thread cpu resource statistics bug fix
[fio.git] / README
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1fio
2---
3
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4fio is a tool that will spawn a number of threads or processes doing a
5particular type of io action as specified by the user. fio takes a
6number of global parameters, each inherited by the thread unless
7otherwise parameters given to them overriding that setting is given.
8The typical use of fio is to write a job file matching the io load
9one wants to simulate.
ebac4655 10
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11
12Source
13------
14
15fio resides in a git repo, the canonical place is:
16
6b3eccb1 17git://git.kernel.dk/fio.git
97f049c9 18
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19If you are inside a corporate firewall, git:// may not always work for
20you. In that case you can use the http protocol, path is the same:
21
22http://git.kernel.dk/fio.git
2b02b546 23
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24Snapshots are frequently generated and they include the git meta data as
25well. You can download them here:
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26
27http://brick.kernel.dk/snaps/
28
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30Binary packages
31---------------
32
33Debian:
34Starting with Debian "Squeeze", fio packages are part of the official
35Debian repository. http://packages.debian.org/search?keywords=fio
36
37Ubuntu:
38Starting with Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (aka "Lucid Lynx"), fio packages are part
39of the Ubuntu "universe" repository.
40http://packages.ubuntu.com/search?keywords=fio
41
42SUSE:
43Pascal Bleser <guru@unixtech.be> has fio RPMs in his repository for SUSE
44variants, you can find them here:
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45http://linux01.gwdg.de/~pbleser/rpm-navigation.php?cat=System/fio
46
d85b1add 47Red Hat, CentOS & Co:
a68594cb 48Dag Wieërs has RPMs for Red Hat related distros, find them here:
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49http://dag.wieers.com/rpm/packages/fio/
50
d85b1add 51Mandriva:
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52Mandriva has integrated fio into their package repository, so installing
53on that distro should be as easy as typing 'urpmi fio'.
54
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55Solaris:
56Packages for Solaris are available from OpenCSW. Install their pkgutil
57tool (http://www.opencsw.org/get-it/pkgutil/) and then install fio via
58'pkgutil -i fio'.
59
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60Windows:
61Bruce Cran <bruce@cran.org.uk> has fio packages for Windows at
62http://www.bluestop.org/fio .
63
2b02b546 64
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65Mailing list
66------------
67
68There's a mailing list associated with fio. It's meant for general
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69discussion, bug reporting, questions, and development - basically anything
70that has to do with fio. An automated mail detailing recent commits is
71automatically sent to the list at most daily. The list address is
72fio@vger.kernel.org, subscribe by sending an email to
73majordomo@vger.kernel.org with
74
75subscribe fio
76
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77in the body of the email. Archives can be found here:
78
79http://www.spinics.net/lists/fio/
80
81and archives for the old list can be found here:
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82
83http://maillist.kernel.dk/fio-devel/
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84
85
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86Building
87--------
88
d015e398 89Just type 'make' and 'make install'.
bbfd6b00 90
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91Note that GNU make is required. On BSD it's available from devel/gmake;
92on Solaris it's in the SUNWgmake package. On platforms where GNU make
93isn't the default, type 'gmake' instead of 'make'.
bbfd6b00 94
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95If your compile fails with an error like this:
96
97 CC gettime.o
98In file included from fio.h:23,
99 from gettime.c:8:
100os/os.h:15:20: error: libaio.h: No such file or directory
101In file included from gettime.c:8:
102fio.h:119: error: field 'iocb' has incomplete type
103make: *** [gettime.o] Error 1
104
105Check that you have the libaio development package installed. On RPM
106based distros, it's typically called libaio-devel.
107
bbfd6b00 108
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109Windows
110-------
111
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112On Windows MinGW (http://www.mingw.org/) is required in order to
113build fio. To create an MSI installer package install WiX 3.6 from
114http://wix.sourceforge.net/releases/ and run dobuild.cmd from the
115os/windows directory.
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116
117
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118Command line
119------------
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120
121$ fio
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122 --debug Enable some debugging options (see below)
123 --output Write output to file
b2cecdc2 124 --runtime Runtime in seconds
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125 --latency-log Generate per-job latency logs
126 --bandwidth-log Generate per-job bandwidth logs
1cfd036f 127 --minimal Minimal (terse) output
f3afa57e 128 --output-format=type Output format (terse,json,normal)
3449ab8c 129 --terse-version=type Terse version output format (default 3, or 2 or 4).
f3afa57e 130 --version Print version info and exit
1cfd036f 131 --help Print this page
bebe6398 132 --cmdhelp=cmd Print command help, "all" for all of them
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133 --enghelp=engine Print ioengine help, or list available ioengines
134 --enghelp=engine,cmd Print help for an ioengine cmd
1cfd036f 135 --showcmd Turn a job file into command line options
ad0a2735 136 --readonly Turn on safety read-only checks, preventing
bebe6398 137 writes
1cfd036f 138 --eta=when When ETA estimate should be printed
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139 May be "always", "never" or "auto"
140 --section=name Only run specified section in job file.
