
1966is used as the metric. Comma\-separated values may be specified for reads,
1967writes, and trims as described in \fBblocksize\fR.
d60e92d1 1968.TP
6d500c2e 1969.BI rate_iops_min \fR=\fPint[,int][,int]
523bad63
TK
1970If fio doesn't meet this rate of I/O, it will cause the job to exit.
1971Comma\-separated values may be specified for reads, writes, and trims as
1972described in \fBblocksize\fR.
d60e92d1 1973.TP
6de65959 1974.BI rate_process \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
1975This option controls how fio manages rated I/O submissions. The default is
1976`linear', which submits I/O in a linear fashion with fixed delays between
1977I/Os that gets adjusted based on I/O completion rates. If this is set to
1978`poisson', fio will submit I/O based on a more real world random request
6de65959 1979flow, known as the Poisson process
523bad63 1980(\fIhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poisson_point_process\fR). The lambda will be
5d02b083 198110^6 / IOPS for the given workload.
1a9bf814
JA
1982.TP
1983.BI rate_ignore_thinktime \fR=\fPbool
1984By default, fio will attempt to catch up to the specified rate setting, if any
1985kind of thinktime setting was used. If this option is set, then fio will
1986ignore the thinktime and continue doing IO at the specified rate, instead of
1987entering a catch-up mode after thinktime is done.
523bad63 1988.SS "I/O latency"
ff6bb260 1989.TP
523bad63 1990.BI latency_target \fR=\fPtime
3e260a46 1991If set, fio will attempt to find the max performance point that the given
523bad63
TK
1992workload will run at while maintaining a latency below this target. When
1993the unit is omitted, the value is interpreted in microseconds. See
1994\fBlatency_window\fR and \fBlatency_percentile\fR.
3e260a46 1995.TP
523bad63 1996.BI latency_window \fR=\fPtime
3e260a46 1997Used with \fBlatency_target\fR to specify the sample window that the job
523bad63
TK
1998is run at varying queue depths to test the performance. When the unit is
1999omitted, the value is interpreted in microseconds.
3e260a46
JA
2000.TP
2001.BI latency_percentile \fR=\fPfloat
523bad63
TK
2002The percentage of I/Os that must fall within the criteria specified by
2003\fBlatency_target\fR and \fBlatency_window\fR. If not set, this
2004defaults to 100.0, meaning that all I/Os must be equal or below to the value
2005set by \fBlatency_target\fR.
2006.TP
2007.BI max_latency \fR=\fPtime
2008If set, fio will exit the job with an ETIMEDOUT error if it exceeds this
2009maximum latency. When the unit is omitted, the value is interpreted in
2010microseconds.
2011.TP
2012.BI rate_cycle \fR=\fPint
2013Average bandwidth for \fBrate\fR and \fBrate_min\fR over this number
2014of milliseconds. Defaults to 1000.
2015.SS "I/O replay"
2016.TP
2017.BI write_iolog \fR=\fPstr
2018Write the issued I/O patterns to the specified file. See
2019\fBread_iolog\fR. Specify a separate file for each job, otherwise the
2020iologs will be interspersed and the file may be corrupt.
2021.TP
2022.BI read_iolog \fR=\fPstr
2023Open an iolog with the specified filename and replay the I/O patterns it
2024contains. This can be used to store a workload and replay it sometime
2025later. The iolog given may also be a blktrace binary file, which allows fio
2026to replay a workload captured by blktrace. See
2027\fBblktrace\fR\|(8) for how to capture such logging data. For blktrace
2028replay, the file needs to be turned into a blkparse binary data file first
2029(`blkparse <device> \-o /dev/null \-d file_for_fio.bin').
3e260a46 2030.TP
523bad63
TK
2031.BI replay_no_stall \fR=\fPbool
2032When replaying I/O with \fBread_iolog\fR the default behavior is to
2033attempt to respect the timestamps within the log and replay them with the
2034appropriate delay between IOPS. By setting this variable fio will not
2035respect the timestamps and attempt to replay them as fast as possible while
2036still respecting ordering. The result is the same I/O pattern to a given
2037device, but different timings.
2038.TP
6dd7fa77
JA
2039.BI replay_time_scale \fR=\fPint
2040When replaying I/O with \fBread_iolog\fR, fio will honor the original timing
2041in the trace. With this option, it's possible to scale the time. It's a
2042percentage option, if set to 50 it means run at 50% the original IO rate in
2043the trace. If set to 200, run at twice the original IO rate. Defaults to 100.
2044.TP
523bad63
TK
2045.BI replay_redirect \fR=\fPstr
2046While replaying I/O patterns using \fBread_iolog\fR the default behavior
2047is to replay the IOPS onto the major/minor device that each IOP was recorded
2048from. This is sometimes undesirable because on a different machine those
2049major/minor numbers can map to a different device. Changing hardware on the
2050same system can also result in a different major/minor mapping.
2051\fBreplay_redirect\fR causes all I/Os to be replayed onto the single specified
2052device regardless of the device it was recorded
2053from. i.e. `replay_redirect=/dev/sdc' would cause all I/O
2054in the blktrace or iolog to be replayed onto `/dev/sdc'. This means
2055multiple devices will be replayed onto a single device, if the trace
2056contains multiple devices. If you want multiple devices to be replayed
2057concurrently to multiple redirected devices you must blkparse your trace
2058into separate traces and replay them with independent fio invocations.
2059Unfortunately this also breaks the strict time ordering between multiple
2060device accesses.
2061.TP
2062.BI replay_align \fR=\fPint
2063Force alignment of I/O offsets and lengths in a trace to this power of 2
2064value.
2065.TP
2066.BI replay_scale \fR=\fPint
2067Scale sector offsets down by this factor when replaying traces.
2068.SS "Threads, processes and job synchronization"
2069.TP
2070.BI thread
2071Fio defaults to creating jobs by using fork, however if this option is
2072given, fio will create jobs by using POSIX Threads' function
2073\fBpthread_create\fR\|(3) to create threads instead.
2074.TP
2075.BI wait_for \fR=\fPstr
2076If set, the current job won't be started until all workers of the specified
2077waitee job are done.
2078.\" ignore blank line here from HOWTO as it looks normal without it
2079\fBwait_for\fR operates on the job name basis, so there are a few
2080limitations. First, the waitee must be defined prior to the waiter job
2081(meaning no forward references). Second, if a job is being referenced as a
2082waitee, it must have a unique name (no duplicate waitees).
2083.TP
2084.BI nice \fR=\fPint
2085Run the job with the given nice value. See man \fBnice\fR\|(2).
2086.\" ignore blank line here from HOWTO as it looks normal without it
2087On Windows, values less than \-15 set the process class to "High"; \-1 through
2088\-15 set "Above Normal"; 1 through 15 "Below Normal"; and above 15 "Idle"
2089priority class.
2090.TP
2091.BI prio \fR=\fPint
2092Set the I/O priority value of this job. Linux limits us to a positive value
2093between 0 and 7, with 0 being the highest. See man
2094\fBionice\fR\|(1). Refer to an appropriate manpage for other operating
2095systems since meaning of priority may differ.
2096.TP
2097.BI prioclass \fR=\fPint
2098Set the I/O priority class. See man \fBionice\fR\|(1).
15501535 2099.TP
d60e92d1 2100.BI cpus_allowed \fR=\fPstr
523bad63 2101Controls the same options as \fBcpumask\fR, but accepts a textual
b570e037
SW
2102specification of the permitted CPUs instead and CPUs are indexed from 0. So
2103to use CPUs 0 and 5 you would specify `cpus_allowed=0,5'. This option also
2104allows a range of CPUs to be specified \-\- say you wanted a binding to CPUs
21050, 5, and 8 to 15, you would set `cpus_allowed=0,5,8\-15'.
2106.RS
2107.P
2108On Windows, when `cpus_allowed' is unset only CPUs from fio's current
2109processor group will be used and affinity settings are inherited from the
2110system. An fio build configured to target Windows 7 makes options that set
2111CPUs processor group aware and values will set both the processor group
2112and a CPU from within that group. For example, on a system where processor
2113group 0 has 40 CPUs and processor group 1 has 32 CPUs, `cpus_allowed'
2114values between 0 and 39 will bind CPUs from processor group 0 and
2115`cpus_allowed' values between 40 and 71 will bind CPUs from processor
2116group 1. When using `cpus_allowed_policy=shared' all CPUs specified by a
2117single `cpus_allowed' option must be from the same processor group. For
2118Windows fio builds not built for Windows 7, CPUs will only be selected from
2119(and be relative to) whatever processor group fio happens to be running in
2120and CPUs from other processor groups cannot be used.
2121.RE
d60e92d1 2122.TP
c2acfbac 2123.BI cpus_allowed_policy \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
2124Set the policy of how fio distributes the CPUs specified by
2125\fBcpus_allowed\fR or \fBcpumask\fR. Two policies are supported:
c2acfbac
JA
2126.RS
2127.RS
2128.TP
2129.B shared
2130All jobs will share the CPU set specified.
2131.TP
2132.B split
2133Each job will get a unique CPU from the CPU set.
2134.RE
2135.P
523bad63
TK
2136\fBshared\fR is the default behavior, if the option isn't specified. If
2137\fBsplit\fR is specified, then fio will will assign one cpu per job. If not
2138enough CPUs are given for the jobs listed, then fio will roundrobin the CPUs
2139in the set.
c2acfbac 2140.RE
c2acfbac 2141.TP
b570e037
SW
2142.BI cpumask \fR=\fPint
2143Set the CPU affinity of this job. The parameter given is a bit mask of
2144allowed CPUs the job may run on. So if you want the allowed CPUs to be 1
2145and 5, you would pass the decimal value of (1 << 1 | 1 << 5), or 34. See man
2146\fBsched_setaffinity\fR\|(2). This may not work on all supported
2147operating systems or kernel versions. This option doesn't work well for a
2148higher CPU count than what you can store in an integer mask, so it can only
2149control cpus 1\-32. For boxes with larger CPU counts, use
2150\fBcpus_allowed\fR.
