Fix bsrange read,write value option pairs
[fio.git] / README
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1fio
2---
3
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4fio is a tool that will spawn a number of threads or processes doing a
5particular type of io action as specified by the user. fio takes a
6number of global parameters, each inherited by the thread unless
7otherwise parameters given to them overriding that setting is given.
8The typical use of fio is to write a job file matching the io load
9one wants to simulate.
ebac4655 10
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11
12Source
13------
14
15fio resides in a git repo, the canonical place is:
16
6b3eccb1 17git://git.kernel.dk/fio.git
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18
19The http protocol also works, path is the same.
2b02b546 20
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21Snapshots are frequently generated and they include the git meta data as
22well. You can download them here:
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23
24http://brick.kernel.dk/snaps/
25
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27Binary packages
28---------------
29
30Debian:
31Starting with Debian "Squeeze", fio packages are part of the official
32Debian repository. http://packages.debian.org/search?keywords=fio
33
34Ubuntu:
35Starting with Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (aka "Lucid Lynx"), fio packages are part
36of the Ubuntu "universe" repository.
37http://packages.ubuntu.com/search?keywords=fio
38
39SUSE:
40Pascal Bleser <guru@unixtech.be> has fio RPMs in his repository for SUSE
41variants, you can find them here:
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42http://linux01.gwdg.de/~pbleser/rpm-navigation.php?cat=System/fio
43
d85b1add 44Red Hat, CentOS & Co:
a68594cb 45Dag Wieërs has RPMs for Red Hat related distros, find them here:
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46http://dag.wieers.com/rpm/packages/fio/
47
d85b1add 48Mandriva:
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49Mandriva has integrated fio into their package repository, so installing
50on that distro should be as easy as typing 'urpmi fio'.
51
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52Solaris:
53Packages for Solaris are available from OpenCSW. Install their pkgutil
54tool (http://www.opencsw.org/get-it/pkgutil/) and then install fio via
55'pkgutil -i fio'.
56
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57Windows:
58Bruce Cran <bruce@cran.org.uk> has fio packages for Windows at
59http://www.bluestop.org/fio .
60
2b02b546 61
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62Mailing list
63------------
64
65There's a mailing list associated with fio. It's meant for general
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66discussion, bug reporting, questions, and development - basically anything
67that has to do with fio. An automated mail detailing recent commits is
68automatically sent to the list at most daily. The list address is
69fio@vger.kernel.org, subscribe by sending an email to
70majordomo@vger.kernel.org with
71
72subscribe fio
73
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74in the body of the email. Archives can be found here:
75
76http://www.spinics.net/lists/fio/
77
78and archives for the old list can be found here:
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79
80http://maillist.kernel.dk/fio-devel/
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81
82
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83Building
84--------
85
d015e398 86Just type 'make' and 'make install'.
bbfd6b00 87
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88Note that GNU make is required. On BSD it's available from devel/gmake;
89on Solaris it's in the SUNWgmake package. On platforms where GNU make
90isn't the default, type 'gmake' instead of 'make'.
bbfd6b00 91
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92If your compile fails with an error like this:
93
94 CC gettime.o
95In file included from fio.h:23,
96 from gettime.c:8:
97os/os.h:15:20: error: libaio.h: No such file or directory
98In file included from gettime.c:8:
99fio.h:119: error: field 'iocb' has incomplete type
100make: *** [gettime.o] Error 1
101
102Check that you have the libaio development package installed. On RPM
103based distros, it's typically called libaio-devel.
104
bbfd6b00 105
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106Windows
107-------
108
109On Windows Cygwin (http://www.cygwin.com) is required with at least
110devel/gcc4 and devel/make installed in order to build fio, and
111admin/cygrunsrv to run it. You can also install devel/git to fetch/update
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112the source files. To create an MSI installer package put a copy of Cygwin
113in os\windows\fio, install WiX 3.6 from http://wix.sourceforge.net/releases/
114and run dobuild.cmd from the os/windows directory.
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115
116Before running fio you'll need to have a copy of cygserver running. Run
117"/usr/bin/cygserver-config" from an elevated Cygwin shell (i.e. launch the
118Cygwin shell under the Administrator account) to configure it. Once
119configured, run "net start cygserver" to start it, or type
120"/usr/sbin/cygserver &" in the Cygwin shell to start a local copy.
121
122If fio exits with the message "Bad system call" it normally means that
123Cygserver isn't running.
124
125
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126Command line
127------------
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128
129$ fio
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130 --debug Enable some debugging options (see below)
131 --output Write output to file
132 --timeout Runtime in seconds
133 --latency-log Generate per-job latency logs
134 --bandwidth-log Generate per-job bandwidth logs
135 --minimal Minimal (terse) output
136 --version Print version info and exit
137 --help Print this page
fd28ca49 138 --cmdhelp=cmd Print command help, "all" for all of them
1cfd036f 139 --showcmd Turn a job file into command line options
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140 --readonly Turn on safety read-only checks, preventing
141 writes
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142 --eta=when When ETA estimate should be printed
143 May be "always", "never" or "auto"
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144 --section=name Only run specified section in job file. Multiple
145 sections can be specified.