141 Multiple sections can be specified.
e7cb819b 142 --alloc-size=kb Set smalloc pool to this size in kb (def 1024)
143 --warnings-fatal Fio parser warnings are fatal
fca70358 144 --max-jobs Maximum number of threads/processes to support
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145 --server=args Start backend server. See Client/Server section.
146 --client=host Connect to specified backend.
e592a06b 147
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148
149Any parameters following the options will be assumed to be job files,
150unless they match a job file parameter. You can add as many as you want,
151each job file will be regarded as a separate group and fio will stonewall
152its execution.
972cfd25 153
ecc314ba 154The --readonly switch is an extra safety guard to prevent accidentally
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155turning on a write setting when that is not desired. Fio will only write
156if rw=write/randwrite/rw/randrw is given, but this extra safety net can
157be used as an extra precaution. It will also enable a write check in the
158io engine core to prevent an accidental write due to a fio bug.
159
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160The debug switch allows adding options that trigger certain logging
161options in fio. Currently the options are:
162
163 process Dump info related to processes
164 file Dump info related to file actions
e7cb819b 165 io Dump info related to IO queuing
166 mem Dump info related to memory allocations
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167 blktrace Dump info related to blktrace setup
168 verify Dump info related to IO verification
e7cb819b 169 all Enable all debug options
811a0d06 170 random Dump info related to random offset generation
a3d741fa 171 parse Dump info related to option matching and parsing
cd991b9e 172 diskutil Dump info related to disk utilization updates
5e1d306e 173 job:x Dump info only related to job number x
29adda3c 174 mutex Dump info only related to mutex up/down ops
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175 profile Dump info related to profile extensions
176 time Dump info related to internal time keeping
bd6f78b2 177 ? or help Show available debug options.
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178
179You can specify as many as you want, eg --debug=file,mem will enable
bd6f78b2 180file and memory debugging.
ee56ad50 181
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182The section switch is meant to make it easier to ship a bigger job file
183instead of several smaller ones. Say you define a job file with light,
184moderate, and heavy parts. Then you can ask fio to run the given part
185only by giving it a --section=heavy command line option. The section
186option only applies to job sections, the reserved 'global' section is
187always parsed and taken into account.
188
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189Fio has an internal allocator for shared memory called smalloc. It
190allocates shared structures from this pool. The pool defaults to 1024k
931823ca 191in size, and can grow to 128 pools. If running large jobs with randommap
2b386d25 192enabled it can run out of memory, in which case the --alloc-size switch
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193is handy for starting with a larger pool size. The backing store is
194files in /tmp. Fio cleans up after itself, while it is running you
195may see .fio_smalloc.* files in /tmp.
2b386d25 196
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197
198Job file
199--------
200
71bfa161 201See the HOWTO file for a more detailed description of parameters and what
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202they mean. This file contains the terse version. You can describe big and
203complex setups with the command line, but generally it's a lot easier to
71bfa161 204just write a simple job file to describe the workload. The job file format
4661f3d0 205is in the ini style format, as that is easy to read and write for the user.
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206
207The job file parameters are:
ebac4655 208
01452055 209 name=x Use 'x' as the identifier for this job.
61697c37 210 description=x 'x' is a text description of the job.
ebac4655 211 directory=x Use 'x' as the top level directory for storing files
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212 filename=x Force the use of 'x' as the filename for all files
213 in this thread. If not given, fio will make up
214 a suitable filename based on the thread and file
215 number.
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216 rw=x 'x' may be: read, randread, write, randwrite,
217 rw (read-write mix), randrw (read-write random mix)
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218 rwmixcycle=x Base cycle for switching between read and write
219 in msecs.
220 rwmixread=x 'x' percentage of rw mix ios will be reads. If
221 rwmixwrite is also given, the last of the two will
222 be used if they don't add up to 100%.
223 rwmixwrite=x 'x' percentage of rw mix ios will be writes. See
224 rwmixread.