2151.TP
d0b937ed 2152.BI numa_cpu_nodes \fR=\fPstr
cecbfd47 2153Set this job running on specified NUMA nodes' CPUs. The arguments allow
523bad63
TK
2154comma delimited list of cpu numbers, A\-B ranges, or `all'. Note, to enable
2155NUMA options support, fio must be built on a system with libnuma\-dev(el)
2156installed.
d0b937ed
YR
2157.TP
2158.BI numa_mem_policy \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
2159Set this job's memory policy and corresponding NUMA nodes. Format of the
2160arguments:
39c7a2ca
VF
2161.RS
2162.RS
523bad63
TK
2163.P
2164<mode>[:<nodelist>]
39c7a2ca 2165.RE
523bad63 2166.P
f1dd3fb1 2167`mode' is one of the following memory policies: `default', `prefer',
523bad63
TK
2168`bind', `interleave' or `local'. For `default' and `local' memory
2169policies, no node needs to be specified. For `prefer', only one node is
2170allowed. For `bind' and `interleave' the `nodelist' may be as
2171follows: a comma delimited list of numbers, A\-B ranges, or `all'.
39c7a2ca
VF
2172.RE
2173.TP
523bad63
TK
2174.BI cgroup \fR=\fPstr
2175Add job to this control group. If it doesn't exist, it will be created. The
2176system must have a mounted cgroup blkio mount point for this to work. If
2177your system doesn't have it mounted, you can do so with:
d60e92d1
AC
2178.RS
2179.RS
d60e92d1 2180.P
523bad63
TK
2181# mount \-t cgroup \-o blkio none /cgroup
2182.RE
d60e92d1
AC
2183.RE
2184.TP
523bad63
TK
2185.BI cgroup_weight \fR=\fPint
2186Set the weight of the cgroup to this value. See the documentation that comes
2187with the kernel, allowed values are in the range of 100..1000.
d60e92d1 2188.TP
523bad63
TK
2189.BI cgroup_nodelete \fR=\fPbool
2190Normally fio will delete the cgroups it has created after the job
2191completion. To override this behavior and to leave cgroups around after the
2192job completion, set `cgroup_nodelete=1'. This can be useful if one wants
2193to inspect various cgroup files after job completion. Default: false.
c8eeb9df 2194.TP
523bad63
TK
2195.BI flow_id \fR=\fPint
2196The ID of the flow. If not specified, it defaults to being a global
2197flow. See \fBflow\fR.
d60e92d1 2198.TP
523bad63
TK
2199.BI flow \fR=\fPint
2200Weight in token\-based flow control. If this value is used, then there is
2201a 'flow counter' which is used to regulate the proportion of activity between
2202two or more jobs. Fio attempts to keep this flow counter near zero. The
2203\fBflow\fR parameter stands for how much should be added or subtracted to the
2204flow counter on each iteration of the main I/O loop. That is, if one job has
2205`flow=8' and another job has `flow=\-1', then there will be a roughly 1:8
2206ratio in how much one runs vs the other.
d60e92d1 2207.TP
523bad63
TK
2208.BI flow_watermark \fR=\fPint
2209The maximum value that the absolute value of the flow counter is allowed to
2210reach before the job must wait for a lower value of the counter.
6b7f6851 2211.TP
523bad63
TK
2212.BI flow_sleep \fR=\fPint
2213The period of time, in microseconds, to wait after the flow watermark has
2214been exceeded before retrying operations.
25460cf6 2215.TP
523bad63
TK
2216.BI stonewall "\fR,\fB wait_for_previous"
2217Wait for preceding jobs in the job file to exit, before starting this
2218one. Can be used to insert serialization points in the job file. A stone
2219wall also implies starting a new reporting group, see
2220\fBgroup_reporting\fR.
2378826d 2221.TP
523bad63
TK
2222.BI exitall
2223By default, fio will continue running all other jobs when one job finishes
2224but sometimes this is not the desired action. Setting \fBexitall\fR will
2225instead make fio terminate all other jobs when one job finishes.
e81ecca3 2226.TP
523bad63
TK
2227.BI exec_prerun \fR=\fPstr
2228Before running this job, issue the command specified through
2229\fBsystem\fR\|(3). Output is redirected in a file called `jobname.prerun.txt'.
e9f48479 2230.TP
523bad63
TK
2231.BI exec_postrun \fR=\fPstr
2232After the job completes, issue the command specified though
2233\fBsystem\fR\|(3). Output is redirected in a file called `jobname.postrun.txt'.
d60e92d1 2234.TP
523bad63
TK
2235.BI uid \fR=\fPint
2236Instead of running as the invoking user, set the user ID to this value
2237before the thread/process does any work.
39c1c323 2238.TP
523bad63
TK
2239.BI gid \fR=\fPint
2240Set group ID, see \fBuid\fR.
2241.SS "Verification"
d60e92d1 2242.TP
589e88b7 2243.BI verify_only
523bad63 2244Do not perform specified workload, only verify data still matches previous
5e4c7118 2245invocation of this workload. This option allows one to check data multiple
523bad63
TK
2246times at a later date without overwriting it. This option makes sense only
2247for workloads that write data, and does not support workloads with the
5e4c7118
JA
2248\fBtime_based\fR option set.
2249.TP
d60e92d1 2250.BI do_verify \fR=\fPbool
523bad63
TK
2251Run the verify phase after a write phase. Only valid if \fBverify\fR is
2252set. Default: true.
d60e92d1
AC
2253.TP
2254.BI verify \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
2255If writing to a file, fio can verify the file contents after each iteration
2256of the job. Each verification method also implies verification of special
2257header, which is written to the beginning of each block. This header also
2258includes meta information, like offset of the block, block number, timestamp
2259when block was written, etc. \fBverify\fR can be combined with
2260\fBverify_pattern\fR option. The allowed values are:
d60e92d1
AC
2261.RS
2262.RS
2263.TP
523bad63
TK
2264.B md5
2265Use an md5 sum of the data area and store it in the header of
2266each block.
2267.TP
2268.B crc64
2269Use an experimental crc64 sum of the data area and store it in the
2270header of each block.
2271.TP
2272.B crc32c
2273Use a crc32c sum of the data area and store it in the header of
2274each block. This will automatically use hardware acceleration
2275(e.g. SSE4.2 on an x86 or CRC crypto extensions on ARM64) but will
2276fall back to software crc32c if none is found. Generally the
f1dd3fb1 2277fastest checksum fio supports when hardware accelerated.
523bad63
TK
2278.TP
2279.B crc32c\-intel
2280Synonym for crc32c.
2281.TP
2282.B crc32
2283Use a crc32 sum of the data area and store it in the header of each
2284block.
2285.TP
2286.B crc16
2287Use a crc16 sum of the data area and store it in the header of each
2288block.
2289.TP
2290.B crc7
2291Use a crc7 sum of the data area and store it in the header of each
2292block.
2293.TP
2294.B xxhash
2295Use xxhash as the checksum function. Generally the fastest software
2296checksum that fio supports.
2297.TP
2298.B sha512
2299Use sha512 as the checksum function.
2300.TP
2301.B sha256
2302Use sha256 as the checksum function.
2303.TP
2304.B sha1
2305Use optimized sha1 as the checksum function.
2306.TP
2307.B sha3\-224
2308Use optimized sha3\-224 as the checksum function.
2309.TP
2310.B sha3\-256
2311Use optimized sha3\-256 as the checksum function.
2312.TP
2313.B sha3\-384
2314Use optimized sha3\-384 as the checksum function.
2315.TP
2316.B sha3\-512
2317Use optimized sha3\-512 as the checksum function.
d60e92d1
AC
2318.TP
2319.B meta
523bad63
TK
2320This option is deprecated, since now meta information is included in
2321generic verification header and meta verification happens by
2322default. For detailed information see the description of the
2323\fBverify\fR setting. This option is kept because of
2324compatibility's sake with old configurations. Do not use it.
d60e92d1 2325.TP
59245381 2326.B pattern
523bad63
TK
2327Verify a strict pattern. Normally fio includes a header with some
2328basic information and checksumming, but if this option is set, only
2329the specific pattern set with \fBverify_pattern\fR is verified.
59245381 2330.TP
d60e92d1 2331.B null
523bad63
TK
2332Only pretend to verify. Useful for testing internals with
2333`ioengine=null', not for much else.
d60e92d1 2334.RE
523bad63
TK
2335.P
2336This option can be used for repeated burn\-in tests of a system to make sure
2337that the written data is also correctly read back. If the data direction
2338given is a read or random read, fio will assume that it should verify a
2339previously written file. If the data direction includes any form of write,
2340the verify will be of the newly written data.
d60e92d1
AC
2341.RE
2342.TP
f7fa2653 2343.BI verify_offset \fR=\fPint
d60e92d1 2344Swap the verification header with data somewhere else in the block before
523bad63 2345writing. It is swapped back before verifying.
d60e92d1 2346.TP
f7fa2653 2347.BI verify_interval \fR=\fPint
523bad63
TK
2348Write the verification header at a finer granularity than the
2349\fBblocksize\fR. It will be written for chunks the size of
2350\fBverify_interval\fR. \fBblocksize\fR should divide this evenly.
d60e92d1 2351.TP
996093bb 2352.BI verify_pattern \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
2353If set, fio will fill the I/O buffers with this pattern. Fio defaults to
2354filling with totally random bytes, but sometimes it's interesting to fill
2355with a known pattern for I/O verification purposes. Depending on the width
2356of the pattern, fio will fill 1/2/3/4 bytes of the buffer at the time (it can
2357be either a decimal or a hex number). The \fBverify_pattern\fR if larger than
2358a 32\-bit quantity has to be a hex number that starts with either "0x" or
2359"0X". Use with \fBverify\fR. Also, \fBverify_pattern\fR supports %o
2360format, which means that for each block offset will be written and then
2361verified back, e.g.:
2fa5a241
RP
2362.RS
2363.RS
523bad63
TK
2364.P
2365verify_pattern=%o
2fa5a241 2366.RE
523bad63 2367.P
2fa5a241 2368Or use combination of everything:
2fa5a241 2369.RS
523bad63
TK
2370.P
2371verify_pattern=0xff%o"abcd"\-12
2fa5a241
RP
2372.RE
2373.RE
996093bb 2374.TP
d60e92d1 2375.BI verify_fatal \fR=\fPbool
523bad63
TK
2376Normally fio will keep checking the entire contents before quitting on a
2377block verification failure. If this option is set, fio will exit the job on
2378the first observed failure. Default: false.
d60e92d1 2379.TP
b463e936 2380.BI verify_dump \fR=\fPbool
523bad63
TK
2381If set, dump the contents of both the original data block and the data block
2382we read off disk to files. This allows later analysis to inspect just what
2383kind of data corruption occurred. Off by default.
b463e936 2384.TP
e8462bd8 2385.BI verify_async \fR=\fPint
523bad63
TK
2386Fio will normally verify I/O inline from the submitting thread. This option
2387takes an integer describing how many async offload threads to create for I/O
2388verification instead, causing fio to offload the duty of verifying I/O
2389contents to one or more separate threads. If using this offload option, even
2390sync I/O engines can benefit from using an \fBiodepth\fR setting higher
2391than 1, as it allows them to have I/O in flight while verifies are running.
2392Defaults to 0 async threads, i.e. verification is not asynchronous.
e8462bd8
JA
2393.TP
2394.BI verify_async_cpus \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
2395Tell fio to set the given CPU affinity on the async I/O verification
2396threads. See \fBcpus_allowed\fR for the format used.
e8462bd8 2397.TP
6f87418f
JA
2398.BI verify_backlog \fR=\fPint
2399Fio will normally verify the written contents of a job that utilizes verify
2400once that job has completed. In other words, everything is written then
2401everything is read back and verified. You may want to verify continually
523bad63
TK
2402instead for a variety of reasons. Fio stores the meta data associated with
2403an I/O block in memory, so for large verify workloads, quite a bit of memory
2404would be used up holding this meta data. If this option is enabled, fio will
2405write only N blocks before verifying these blocks.
6f87418f
JA
2406.TP
2407.BI verify_backlog_batch \fR=\fPint
523bad63
TK
2408Control how many blocks fio will verify if \fBverify_backlog\fR is
2409set. If not set, will default to the value of \fBverify_backlog\fR
2410(meaning the entire queue is read back and verified). If
2411\fBverify_backlog_batch\fR is less than \fBverify_backlog\fR then not all
2412blocks will be verified, if \fBverify_backlog_batch\fR is larger than
2413\fBverify_backlog\fR, some blocks will be verified more than once.
2414.TP
2415.BI verify_state_save \fR=\fPbool
2416When a job exits during the write phase of a verify workload, save its
2417current state. This allows fio to replay up until that point, if the verify
2418state is loaded for the verify read phase. The format of the filename is,
2419roughly:
2420.RS
2421.RS
2422.P
2423<type>\-<jobname>\-<jobindex>\-verify.state.
2424.RE
2425.P
2426<type> is "local" for a local run, "sock" for a client/server socket
2427connection, and "ip" (192.168.0.1, for instance) for a networked
2428client/server connection. Defaults to true.
2429.RE
2430.TP
2431.BI verify_state_load \fR=\fPbool
2432If a verify termination trigger was used, fio stores the current write state
2433of each thread. This can be used at verification time so that fio knows how
2434far it should verify. Without this information, fio will run a full
2435verification pass, according to the settings in the job file used. Default
2436false.
6f87418f 2437.TP
fa769d44
SW
2438.BI trim_percentage \fR=\fPint
2439Number of verify blocks to discard/trim.
2440.TP
2441.BI trim_verify_zero \fR=\fPbool
523bad63 2442Verify that trim/discarded blocks are returned as zeros.
fa769d44
SW
2443.TP
2444.BI trim_backlog \fR=\fPint
523bad63 2445Verify that trim/discarded blocks are returned as zeros.
fa769d44
SW
2446.TP
2447.BI trim_backlog_batch \fR=\fPint
523bad63 2448Trim this number of I/O blocks.
fa769d44
SW
2449.TP
2450.BI experimental_verify \fR=\fPbool
2451Enable experimental verification.
523bad63 2452.SS "Steady state"
fa769d44 2453.TP
523bad63
TK
2454.BI steadystate \fR=\fPstr:float "\fR,\fP ss" \fR=\fPstr:float
2455Define the criterion and limit for assessing steady state performance. The
2456first parameter designates the criterion whereas the second parameter sets
2457the threshold. When the criterion falls below the threshold for the
2458specified duration, the job will stop. For example, `iops_slope:0.1%' will
2459direct fio to terminate the job when the least squares regression slope
2460falls below 0.1% of the mean IOPS. If \fBgroup_reporting\fR is enabled
2461this will apply to all jobs in the group. Below is the list of available
2462steady state assessment criteria. All assessments are carried out using only
2463data from the rolling collection window. Threshold limits can be expressed
2464as a fixed value or as a percentage of the mean in the collection window.
2465.RS
2466.RS
d60e92d1 2467.TP
523bad63
TK
2468.B iops
2469Collect IOPS data. Stop the job if all individual IOPS measurements
2470are within the specified limit of the mean IOPS (e.g., `iops:2'
2471means that all individual IOPS values must be within 2 of the mean,
2472whereas `iops:0.2%' means that all individual IOPS values must be
2473within 0.2% of the mean IOPS to terminate the job).
d60e92d1 2474.TP
523bad63
TK
2475.B iops_slope
2476Collect IOPS data and calculate the least squares regression
2477slope. Stop the job if the slope falls below the specified limit.
d60e92d1 2478.TP
523bad63
TK
2479.B bw
2480Collect bandwidth data. Stop the job if all individual bandwidth
2481measurements are within the specified limit of the mean bandwidth.
64bbb865 2482.TP
523bad63
TK
2483.B bw_slope
2484Collect bandwidth data and calculate the least squares regression
2485slope. Stop the job if the slope falls below the specified limit.
2486.RE
2487.RE
d1c46c04 2488.TP
523bad63
TK
2489.BI steadystate_duration \fR=\fPtime "\fR,\fP ss_dur" \fR=\fPtime
2490A rolling window of this duration will be used to judge whether steady state
2491has been reached. Data will be collected once per second. The default is 0
2492which disables steady state detection. When the unit is omitted, the
2493value is interpreted in seconds.
0c63576e 2494.TP
523bad63
TK
2495.BI steadystate_ramp_time \fR=\fPtime "\fR,\fP ss_ramp" \fR=\fPtime
2496Allow the job to run for the specified duration before beginning data
2497collection for checking the steady state job termination criterion. The
2498default is 0. When the unit is omitted, the value is interpreted in seconds.
2499.SS "Measurements and reporting"
0c63576e 2500.TP
3a5db920
JA
2501.BI per_job_logs \fR=\fPbool
2502If set, this generates bw/clat/iops log with per file private filenames. If
523bad63
TK
2503not set, jobs with identical names will share the log filename. Default:
2504true.
2505.TP
2506.BI group_reporting
2507It may sometimes be interesting to display statistics for groups of jobs as
2508a whole instead of for each individual job. This is especially true if
2509\fBnumjobs\fR is used; looking at individual thread/process output
2510quickly becomes unwieldy. To see the final report per\-group instead of
2511per\-job, use \fBgroup_reporting\fR. Jobs in a file will be part of the
2512same reporting group, unless if separated by a \fBstonewall\fR, or by
2513using \fBnew_group\fR.
2514.TP
2515.BI new_group
2516Start a new reporting group. See: \fBgroup_reporting\fR. If not given,
2517all jobs in a file will be part of the same reporting group, unless
2518separated by a \fBstonewall\fR.
2519.TP
2520.BI stats \fR=\fPbool
2521By default, fio collects and shows final output results for all jobs
2522that run. If this option is set to 0, then fio will ignore it in
2523the final stat output.
3a5db920 2524.TP
836bad52 2525.BI write_bw_log \fR=\fPstr
523bad63 2526If given, write a bandwidth log for this job. Can be used to store data of
074f0817 2527the bandwidth of the jobs in their lifetime.
523bad63 2528.RS
074f0817
SW
2529.P
2530If no str argument is given, the default filename of
2531`jobname_type.x.log' is used. Even when the argument is given, fio
2532will still append the type of log. So if one specifies:
523bad63
TK
2533.RS
2534.P
074f0817 2535write_bw_log=foo
523bad63
TK
2536.RE
2537.P
074f0817
SW
2538The actual log name will be `foo_bw.x.log' where `x' is the index
2539of the job (1..N, where N is the number of jobs). If
2540\fBper_job_logs\fR is false, then the filename will not include the
2541`.x` job index.
2542.P
2543The included \fBfio_generate_plots\fR script uses gnuplot to turn these
2544text files into nice graphs. See the \fBLOG FILE FORMATS\fR section for how data is
2545structured within the file.
523bad63 2546.RE
901bb994 2547.TP
074f0817
SW
2548.BI write_lat_log \fR=\fPstr
2549Same as \fBwrite_bw_log\fR, except this option creates I/O
2550submission (e.g., `name_slat.x.log'), completion (e.g.,
2551`name_clat.x.log'), and total (e.g., `name_lat.x.log') latency
2552files instead. See \fBwrite_bw_log\fR for details about the
2553filename format and the \fBLOG FILE FORMATS\fR section for how data is structured
2554within the files.
2555.TP
1e613c9c 2556.BI write_hist_log \fR=\fPstr
074f0817
SW
2557Same as \fBwrite_bw_log\fR but writes an I/O completion latency
2558histogram file (e.g., `name_hist.x.log') instead. Note that this
2559file will be empty unless \fBlog_hist_msec\fR has also been set.
2560See \fBwrite_bw_log\fR for details about the filename format and
2561the \fBLOG FILE FORMATS\fR section for how data is structured
2562within the file.
1e613c9c 2563.TP
c8eeb9df 2564.BI write_iops_log \fR=\fPstr
074f0817
SW
2565Same as \fBwrite_bw_log\fR, but writes an IOPS file (e.g.
2566`name_iops.x.log') instead. See \fBwrite_bw_log\fR for
2567details about the filename format and the \fBLOG FILE FORMATS\fR section for how data
2568is structured within the file.
c8eeb9df 2569.TP
b8bc8cba
JA
2570.BI log_avg_msec \fR=\fPint
2571By default, fio will log an entry in the iops, latency, or bw log for every
523bad63 2572I/O that completes. When writing to the disk log, that can quickly grow to a
b8bc8cba 2573very large size. Setting this option makes fio average the each log entry
e6989e10 2574over the specified period of time, reducing the resolution of the log. See
523bad63
TK
2575\fBlog_max_value\fR as well. Defaults to 0, logging all entries.