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225 rand_repeatable=x The sequence of random io blocks can be repeatable
226 across runs, if 'x' is 1.
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227 size=x Set file size to x bytes (x string can include k/m/g)
228 ioengine=x 'x' may be: aio/libaio/linuxaio for Linux aio,
78e7b3e7 229 posixaio for POSIX aio, solarisaio for Solaris
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230 native async IO, windowsaio for Windows native async IO,
231 sync for regular read/write io,
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232 psync for regular pread/pwrite io, vsync for regular
233 readv/writev (with queuing emulation) mmap for mmap'ed
234 io, syslet-rw for syslet driven read/write, splice for
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235 using splice/vmsplice, sg for direct SG_IO io, net
236 for network io, or cpuio for a cycler burner load. sg
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237 only works on Linux on SCSI (or SCSI-like devices, such
238 as usb-storage or sata/libata driven) devices. Fio also
239 has a null io engine, which is mainly used for testing
240 fio itself.
241
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242 iodepth=x For async io, allow 'x' ios in flight
243 overwrite=x If 'x', layout a write file first.
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244 nrfiles=x Spread io load over 'x' number of files per job,
245 if possible.
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246 prio=x Run io at prio X, 0-7 is the kernel allowed range
247 prioclass=x Run io at prio class X
248 bs=x Use 'x' for thread blocksize. May include k/m postfix.
249 bsrange=x-y Mix thread block sizes randomly between x and y. May
250 also include k/m postfix.
251 direct=x 1 for direct IO, 0 for buffered IO
252 thinktime=x "Think" x usec after each io
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253 rate=x Throttle rate to x KB/sec
254 ratemin=x Quit if rate of x KB/sec can't be met
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255 ratecycle=x ratemin averaged over x msecs
256 cpumask=x Only allow job to run on CPUs defined by mask.
d2e268b0 257 cpus_allowed=x Like 'cpumask', but allow text setting of CPU affinity.
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258 fsync=x If writing with buffered IO, fsync after every
259 'x' blocks have been written.
260 end_fsync=x If 'x', run fsync() after end-of-job.
ebac4655 261 startdelay=x Start this thread x seconds after startup
03b74b3e 262 runtime=x Terminate x seconds after startup. Can include a
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263 normal time suffix if not given in seconds, such as
264 'm' for minutes, 'h' for hours, and 'd' for days.
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265 offset=x Start io at offset x (x string can include k/m/g)
266 invalidate=x Invalidate page cache for file prior to doing io
795407ca 267 sync=x Use sync writes if x and writing buffered IO.
ebac4655 268 mem=x If x == malloc, use malloc for buffers. If x == shm,
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269 use shared memory for buffers. If x == mmap, use
270 anonymous mmap.
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271 exitall When one thread quits, terminate the others
272 bwavgtime=x Average bandwidth stats over an x msec window.
273 create_serialize=x If 'x', serialize file creation.
274 create_fsync=x If 'x', run fsync() after file creation.
f6cbb269 275 unlink If set, unlink files when done.
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276 loops=x Run the job 'x' number of times.
277 verify=x If 'x' == md5, use md5 for verifies. If 'x' == crc32,
278 use crc32 for verifies. md5 is 'safer', but crc32 is
279 a lot faster. Only makes sense for writing to a file.
bac39e0e 280 For other types of checksumming, see HOWTO.
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281 stonewall Wait for preceeding jobs to end before running.
282 numjobs=x Create 'x' similar entries for this job
283 thread Use pthreads instead of forked jobs
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284 zonesize=x
285 zoneskip=y Zone options must be paired. If given, the job
286 will skip y bytes for every x read/written. This
287 can be used to gauge hard drive speed over the entire
288 platter, without reading everything. Both x/y can
289 include k/m/g suffix.
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290 read_iolog=x Open and read io pattern from file 'x'. The file format
291 is described in the HOWTO.
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292 write_iolog=x Write an iolog to file 'x' in the same format as iolog.
293 The iolog options are exclusive, if both given the
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294 read iolog will be performed. Specify a separate file
295 for each job, otherwise the iologs will be interspersed
296 and the file may be corrupt.
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297 write_bw_log Write a bandwidth log.
298 write_lat_log Write a latency log.
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299 lockmem=x Lock down x amount of memory on the machine, to
300 simulate a machine with less memory available. x can
301 include k/m/g suffix.
b6f4d880 302 nice=x Run job at given nice value.
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303 exec_prerun=x Run 'x' before job io is begun.