2576Also see \fBLOG FILE FORMATS\fR section.
b8bc8cba 2577.TP
1e613c9c 2578.BI log_hist_msec \fR=\fPint
523bad63
TK
2579Same as \fBlog_avg_msec\fR, but logs entries for completion latency
2580histograms. Computing latency percentiles from averages of intervals using
2581\fBlog_avg_msec\fR is inaccurate. Setting this option makes fio log
2582histogram entries over the specified period of time, reducing log sizes for
2583high IOPS devices while retaining percentile accuracy. See
074f0817
SW
2584\fBlog_hist_coarseness\fR and \fBwrite_hist_log\fR as well.
2585Defaults to 0, meaning histogram logging is disabled.
1e613c9c
KC
2586.TP
2587.BI log_hist_coarseness \fR=\fPint
523bad63
TK
2588Integer ranging from 0 to 6, defining the coarseness of the resolution of
2589the histogram logs enabled with \fBlog_hist_msec\fR. For each increment
2590in coarseness, fio outputs half as many bins. Defaults to 0, for which
2591histogram logs contain 1216 latency bins. See \fBLOG FILE FORMATS\fR section.
2592.TP
2593.BI log_max_value \fR=\fPbool
2594If \fBlog_avg_msec\fR is set, fio logs the average over that window. If
2595you instead want to log the maximum value, set this option to 1. Defaults to
25960, meaning that averaged values are logged.
1e613c9c 2597.TP
ae588852 2598.BI log_offset \fR=\fPbool
523bad63
TK
2599If this is set, the iolog options will include the byte offset for the I/O
2600entry as well as the other data values. Defaults to 0 meaning that
2601offsets are not present in logs. Also see \fBLOG FILE FORMATS\fR section.
ae588852 2602.TP
aee2ab67 2603.BI log_compression \fR=\fPint
523bad63
TK
2604If this is set, fio will compress the I/O logs as it goes, to keep the
2605memory footprint lower. When a log reaches the specified size, that chunk is
2606removed and compressed in the background. Given that I/O logs are fairly
2607highly compressible, this yields a nice memory savings for longer runs. The
2608downside is that the compression will consume some background CPU cycles, so
2609it may impact the run. This, however, is also true if the logging ends up
2610consuming most of the system memory. So pick your poison. The I/O logs are
2611saved normally at the end of a run, by decompressing the chunks and storing
2612them in the specified log file. This feature depends on the availability of
2613zlib.
aee2ab67 2614.TP
c08f9fe2 2615.BI log_compression_cpus \fR=\fPstr
523bad63
TK
2616Define the set of CPUs that are allowed to handle online log compression for
2617the I/O jobs. This can provide better isolation between performance
0cf90a62
SW
2618sensitive jobs, and background compression work. See \fBcpus_allowed\fR for
2619the format used.
c08f9fe2 2620.TP
b26317c9 2621.BI log_store_compressed \fR=\fPbool
c08f9fe2 2622If set, fio will store the log files in a compressed format. They can be
523bad63
TK
2623decompressed with fio, using the \fB\-\-inflate\-log\fR command line
2624parameter. The files will be stored with a `.fz' suffix.
b26317c9 2625.TP
3aea75b1
KC
2626.BI log_unix_epoch \fR=\fPbool
2627If set, fio will log Unix timestamps to the log files produced by enabling
523bad63 2628write_type_log for each log type, instead of the default zero\-based
3aea75b1
KC
2629timestamps.
2630.TP
66347cfa 2631.BI block_error_percentiles \fR=\fPbool
523bad63
TK
2632If set, record errors in trim block\-sized units from writes and trims and
2633output a histogram of how many trims it took to get to errors, and what kind
2634of error was encountered.
d60e92d1 2635.TP
523bad63
TK
2636.BI bwavgtime \fR=\fPint
2637Average the calculated bandwidth over the given time. Value is specified in
2638milliseconds. If the job also does bandwidth logging through
2639\fBwrite_bw_log\fR, then the minimum of this option and
2640\fBlog_avg_msec\fR will be used. Default: 500ms.
d60e92d1 2641.TP
523bad63
TK
2642.BI iopsavgtime \fR=\fPint
2643Average the calculated IOPS over the given time. Value is specified in
2644milliseconds. If the job also does IOPS logging through
2645\fBwrite_iops_log\fR, then the minimum of this option and
2646\fBlog_avg_msec\fR will be used. Default: 500ms.
d60e92d1 2647.TP
d60e92d1 2648.BI disk_util \fR=\fPbool
523bad63
TK
2649Generate disk utilization statistics, if the platform supports it.
2650Default: true.
fa769d44 2651.TP
523bad63
TK
2652.BI disable_lat \fR=\fPbool
2653Disable measurements of total latency numbers. Useful only for cutting back
2654the number of calls to \fBgettimeofday\fR\|(2), as that does impact
2655performance at really high IOPS rates. Note that to really get rid of a
2656large amount of these calls, this option must be used with
2657\fBdisable_slat\fR and \fBdisable_bw_measurement\fR as well.
9e684a49 2658.TP
523bad63
TK
2659.BI disable_clat \fR=\fPbool
2660Disable measurements of completion latency numbers. See
2661\fBdisable_lat\fR.
9e684a49 2662.TP
523bad63
TK
2663.BI disable_slat \fR=\fPbool
2664Disable measurements of submission latency numbers. See
2665\fBdisable_lat\fR.
9e684a49 2666.TP
523bad63
TK
2667.BI disable_bw_measurement \fR=\fPbool "\fR,\fP disable_bw" \fR=\fPbool
2668Disable measurements of throughput/bandwidth numbers. See
2669\fBdisable_lat\fR.
9e684a49 2670.TP
83349190 2671.BI clat_percentiles \fR=\fPbool
b599759b
JA
2672Enable the reporting of percentiles of completion latencies. This option is
2673mutually exclusive with \fBlat_percentiles\fR.
2674.TP
2675.BI lat_percentiles \fR=\fPbool
b71968b1 2676Enable the reporting of percentiles of I/O latencies. This is similar to
b599759b
JA
2677\fBclat_percentiles\fR, except that this includes the submission latency.
2678This option is mutually exclusive with \fBclat_percentiles\fR.
83349190
YH
2679.TP
2680.BI percentile_list \fR=\fPfloat_list
66347cfa 2681Overwrite the default list of percentiles for completion latencies and the
523bad63
TK
2682block error histogram. Each number is a floating number in the range
2683(0,100], and the maximum length of the list is 20. Use ':' to separate the
2684numbers, and list the numbers in ascending order. For example,
2685`\-\-percentile_list=99.5:99.9' will cause fio to report the values of
2686completion latency below which 99.5% and 99.9% of the observed latencies
2687fell, respectively.
e883cb35
JF
2688.TP
2689.BI significant_figures \fR=\fPint
c32ba107
JA
2690If using \fB\-\-output\-format\fR of `normal', set the significant figures
2691to this value. Higher values will yield more precise IOPS and throughput
2692units, while lower values will round. Requires a minimum value of 1 and a
e883cb35 2693maximum value of 10. Defaults to 4.
523bad63 2694.SS "Error handling"
e4585935 2695.TP
523bad63
TK
2696.BI exitall_on_error
2697When one job finishes in error, terminate the rest. The default is to wait
2698for each job to finish.
e4585935 2699.TP
523bad63
TK
2700.BI continue_on_error \fR=\fPstr
2701Normally fio will exit the job on the first observed failure. If this option
2702is set, fio will continue the job when there is a 'non\-fatal error' (EIO or
2703EILSEQ) until the runtime is exceeded or the I/O size specified is
2704completed. If this option is used, there are two more stats that are
2705appended, the total error count and the first error. The error field given
2706in the stats is the first error that was hit during the run.
2707The allowed values are:
2708.RS
2709.RS
046395d7 2710.TP
523bad63
TK
2711.B none
2712Exit on any I/O or verify errors.
de890a1e 2713.TP
523bad63
TK
2714.B read
2715Continue on read errors, exit on all others.
2cafffbe 2716.TP
523bad63
TK
2717.B write
2718Continue on write errors, exit on all others.
a0679ce5 2719.TP
523bad63
TK
2720.B io
2721Continue on any I/O error, exit on all others.
de890a1e 2722.TP
523bad63
TK
2723.B verify
2724Continue on verify errors, exit on all others.
de890a1e 2725.TP
523bad63
TK
2726.B all
2727Continue on all errors.
b93b6a2e 2728.TP
523bad63
TK
2729.B 0
2730Backward\-compatible alias for 'none'.
d3a623de 2731.TP
523bad63
TK
2732.B 1
2733Backward\-compatible alias for 'all'.
2734.RE
2735.RE
1d360ffb 2736.TP
523bad63
TK
2737.BI ignore_error \fR=\fPstr
2738Sometimes you want to ignore some errors during test in that case you can
2739specify error list for each error type, instead of only being able to
2740ignore the default 'non\-fatal error' using \fBcontinue_on_error\fR.
2741`ignore_error=READ_ERR_LIST,WRITE_ERR_LIST,VERIFY_ERR_LIST' errors for
2742given error type is separated with ':'. Error may be symbol ('ENOSPC', 'ENOMEM')
2743or integer. Example:
de890a1e
SL
2744.RS
2745.RS
523bad63
TK
2746.P
2747ignore_error=EAGAIN,ENOSPC:122
2748.RE
2749.P
2750This option will ignore EAGAIN from READ, and ENOSPC and 122(EDQUOT) from
2751WRITE. This option works by overriding \fBcontinue_on_error\fR with
2752the list of errors for each error type if any.
2753.RE
de890a1e 2754.TP
523bad63
TK
2755.BI error_dump \fR=\fPbool
2756If set dump every error even if it is non fatal, true by default. If
2757disabled only fatal error will be dumped.
2758.SS "Running predefined workloads"
2759Fio includes predefined profiles that mimic the I/O workloads generated by
2760other tools.
49ccb8c1 2761.TP
523bad63
TK
2762.BI profile \fR=\fPstr
2763The predefined workload to run. Current profiles are:
2764.RS
2765.RS
de890a1e 2766.TP
523bad63
TK
2767.B tiobench
2768Threaded I/O bench (tiotest/tiobench) like workload.
49ccb8c1 2769.TP
523bad63
TK
2770.B act
2771Aerospike Certification Tool (ACT) like workload.
2772.RE
de890a1e
SL
2773.RE
2774.P
523bad63
TK
2775To view a profile's additional options use \fB\-\-cmdhelp\fR after specifying
2776the profile. For example:
2777.RS
2778.TP
2779$ fio \-\-profile=act \-\-cmdhelp
de890a1e 2780.RE
523bad63 2781.SS "Act profile options"
de890a1e 2782.TP
523bad63
TK
2783.BI device\-names \fR=\fPstr
2784Devices to use.
d54fce84 2785.TP
523bad63
TK
2786.BI load \fR=\fPint
2787ACT load multiplier. Default: 1.
7aeb1e94 2788.TP
523bad63
TK
2789.BI test\-duration\fR=\fPtime
2790How long the entire test takes to run. When the unit is omitted, the value
2791is given in seconds. Default: 24h.
1008602c 2792.TP
523bad63
TK
2793.BI threads\-per\-queue\fR=\fPint
2794Number of read I/O threads per device. Default: 8.
e5f34d95 2795.TP
523bad63
TK
2796.BI read\-req\-num\-512\-blocks\fR=\fPint
2797Number of 512B blocks to read at the time. Default: 3.
d54fce84 2798.TP
523bad63
TK
2799.BI large\-block\-op\-kbytes\fR=\fPint
2800Size of large block ops in KiB (writes). Default: 131072.
d54fce84 2801.TP
523bad63
TK
2802.BI prep
2803Set to run ACT prep phase.
2804.SS "Tiobench profile options"
6d500c2e 2805.TP
523bad63
TK
2806.BI size\fR=\fPstr
2807Size in MiB.
0d978694 2808.TP
523bad63
TK
2809.BI block\fR=\fPint
2810Block size in bytes. Default: 4096.
0d978694 2811.TP
523bad63
TK
2812.BI numruns\fR=\fPint
2813Number of runs.
0d978694 2814.TP
523bad63
TK
2815.BI dir\fR=\fPstr
2816Test directory.
65fa28ca 2817.TP
523bad63
TK
2818.BI threads\fR=\fPint
2819Number of threads.
d60e92d1 2820.SH OUTPUT
40943b9a
TK
2821Fio spits out a lot of output. While running, fio will display the status of the
2822jobs created. An example of that would be:
d60e92d1 2823.P
40943b9a
TK
2824.nf
2825 Jobs: 1 (f=1): [_(1),M(1)][24.8%][r=20.5MiB/s,w=23.5MiB/s][r=82,w=94 IOPS][eta 01m:31s]
2826.fi
d1429b5c 2827.P
40943b9a
TK
2828The characters inside the first set of square brackets denote the current status of
2829each thread. The first character is the first job defined in the job file, and so
2830forth. The possible values (in typical life cycle order) are:
d60e92d1
AC
2831.RS
2832.TP
40943b9a 2833.PD 0
d60e92d1 2834.B P
40943b9a 2835Thread setup, but not started.
d60e92d1
AC
2836.TP
2837.B C
2838Thread created.
2839.TP
2840.B I
40943b9a
TK
2841Thread initialized, waiting or generating necessary data.
2842.TP
522c29f6 2843.B p
40943b9a
TK
2844Thread running pre\-reading file(s).
2845.TP
2846.B /
2847Thread is in ramp period.
d60e92d1
AC
2848.TP
2849.B R
2850Running, doing sequential reads.
2851.TP
2852.B r
2853Running, doing random reads.
2854.TP
2855.B W
2856Running, doing sequential writes.
2857.TP
2858.B w
2859Running, doing random writes.
2860.TP
2861.B M
2862Running, doing mixed sequential reads/writes.
2863.TP
2864.B m
2865Running, doing mixed random reads/writes.
2866.TP
40943b9a
TK
2867.B D
2868Running, doing sequential trims.
2869.TP
2870.B d
2871Running, doing random trims.
2872.TP
d60e92d1
AC
2873.B F
2874Running, currently waiting for \fBfsync\fR\|(2).
2875.TP
2876.B V
40943b9a
TK
2877Running, doing verification of written data.
2878.TP
2879.B f
2880Thread finishing.
d60e92d1
AC
2881.TP
2882.B E
40943b9a 2883Thread exited, not reaped by main thread yet.
d60e92d1
AC
2884.TP
2885.B \-
40943b9a
TK
2886Thread reaped.
2887.TP
2888.B X
2889Thread reaped, exited with an error.
2890.TP
2891.B K
2892Thread reaped, exited due to signal.
d1429b5c 2893.PD
40943b9a
TK
2894.RE
2895.P
2896Fio will condense the thread string as not to take up more space on the command
2897line than needed. For instance, if you have 10 readers and 10 writers running,
2898the output would look like this:
2899.P
2900.nf
2901 Jobs: 20 (f=20): [R(10),W(10)][4.0%][r=20.5MiB/s,w=23.5MiB/s][r=82,w=94 IOPS][eta 57m:36s]
2902.fi
d60e92d1 2903.P
40943b9a
TK
2904Note that the status string is displayed in order, so it's possible to tell which of
2905the jobs are currently doing what. In the example above this means that jobs 1\-\-10
2906are readers and 11\-\-20 are writers.
d60e92d1 2907.P
40943b9a
TK
2908The other values are fairly self explanatory \-\- number of threads currently
2909running and doing I/O, the number of currently open files (f=), the estimated
2910completion percentage, the rate of I/O since last check (read speed listed first,
2911then write speed and optionally trim speed) in terms of bandwidth and IOPS,
2912and time to completion for the current running group. It's impossible to estimate
2913runtime of the following groups (if any).
d60e92d1 2914.P
40943b9a
TK
2915When fio is done (or interrupted by Ctrl\-C), it will show the data for
2916each thread, group of threads, and disks in that order. For each overall thread (or
2917group) the output looks like:
2918.P
2919.nf
2920 Client1: (groupid=0, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=16109: Sat Jun 24 12:07:54 2017
2921 write: IOPS=88, BW=623KiB/s (638kB/s)(30.4MiB/50032msec)
2922 slat (nsec): min=500, max=145500, avg=8318.00, stdev=4781.50
2923 clat (usec): min=170, max=78367, avg=4019.02, stdev=8293.31
2924 lat (usec): min=174, max=78375, avg=4027.34, stdev=8291.79
2925 clat percentiles (usec):
2926 | 1.00th=[ 302], 5.00th=[ 326], 10.00th=[ 343], 20.00th=[ 363],
2927 | 30.00th=[ 392], 40.00th=[ 404], 50.00th=[ 416], 60.00th=[ 445],
2928 | 70.00th=[ 816], 80.00th=[ 6718], 90.00th=[12911], 95.00th=[21627],
2929 | 99.00th=[43779], 99.50th=[51643], 99.90th=[68682], 99.95th=[72877],
2930 | 99.99th=[78119]
2931 bw ( KiB/s): min= 532, max= 686, per=0.10%, avg=622.87, stdev=24.82, samples= 100
2932 iops : min= 76, max= 98, avg=88.98, stdev= 3.54, samples= 100
d3b9694d
VF
2933 lat (usec) : 250=0.04%, 500=64.11%, 750=4.81%, 1000=2.79%
2934 lat (msec) : 2=4.16%, 4=1.84%, 10=4.90%, 20=11.33%, 50=5.37%
2935 lat (msec) : 100=0.65%
40943b9a
TK
2936 cpu : usr=0.27%, sys=0.18%, ctx=12072, majf=0, minf=21
2937 IO depths : 1=85.0%, 2=13.1%, 4=1.8%, 8=0.1%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
2938 submit : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
2939 complete : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
2940 issued rwt: total=0,4450,0, short=0,0,0, dropped=0,0,0
2941 latency : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=8
2942.fi
2943.P
2944The job name (or first job's name when using \fBgroup_reporting\fR) is printed,
2945along with the group id, count of jobs being aggregated, last error id seen (which
2946is 0 when there are no errors), pid/tid of that thread and the time the job/group
2947completed. Below are the I/O statistics for each data direction performed (showing
2948writes in the example above). In the order listed, they denote:
d60e92d1 2949.RS
d60e92d1 2950.TP
40943b9a
TK
2951.B read/write/trim
2952The string before the colon shows the I/O direction the statistics
2953are for. \fIIOPS\fR is the average I/Os performed per second. \fIBW\fR
2954is the average bandwidth rate shown as: value in power of 2 format
2955(value in power of 10 format). The last two values show: (total
2956I/O performed in power of 2 format / \fIruntime\fR of that thread).
d60e92d1
AC
2957.TP
2958.B slat
40943b9a
TK
2959Submission latency (\fImin\fR being the minimum, \fImax\fR being the
2960maximum, \fIavg\fR being the average, \fIstdev\fR being the standard
2961deviation). This is the time it took to submit the I/O. For
2962sync I/O this row is not displayed as the slat is really the
2963completion latency (since queue/complete is one operation there).
2964This value can be in nanoseconds, microseconds or milliseconds \-\-\-
2965fio will choose the most appropriate base and print that (in the
2966example above nanoseconds was the best scale). Note: in \fB\-\-minimal\fR mode
2967latencies are always expressed in microseconds.
d60e92d1
AC
2968.TP
2969.B clat
40943b9a
TK
2970Completion latency. Same names as slat, this denotes the time from
2971submission to completion of the I/O pieces. For sync I/O, clat will
2972usually be equal (or very close) to 0, as the time from submit to
2973complete is basically just CPU time (I/O has already been done, see slat
2974explanation).
d60e92d1 2975.TP
d3b9694d
VF
2976.B lat
2977Total latency. Same names as slat and clat, this denotes the time from
2978when fio created the I/O unit to completion of the I/O operation.
2979.TP
d60e92d1 2980.B bw
40943b9a
TK
2981Bandwidth statistics based on samples. Same names as the xlat stats,
2982but also includes the number of samples taken (\fIsamples\fR) and an
2983approximate percentage of total aggregate bandwidth this thread
2984received in its group (\fIper\fR). This last value is only really
2985useful if the threads in this group are on the same disk, since they
2986are then competing for disk access.
2987.TP
2988.B iops
2989IOPS statistics based on samples. Same names as \fBbw\fR.
d60e92d1 2990.TP
d3b9694d
VF
2991.B lat (nsec/usec/msec)
2992The distribution of I/O completion latencies. This is the time from when
2993I/O leaves fio and when it gets completed. Unlike the separate
2994read/write/trim sections above, the data here and in the remaining
2995sections apply to all I/Os for the reporting group. 250=0.04% means that
29960.04% of the I/Os completed in under 250us. 500=64.11% means that 64.11%
2997of the I/Os required 250 to 499us for completion.