304 exec_postrun=x Run 'x' after job io has finished.
da86774e 305 ioscheduler=x Use ioscheduler 'x' for this job.
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306 cpuload=x For a CPU io thread, percentage of CPU time to attempt
307 to burn.
ba0fbe10 308 cpuchunks=x Split burn cycles into pieces of x usecs.
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217bc04b 311
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312Client/server
313------------
314
315Normally you would run fio as a stand-alone application on the machine
316where the IO workload should be generated. However, it is also possible to
317run the frontend and backend of fio separately. This makes it possible to
318have a fio server running on the machine(s) where the IO workload should
319be running, while controlling it from another machine.
320
321To start the server, you would do:
322
323fio --server=args
324
325on that machine, where args defines what fio listens to. The arguments
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326are of the form 'type,hostname or IP,port'. 'type' is either 'ip' (or ip4)
327for TCP/IP v4, 'ip6' for TCP/IP v6, or 'sock' for a local unix domain socket.
328'hostname' is either a hostname or IP address, and 'port' is the port to
329listen to (only valid for TCP/IP, not a local socket). Some examples:
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330
3311) fio --server
332
333 Start a fio server, listening on all interfaces on the default port (8765).
334
811826be 3352) fio --server=ip:hostname,4444
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336
337 Start a fio server, listening on IP belonging to hostname and on port 4444.
338
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3393) fio --server=ip6:::1,4444
340
341 Start a fio server, listening on IPv6 localhost ::1 and on port 4444.
342
3434) fio --server=,4444
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344
345 Start a fio server, listening on all interfaces on port 4444.
346
811826be 3475) fio --server=1.2.3.4
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348
349 Start a fio server, listening on IP 1.2.3.4 on the default port.
350
811826be 3516) fio --server=sock:/tmp/fio.sock
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352
353 Start a fio server, listening on the local socket /tmp/fio.sock.
354
355When a server is running, you can connect to it from a client. The client
356is run with:
357
358fio --local-args --client=server --remote-args <job file(s)>
359
360where --local-args are arguments that are local to the client where it is
361running, 'server' is the connect string, and --remote-args and <job file(s)>
362are sent to the server. The 'server' string follows the same format as it
363does on the server side, to allow IP/hostname/socket and port strings.
364You can connect to multiple clients as well, to do that you could run:
365
a7321eed 366fio --client=server2 <job file(s)> --client=server2 <job file(s)>
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367
368
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369Platforms
370---------
371
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372Fio works on (at least) Linux, Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, OSX, NetBSD, Windows
373and FreeBSD. Some features and/or options may only be available on some of
374the platforms, typically because those features only apply to that platform
375(like the solarisaio engine, or the splice engine on Linux).
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376
377Some features are not available on FreeBSD/Solaris even if they could be
378implemented, I'd be happy to take patches for that. An example of that is
379disk utility statistics and (I think) huge page support, support for that
380does exist in FreeBSD/Solaris.
381
382Fio uses pthread mutexes for signalling and locking and FreeBSD does not
383support process shared pthread mutexes. As a result, only threads are
384supported on FreeBSD. This could be fixed with sysv ipc locking or
385other locking alternatives.
386
387Other *BSD platforms are untested, but fio should work there almost out
388of the box. Since I don't do test runs or even compiles on those platforms,
389your mileage may vary. Sending me patches for other platforms is greatly
390appreciated. There's a lot of value in having the same test/benchmark tool
391available on all platforms.
392
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393Note that POSIX aio is not enabled by default on AIX. If you get messages like:
394
395 Symbol resolution failed for /usr/lib/libc.a(posix_aio.o) because:
396 Symbol _posix_kaio_rdwr (number 2) is not exported from dependent module /unix.
397
398you need to enable POSIX aio. Run the following commands as root:
399
400 # lsdev -C -l posix_aio0
401 posix_aio0 Defined Posix Asynchronous I/O
402 # cfgmgr -l posix_aio0
403 # lsdev -C -l posix_aio0
404 posix_aio0 Available Posix Asynchronous I/O
405
406POSIX aio should work now. To make the change permanent:
407
408 # chdev -l posix_aio0 -P -a autoconfig='available'
409 posix_aio0 changed
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410
411
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412Author
413------
414
aae22ca7 415Fio was written by Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> to enable flexible testing
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416of the Linux IO subsystem and schedulers. He got tired of writing
417specific test applications to simulate a given workload, and found that
418the existing io benchmark/test tools out there weren't flexible enough
419to do what he wanted.
420
aae22ca7 421Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> 20060905
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