2998.TP
d60e92d1 2999.B cpu
40943b9a
TK
3000CPU usage. User and system time, along with the number of context
3001switches this thread went through, usage of system and user time, and
3002finally the number of major and minor page faults. The CPU utilization
3003numbers are averages for the jobs in that reporting group, while the
3004context and fault counters are summed.
d60e92d1
AC
3005.TP
3006.B IO depths
40943b9a
TK
3007The distribution of I/O depths over the job lifetime. The numbers are
3008divided into powers of 2 and each entry covers depths from that value
3009up to those that are lower than the next entry \-\- e.g., 16= covers
3010depths from 16 to 31. Note that the range covered by a depth
3011distribution entry can be different to the range covered by the
3012equivalent \fBsubmit\fR/\fBcomplete\fR distribution entry.
3013.TP
3014.B IO submit
3015How many pieces of I/O were submitting in a single submit call. Each
3016entry denotes that amount and below, until the previous entry \-\- e.g.,
301716=100% means that we submitted anywhere between 9 to 16 I/Os per submit
3018call. Note that the range covered by a \fBsubmit\fR distribution entry can
3019be different to the range covered by the equivalent depth distribution
3020entry.
3021.TP
3022.B IO complete
3023Like the above \fBsubmit\fR number, but for completions instead.
3024.TP
3025.B IO issued rwt
3026The number of \fBread/write/trim\fR requests issued, and how many of them were
3027short or dropped.
d60e92d1 3028.TP
d3b9694d 3029.B IO latency
ee21ebee 3030These values are for \fBlatency_target\fR and related options. When
d3b9694d
VF
3031these options are engaged, this section describes the I/O depth required
3032to meet the specified latency target.
d60e92d1 3033.RE
d60e92d1 3034.P
40943b9a
TK
3035After each client has been listed, the group statistics are printed. They
3036will look like this:
3037.P
3038.nf
3039 Run status group 0 (all jobs):
3040 READ: bw=20.9MiB/s (21.9MB/s), 10.4MiB/s\-10.8MiB/s (10.9MB/s\-11.3MB/s), io=64.0MiB (67.1MB), run=2973\-3069msec
3041 WRITE: bw=1231KiB/s (1261kB/s), 616KiB/s\-621KiB/s (630kB/s\-636kB/s), io=64.0MiB (67.1MB), run=52747\-53223msec
3042.fi
3043.P
3044For each data direction it prints:
d60e92d1
AC
3045.RS
3046.TP
40943b9a
TK
3047.B bw
3048Aggregate bandwidth of threads in this group followed by the
3049minimum and maximum bandwidth of all the threads in this group.
3050Values outside of brackets are power\-of\-2 format and those
3051within are the equivalent value in a power\-of\-10 format.
d60e92d1 3052.TP
40943b9a
TK
3053.B io
3054Aggregate I/O performed of all threads in this group. The
3055format is the same as \fBbw\fR.
d60e92d1 3056.TP
40943b9a
TK
3057.B run
3058The smallest and longest runtimes of the threads in this group.
d60e92d1 3059.RE
d60e92d1 3060.P
40943b9a
TK
3061And finally, the disk statistics are printed. This is Linux specific.
3062They will look like this:
3063.P
3064.nf
3065 Disk stats (read/write):
3066 sda: ios=16398/16511, merge=30/162, ticks=6853/819634, in_queue=826487, util=100.00%
3067.fi
3068.P
3069Each value is printed for both reads and writes, with reads first. The
3070numbers denote:
d60e92d1
AC
3071.RS
3072.TP
3073.B ios
3074Number of I/Os performed by all groups.
3075.TP
3076.B merge
007c7be9 3077Number of merges performed by the I/O scheduler.
d60e92d1
AC
3078.TP
3079.B ticks
3080Number of ticks we kept the disk busy.
3081.TP
40943b9a 3082.B in_queue
d60e92d1
AC
3083Total time spent in the disk queue.
3084.TP
3085.B util
40943b9a
TK
3086The disk utilization. A value of 100% means we kept the disk
3087busy constantly, 50% would be a disk idling half of the time.
d60e92d1 3088.RE
8423bd11 3089.P
40943b9a
TK
3090It is also possible to get fio to dump the current output while it is running,
3091without terminating the job. To do that, send fio the USR1 signal. You can
3092also get regularly timed dumps by using the \fB\-\-status\-interval\fR
3093parameter, or by creating a file in `/tmp' named
3094`fio\-dump\-status'. If fio sees this file, it will unlink it and dump the
3095current output status.
d60e92d1 3096.SH TERSE OUTPUT
40943b9a
TK
3097For scripted usage where you typically want to generate tables or graphs of the
3098results, fio can output the results in a semicolon separated format. The format
3099is one long line of values, such as:
d60e92d1 3100.P
40943b9a
TK
3101.nf
3102 2;card0;0;0;7139336;121836;60004;1;10109;27.932460;116.933948;220;126861;3495.446807;1085.368601;226;126864;3523.635629;1089.012448;24063;99944;50.275485%;59818.274627;5540.657370;7155060;122104;60004;1;8338;29.086342;117.839068;388;128077;5032.488518;1234.785715;391;128085;5061.839412;1236.909129;23436;100928;50.287926%;59964.832030;5644.844189;14.595833%;19.394167%;123706;0;7313;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;100.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.02%;0.05%;0.16%;6.04%;40.40%;52.68%;0.64%;0.01%;0.00%;0.01%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%
3103 A description of this job goes here.
3104.fi
d60e92d1 3105.P
40943b9a 3106The job description (if provided) follows on a second line.
d60e92d1 3107.P
40943b9a
TK
3108To enable terse output, use the \fB\-\-minimal\fR or
3109`\-\-output\-format=terse' command line options. The
3110first value is the version of the terse output format. If the output has to be
3111changed for some reason, this number will be incremented by 1 to signify that
3112change.
d60e92d1 3113.P
40943b9a
TK
3114Split up, the format is as follows (comments in brackets denote when a
3115field was introduced or whether it's specific to some terse version):
d60e92d1 3116.P
40943b9a
TK
3117.nf
3118 terse version, fio version [v3], jobname, groupid, error
3119.fi
525c2bfa 3120.RS
40943b9a
TK
3121.P
3122.B
3123READ status:
525c2bfa 3124.RE
40943b9a
TK
3125.P
3126.nf
3127 Total IO (KiB), bandwidth (KiB/sec), IOPS, runtime (msec)
3128 Submission latency: min, max, mean, stdev (usec)
3129 Completion latency: min, max, mean, stdev (usec)
3130 Completion latency percentiles: 20 fields (see below)
3131 Total latency: min, max, mean, stdev (usec)
3132 Bw (KiB/s): min, max, aggregate percentage of total, mean, stdev, number of samples [v5]
3133 IOPS [v5]: min, max, mean, stdev, number of samples
3134.fi
d60e92d1 3135.RS
40943b9a
TK
3136.P
3137.B
3138WRITE status:
a2c95580 3139.RE
40943b9a
TK
3140.P
3141.nf
3142 Total IO (KiB), bandwidth (KiB/sec), IOPS, runtime (msec)
3143 Submission latency: min, max, mean, stdev (usec)
3144 Completion latency: min, max, mean, stdev (usec)
3145 Completion latency percentiles: 20 fields (see below)
3146 Total latency: min, max, mean, stdev (usec)
3147 Bw (KiB/s): min, max, aggregate percentage of total, mean, stdev, number of samples [v5]
3148 IOPS [v5]: min, max, mean, stdev, number of samples
3149.fi
a2c95580 3150.RS
40943b9a
TK
3151.P
3152.B
3153TRIM status [all but version 3]:
d60e92d1
AC
3154.RE
3155.P
40943b9a
TK
3156.nf
3157 Fields are similar to \fBREAD/WRITE\fR status.
3158.fi
a2c95580 3159.RS
a2c95580 3160.P
40943b9a 3161.B
d1429b5c 3162CPU usage:
d60e92d1
AC
3163.RE
3164.P
40943b9a
TK
3165.nf
3166 user, system, context switches, major faults, minor faults
3167.fi
d60e92d1 3168.RS
40943b9a
TK
3169.P
3170.B
3171I/O depths:
d60e92d1
AC
3172.RE
3173.P
40943b9a
TK
3174.nf
3175 <=1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, >=64
3176.fi
562c2d2f 3177.RS
40943b9a
TK
3178.P
3179.B
3180I/O latencies microseconds:
562c2d2f 3181.RE
40943b9a
TK
3182.P
3183.nf
3184 <=2, 4, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000
3185.fi
562c2d2f 3186.RS
40943b9a
TK
3187.P
3188.B
3189I/O latencies milliseconds:
562c2d2f
DN
3190.RE
3191.P
40943b9a
TK
3192.nf
3193 <=2, 4, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 2000, >=2000
3194.fi
f2f788dd 3195.RS
40943b9a
TK
3196.P
3197.B
3198Disk utilization [v3]:
f2f788dd
JA
3199.RE
3200.P
40943b9a
TK
3201.nf
3202 disk name, read ios, write ios, read merges, write merges, read ticks, write ticks, time spent in queue, disk utilization percentage
3203.fi
562c2d2f 3204.RS
d60e92d1 3205.P
40943b9a
TK
3206.B
3207Additional Info (dependent on continue_on_error, default off):
d60e92d1 3208.RE
2fc26c3d 3209.P
40943b9a
TK
3210.nf
3211 total # errors, first error code
3212.fi
2fc26c3d
IC
3213.RS
3214.P
40943b9a
TK
3215.B
3216Additional Info (dependent on description being set):
3217.RE
3218.P
2fc26c3d 3219.nf
40943b9a
TK
3220 Text description
3221.fi
3222.P
3223Completion latency percentiles can be a grouping of up to 20 sets, so for the
3224terse output fio writes all of them. Each field will look like this:
3225.P
3226.nf
3227 1.00%=6112
3228.fi
3229.P
3230which is the Xth percentile, and the `usec' latency associated with it.
3231.P
3232For \fBDisk utilization\fR, all disks used by fio are shown. So for each disk there
3233will be a disk utilization section.
3234.P
3235Below is a single line containing short names for each of the fields in the
3236minimal output v3, separated by semicolons:
3237.P
3238.nf
3239 terse_version_3;fio_version;jobname;groupid;error;read_kb;read_bandwidth;read_iops;read_runtime_ms;read_slat_min;read_slat_max;read_slat_mean;read_slat_dev;read_clat_min;read_clat_max;read_clat_mean;read_clat_dev;read_clat_pct01;read_clat_pct02;read_clat_pct03;read_clat_pct04;read_clat_pct05;read_clat_pct06;read_clat_pct07;read_clat_pct08;read_clat_pct09;read_clat_pct10;read_clat_pct11;read_clat_pct12;read_clat_pct13;read_clat_pct14;read_clat_pct15;read_clat_pct16;read_clat_pct17;read_clat_pct18;read_clat_pct19;read_clat_pct20;read_tlat_min;read_lat_max;read_lat_mean;read_lat_dev;read_bw_min;read_bw_max;read_bw_agg_pct;read_bw_mean;read_bw_dev;write_kb;write_bandwidth;write_iops;write_runtime_ms;write_slat_min;write_slat_max;write_slat_mean;write_slat_dev;write_clat_min;write_clat_max;write_clat_mean;write_clat_dev;write_clat_pct01;write_clat_pct02;write_clat_pct03;write_clat_pct04;write_clat_pct05;write_clat_pct06;write_clat_pct07;write_clat_pct08;write_clat_pct09;write_clat_pct10;write_clat_pct11;write_clat_pct12;write_clat_pct13;write_clat_pct14;write_clat_pct15;write_clat_pct16;write_clat_pct17;write_clat_pct18;write_clat_pct19;write_clat_pct20;write_tlat_min;write_lat_max;write_lat_mean;write_lat_dev;write_bw_min;write_bw_max;write_bw_agg_pct;write_bw_mean;write_bw_dev;cpu_user;cpu_sys;cpu_csw;cpu_mjf;cpu_minf;iodepth_1;iodepth_2;iodepth_4;iodepth_8;iodepth_16;iodepth_32;iodepth_64;lat_2us;lat_4us;lat_10us;lat_20us;lat_50us;lat_100us;lat_250us;lat_500us;lat_750us;lat_1000us;lat_2ms;lat_4ms;lat_10ms;lat_20ms;lat_50ms;lat_100ms;lat_250ms;lat_500ms;lat_750ms;lat_1000ms;lat_2000ms;lat_over_2000ms;disk_name;disk_read_iops;disk_write_iops;disk_read_merges;disk_write_merges;disk_read_ticks;write_ticks;disk_queue_time;disk_util
2fc26c3d 3240.fi
44c82dba
VF
3241.SH JSON OUTPUT
3242The \fBjson\fR output format is intended to be both human readable and convenient
3243for automated parsing. For the most part its sections mirror those of the
3244\fBnormal\fR output. The \fBruntime\fR value is reported in msec and the \fBbw\fR value is
3245reported in 1024 bytes per second units.
3246.fi
d9e557ab
VF
3247.SH JSON+ OUTPUT
3248The \fBjson+\fR output format is identical to the \fBjson\fR output format except that it
3249adds a full dump of the completion latency bins. Each \fBbins\fR object contains a
3250set of (key, value) pairs where keys are latency durations and values count how
3251many I/Os had completion latencies of the corresponding duration. For example,
3252consider:
d9e557ab 3253.RS
40943b9a 3254.P
d9e557ab
VF
3255"bins" : { "87552" : 1, "89600" : 1, "94720" : 1, "96768" : 1, "97792" : 1, "99840" : 1, "100864" : 2, "103936" : 6, "104960" : 534, "105984" : 5995, "107008" : 7529, ... }
3256.RE
40943b9a 3257.P
d9e557ab
VF
3258This data indicates that one I/O required 87,552ns to complete, two I/Os required
3259100,864ns to complete, and 7529 I/Os required 107,008ns to complete.
40943b9a 3260.P
d9e557ab 3261Also included with fio is a Python script \fBfio_jsonplus_clat2csv\fR that takes
40943b9a
TK
3262json+ output and generates CSV\-formatted latency data suitable for plotting.
3263.P
d9e557ab 3264The latency durations actually represent the midpoints of latency intervals.
40943b9a 3265For details refer to `stat.h' in the fio source.
29dbd1e5 3266.SH TRACE FILE FORMAT
40943b9a
TK
3267There are two trace file format that you can encounter. The older (v1) format is
3268unsupported since version 1.20\-rc3 (March 2008). It will still be described
29dbd1e5 3269below in case that you get an old trace and want to understand it.
29dbd1e5 3270.P
40943b9a
TK
3271In any case the trace is a simple text file with a single action per line.
3272.TP
29dbd1e5 3273.B Trace file format v1
40943b9a 3274Each line represents a single I/O action in the following format:
29dbd1e5 3275.RS
40943b9a
TK
3276.RS
3277.P
29dbd1e5 3278rw, offset, length
29dbd1e5
JA
3279.RE
3280.P
40943b9a
TK
3281where `rw=0/1' for read/write, and the `offset' and `length' entries being in bytes.
3282.P
3283This format is not supported in fio versions >= 1.20\-rc3.
3284.RE
3285.TP
29dbd1e5 3286.B Trace file format v2
40943b9a
TK
3287The second version of the trace file format was added in fio version 1.17. It
3288allows to access more then one file per trace and has a bigger set of possible
3289file actions.
29dbd1e5 3290.RS
40943b9a 3291.P
29dbd1e5 3292The first line of the trace file has to be:
40943b9a
TK
3293.RS
3294.P
3295"fio version 2 iolog"
3296.RE
3297.P
29dbd1e5 3298Following this can be lines in two different formats, which are described below.
40943b9a
TK
3299.P
3300.B
29dbd1e5 3301The file management format:
40943b9a
TK
3302.RS
3303filename action
29dbd1e5 3304.P
40943b9a 3305The `filename' is given as an absolute path. The `action' can be one of these:
29dbd1e5
JA
3306.RS
3307.TP
3308.B add
40943b9a 3309Add the given `filename' to the trace.
29dbd1e5
JA
3310.TP
3311.B open
40943b9a
TK
3312Open the file with the given `filename'. The `filename' has to have
3313been added with the \fBadd\fR action before.
29dbd1e5
JA
3314.TP
3315.B close
40943b9a
TK
3316Close the file with the given `filename'. The file has to have been
3317\fBopen\fRed before.
3318.RE
29dbd1e5 3319.RE
29dbd1e5 3320.P
40943b9a
TK
3321.B
3322The file I/O action format:
3323.RS
3324filename action offset length
29dbd1e5 3325.P
40943b9a
TK
3326The `filename' is given as an absolute path, and has to have been \fBadd\fRed and
3327\fBopen\fRed before it can be used with this format. The `offset' and `length' are
3328given in bytes. The `action' can be one of these:
29dbd1e5
JA
3329.RS
3330.TP
3331.B wait
40943b9a
TK
3332Wait for `offset' microseconds. Everything below 100 is discarded.
3333The time is relative to the previous `wait' statement.
29dbd1e5
JA
3334.TP
3335.B read
40943b9a 3336Read `length' bytes beginning from `offset'.
29dbd1e5
JA
3337.TP
3338.B write
40943b9a 3339Write `length' bytes beginning from `offset'.
29dbd1e5
JA
3340.TP
3341.B sync
40943b9a 3342\fBfsync\fR\|(2) the file.
29dbd1e5
JA
3343.TP
3344.B datasync
40943b9a 3345\fBfdatasync\fR\|(2) the file.
29dbd1e5
JA
3346.TP
3347.B trim
40943b9a
TK
3348Trim the given file from the given `offset' for `length' bytes.
3349.RE
29dbd1e5 3350.RE
29dbd1e5 3351.SH CPU IDLENESS PROFILING
40943b9a
TK
3352In some cases, we want to understand CPU overhead in a test. For example, we
3353test patches for the specific goodness of whether they reduce CPU usage.
3354Fio implements a balloon approach to create a thread per CPU that runs at idle
3355priority, meaning that it only runs when nobody else needs the cpu.
3356By measuring the amount of work completed by the thread, idleness of each CPU
3357can be derived accordingly.
3358.P
3359An unit work is defined as touching a full page of unsigned characters. Mean and
3360standard deviation of time to complete an unit work is reported in "unit work"
3361section. Options can be chosen to report detailed percpu idleness or overall
3362system idleness by aggregating percpu stats.
29dbd1e5 3363.SH VERIFICATION AND TRIGGERS
40943b9a
TK
3364Fio is usually run in one of two ways, when data verification is done. The first
3365is a normal write job of some sort with verify enabled. When the write phase has
3366completed, fio switches to reads and verifies everything it wrote. The second
3367model is running just the write phase, and then later on running the same job
3368(but with reads instead of writes) to repeat the same I/O patterns and verify
3369the contents. Both of these methods depend on the write phase being completed,
3370as fio otherwise has no idea how much data was written.
3371.P
3372With verification triggers, fio supports dumping the current write state to
3373local files. Then a subsequent read verify workload can load this state and know
3374exactly where to stop. This is useful for testing cases where power is cut to a
3375server in a managed fashion, for instance.
3376.P
29dbd1e5 3377A verification trigger consists of two things:
29dbd1e5 3378.RS
40943b9a
TK
3379.P
33801) Storing the write state of each job.
3381.P
33822) Executing a trigger command.
29dbd1e5 3383.RE
40943b9a
TK
3384.P
3385The write state is relatively small, on the order of hundreds of bytes to single
3386kilobytes. It contains information on the number of completions done, the last X
3387completions, etc.
3388.P
3389A trigger is invoked either through creation ('touch') of a specified file in
3390the system, or through a timeout setting. If fio is run with
3391`\-\-trigger\-file=/tmp/trigger\-file', then it will continually
3392check for the existence of `/tmp/trigger\-file'. When it sees this file, it
3393will fire off the trigger (thus saving state, and executing the trigger
29dbd1e5 3394command).
40943b9a
TK
3395.P
3396For client/server runs, there's both a local and remote trigger. If fio is
3397running as a server backend, it will send the job states back to the client for
3398safe storage, then execute the remote trigger, if specified. If a local trigger
3399is specified, the server will still send back the write state, but the client
3400will then execute the trigger.
29dbd1e5
JA
3401.RE
3402.P
3403.B Verification trigger example
3404.RS
40943b9a
TK
3405Let's say we want to run a powercut test on the remote Linux machine 'server'.
3406Our write workload is in `write\-test.fio'. We want to cut power to 'server' at
3407some point during the run, and we'll run this test from the safety or our local
3408machine, 'localbox'. On the server, we'll start the fio backend normally:
3409.RS
3410.P
3411server# fio \-\-server
3412.RE
3413.P
29dbd1e5 3414and on the client, we'll fire off the workload:
40943b9a
TK
3415.RS
3416.P
3417localbox$ fio \-\-client=server \-\-trigger\-file=/tmp/my\-trigger \-\-trigger\-remote="bash \-c "echo b > /proc/sysrq\-triger""
3418.RE
3419.P
3420We set `/tmp/my\-trigger' as the trigger file, and we tell fio to execute:
3421.RS
3422.P
3423echo b > /proc/sysrq\-trigger
3424.RE
3425.P
3426on the server once it has received the trigger and sent us the write state. This
3427will work, but it's not really cutting power to the server, it's merely
3428abruptly rebooting it. If we have a remote way of cutting power to the server
3429through IPMI or similar, we could do that through a local trigger command
3430instead. Let's assume we have a script that does IPMI reboot of a given hostname,
3431ipmi\-reboot. On localbox, we could then have run fio with a local trigger
3432instead:
3433.RS
3434.P
3435localbox$ fio \-\-client=server \-\-trigger\-file=/tmp/my\-trigger \-\-trigger="ipmi\-reboot server"
3436.RE
3437.P
3438For this case, fio would wait for the server to send us the write state, then
3439execute `ipmi\-reboot server' when that happened.
29dbd1e5
JA
3440.RE
3441.P
3442.B Loading verify state
3443.RS
40943b9a
TK
3444To load stored write state, a read verification job file must contain the
3445\fBverify_state_load\fR option. If that is set, fio will load the previously
29dbd1e5 3446stored state. For a local fio run this is done by loading the files directly,
40943b9a
TK
3447and on a client/server run, the server backend will ask the client to send the
3448files over and load them from there.
29dbd1e5 3449.RE
a3ae5b05 3450.SH LOG FILE FORMATS
a3ae5b05
JA
3451Fio supports a variety of log file formats, for logging latencies, bandwidth,
3452and IOPS. The logs share a common format, which looks like this:
40943b9a 3453.RS
a3ae5b05 3454.P
40943b9a
TK
3455time (msec), value, data direction, block size (bytes), offset (bytes)
3456.RE
3457.P
3458`Time' for the log entry is always in milliseconds. The `value' logged depends
3459on the type of log, it will be one of the following:
3460.RS
a3ae5b05
JA
3461.TP
3462.B Latency log
168bb587 3463Value is latency in nsecs
a3ae5b05
JA
3464.TP
3465.B Bandwidth log
6d500c2e 3466Value is in KiB/sec
a3ae5b05
JA
3467.TP
3468.B IOPS log
40943b9a
TK
3469Value is IOPS
3470.RE
a3ae5b05 3471.P
40943b9a
TK
3472`Data direction' is one of the following:
3473.RS
a3ae5b05
JA
3474.TP
3475.B 0
40943b9a 3476I/O is a READ
a3ae5b05
JA
3477.TP
3478.B 1
40943b9a 3479I/O is a WRITE
a3ae5b05
JA
3480.TP
3481.B 2
40943b9a 3482I/O is a TRIM
a3ae5b05 3483.RE
40943b9a
TK
3484.P
3485The entry's `block size' is always in bytes. The `offset' is the offset, in bytes,
3486from the start of the file, for that particular I/O. The logging of the offset can be
3487toggled with \fBlog_offset\fR.
3488.P
3489Fio defaults to logging every individual I/O. When IOPS are logged for individual
3490I/Os the `value' entry will always be 1. If windowed logging is enabled through
3491\fBlog_avg_msec\fR, fio logs the average values over the specified period of time.
3492If windowed logging is enabled and \fBlog_max_value\fR is set, then fio logs
3493maximum values in that window instead of averages. Since `data direction', `block size'
3494and `offset' are per\-I/O values, if windowed logging is enabled they
3495aren't applicable and will be 0.
49da1240 3496.SH CLIENT / SERVER
40943b9a
TK
3497Normally fio is invoked as a stand\-alone application on the machine where the
3498I/O workload should be generated. However, the backend and frontend of fio can
3499be run separately i.e., the fio server can generate an I/O workload on the "Device
3500Under Test" while being controlled by a client on another machine.
3501.P
3502Start the server on the machine which has access to the storage DUT:
3503.RS
3504.P
3505$ fio \-\-server=args
3506.RE
3507.P
3508where `args' defines what fio listens to. The arguments are of the form
3509`type,hostname' or `IP,port'. `type' is either `ip' (or ip4) for TCP/IP
3510v4, `ip6' for TCP/IP v6, or `sock' for a local unix domain socket.
3511`hostname' is either a hostname or IP address, and `port' is the port to listen
3512to (only valid for TCP/IP, not a local socket). Some examples:
3513.RS
3514.TP
e0ee7a8b 35151) \fBfio \-\-server\fR
40943b9a
TK
3516Start a fio server, listening on all interfaces on the default port (8765).
3517.TP
e0ee7a8b 35182) \fBfio \-\-server=ip:hostname,4444\fR
40943b9a
TK
3519Start a fio server, listening on IP belonging to hostname and on port 4444.
3520.TP
e0ee7a8b 35213) \fBfio \-\-server=ip6:::1,4444\fR
40943b9a
TK
3522Start a fio server, listening on IPv6 localhost ::1 and on port 4444.
3523.TP
e0ee7a8b 35244) \fBfio \-\-server=,4444\fR
40943b9a
TK
3525Start a fio server, listening on all interfaces on port 4444.
3526.TP
e0ee7a8b 35275) \fBfio \-\-server=1.2.3.4\fR
40943b9a
TK
3528Start a fio server, listening on IP 1.2.3.4 on the default port.
3529.TP
e0ee7a8b 35306) \fBfio \-\-server=sock:/tmp/fio.sock\fR
40943b9a
TK
3531Start a fio server, listening on the local socket `/tmp/fio.sock'.
3532.RE
3533.P
3534Once a server is running, a "client" can connect to the fio server with:
3535.RS
3536.P
3537$ fio <local\-args> \-\-client=<server> <remote\-args> <job file(s)>
3538.RE
3539.P
3540where `local\-args' are arguments for the client where it is running, `server'
3541is the connect string, and `remote\-args' and `job file(s)' are sent to the
3542server. The `server' string follows the same format as it does on the server
3543side, to allow IP/hostname/socket and port strings.
3544.P
3545Fio can connect to multiple servers this way:
3546.RS
3547.P
3548$ fio \-\-client=<server1> <job file(s)> \-\-client=<server2> <job file(s)>
3549.RE
3550.P
3551If the job file is located on the fio server, then you can tell the server to
3552load a local file as well. This is done by using \fB\-\-remote\-config\fR:
3553.RS
3554.P
3555$ fio \-\-client=server \-\-remote\-config /path/to/file.fio
3556.RE
3557.P
3558Then fio will open this local (to the server) job file instead of being passed
3559one from the client.
3560.P
ff6bb260 3561If you have many servers (example: 100 VMs/containers), you can input a pathname
40943b9a
TK
3562of a file containing host IPs/names as the parameter value for the
3563\fB\-\-client\fR option. For example, here is an example `host.list'
3564file containing 2 hostnames:
3565.RS
3566.P
3567.PD 0
39b5f61e 3568host1.your.dns.domain
40943b9a 3569.P
39b5f61e 3570host2.your.dns.domain
40943b9a
TK
3571.PD
3572.RE
3573.P
39b5f61e 3574The fio command would then be:
40943b9a
TK
3575.RS
3576.P
3577$ fio \-\-client=host.list <job file(s)>
3578.RE
3579.P
3580In this mode, you cannot input server\-specific parameters or job files \-\- all
39b5f61e 3581servers receive the same job file.
40943b9a
TK
3582.P
3583In order to let `fio \-\-client' runs use a shared filesystem from multiple
3584hosts, `fio \-\-client' now prepends the IP address of the server to the
3585filename. For example, if fio is using the directory `/mnt/nfs/fio' and is
3586writing filename `fileio.tmp', with a \fB\-\-client\fR `hostfile'
3587containing two hostnames `h1' and `h2' with IP addresses 192.168.10.120 and
3588192.168.10.121, then fio will create two files:
3589.RS
3590.P
3591.PD 0
39b5f61e 3592/mnt/nfs/fio/192.168.10.120.fileio.tmp
40943b9a 3593.P
39b5f61e 3594/mnt/nfs/fio/192.168.10.121.fileio.tmp
40943b9a
TK
3595.PD
3596.RE
d60e92d1
AC
3597.SH AUTHORS
3598.B fio
d292596c 3599was written by Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>.
d1429b5c
AC
3600.br
3601This man page was written by Aaron Carroll <aaronc@cse.unsw.edu.au> based
d60e92d1 3602on documentation by Jens Axboe.
40943b9a
TK
3603.br
3604This man page was rewritten by Tomohiro Kusumi <tkusumi@tuxera.com> based
3605on documentation by Jens Axboe.
d60e92d1 3606.SH "REPORTING BUGS"
482900c9 3607Report bugs to the \fBfio\fR mailing list <fio@vger.kernel.org>.
6468020d 3608.br
40943b9a
TK
3609See \fBREPORTING\-BUGS\fR.
3610.P
3611\fBREPORTING\-BUGS\fR: \fIhttp://git.kernel.dk/cgit/fio/plain/REPORTING\-BUGS\fR
d60e92d1 3612.SH "SEE ALSO"
d1429b5c
AC
3613For further documentation see \fBHOWTO\fR and \fBREADME\fR.
3614.br
40943b9a 3615Sample jobfiles are available in the `examples/' directory.
9040e236 3616.br
40943b9a
TK
3617These are typically located under `/usr/share/doc/fio'.
3618.P
3619\fBHOWTO\fR: \fIhttp://git.kernel.dk/cgit/fio/plain/HOWTO\fR
9040e236 3620.br
40943b9a 3621\fBREADME\fR: \fIhttp://git.kernel.dk/cgit/fio/plain/README\fR