2b386d25 146 --alloc-size=kb Set smalloc pool to this size in kb (def 1024)
a9523c6f 147 --warnings-fatal Fio parser warnings are fatal
fca70358 148 --max-jobs Maximum number of threads/processes to support
e592a06b 149
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150
151Any parameters following the options will be assumed to be job files,
152unless they match a job file parameter. You can add as many as you want,
153each job file will be regarded as a separate group and fio will stonewall
154its execution.
972cfd25 155
ecc314ba 156The --readonly switch is an extra safety guard to prevent accidentally
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157turning on a write setting when that is not desired. Fio will only write
158if rw=write/randwrite/rw/randrw is given, but this extra safety net can
159be used as an extra precaution. It will also enable a write check in the
160io engine core to prevent an accidental write due to a fio bug.
161
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162The debug switch allows adding options that trigger certain logging
163options in fio. Currently the options are:
164
165 process Dump info related to processes
166 file Dump info related to file actions
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167 io Dump info related to IO queuing
168 mem Dump info related to memory allocations
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169 blktrace Dump info related to blktrace setup
170 verify Dump info related to IO verification
1cfd036f 171 all Enable all debug options
811a0d06 172 random Dump info related to random offset generation
a3d741fa 173 parse Dump info related to option matching and parsing
cd991b9e 174 diskutil Dump info related to disk utilization updates
5e1d306e 175 job:x Dump info only related to job number x
29adda3c 176 mutex Dump info only related to mutex up/down ops
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177 profile Dump info related to profile extensions
178 time Dump info related to internal time keeping
bd6f78b2 179 ? or help Show available debug options.
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180
181You can specify as many as you want, eg --debug=file,mem will enable
bd6f78b2 182file and memory debugging.
ee56ad50 183
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184The section switch is meant to make it easier to ship a bigger job file
185instead of several smaller ones. Say you define a job file with light,
186moderate, and heavy parts. Then you can ask fio to run the given part
187only by giving it a --section=heavy command line option. The section
188option only applies to job sections, the reserved 'global' section is
189always parsed and taken into account.
190
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191Fio has an internal allocator for shared memory called smalloc. It
192allocates shared structures from this pool. The pool defaults to 1024k
931823ca 193in size, and can grow to 128 pools. If running large jobs with randommap
2b386d25 194enabled it can run out of memory, in which case the --alloc-size switch
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195is handy for starting with a larger pool size. The backing store is
196files in /tmp. Fio cleans up after itself, while it is running you
197may see .fio_smalloc.* files in /tmp.
2b386d25 198
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199
200Job file
201--------
202
71bfa161 203See the HOWTO file for a more detailed description of parameters and what
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204they mean. This file contains the terse version. You can describe big and
205complex setups with the command line, but generally it's a lot easier to
71bfa161 206just write a simple job file to describe the workload. The job file format
4661f3d0 207is in the ini style format, as that is easy to read and write for the user.
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208
209The job file parameters are:
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01452055 211 name=x Use 'x' as the identifier for this job.
61697c37 212 description=x 'x' is a text description of the job.
ebac4655 213 directory=x Use 'x' as the top level directory for storing files
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214 filename=x Force the use of 'x' as the filename for all files
215 in this thread. If not given, fio will make up
216 a suitable filename based on the thread and file
217 number.
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218 rw=x 'x' may be: read, randread, write, randwrite,
219 rw (read-write mix), randrw (read-write random mix)
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220 rwmixcycle=x Base cycle for switching between read and write
221 in msecs.
222 rwmixread=x 'x' percentage of rw mix ios will be reads. If
223 rwmixwrite is also given, the last of the two will
224 be used if they don't add up to 100%.
225 rwmixwrite=x 'x' percentage of rw mix ios will be writes. See
226 rwmixread.
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227 rand_repeatable=x The sequence of random io blocks can be repeatable
228 across runs, if 'x' is 1.
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229 size=x Set file size to x bytes (x string can include k/m/g)
230 ioengine=x 'x' may be: aio/libaio/linuxaio for Linux aio,
78e7b3e7 231 posixaio for POSIX aio, solarisaio for Solaris
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232 native async IO, windowsaio for Windows native async IO,
233 sync for regular read/write io,
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234 psync for regular pread/pwrite io, vsync for regular
235 readv/writev (with queuing emulation) mmap for mmap'ed
236 io, syslet-rw for syslet driven read/write, splice for
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237 using splice/vmsplice, sg for direct SG_IO io, net
238 for network io, or cpuio for a cycler burner load. sg
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239 only works on Linux on SCSI (or SCSI-like devices, such
240 as usb-storage or sata/libata driven) devices. Fio also
241 has a null io engine, which is mainly used for testing
242 fio itself.
243
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244 iodepth=x For async io, allow 'x' ios in flight
245 overwrite=x If 'x', layout a write file first.
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246 nrfiles=x Spread io load over 'x' number of files per job,
247 if possible.
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248 prio=x Run io at prio X, 0-7 is the kernel allowed range
249 prioclass=x Run io at prio class X
250 bs=x Use 'x' for thread blocksize. May include k/m postfix.
251 bsrange=x-y Mix thread block sizes randomly between x and y. May
252 also include k/m postfix.
253 direct=x 1 for direct IO, 0 for buffered IO
254 thinktime=x "Think" x usec after each io
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255 rate=x Throttle rate to x KB/sec
256 ratemin=x Quit if rate of x KB/sec can't be met
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257 ratecycle=x ratemin averaged over x msecs
258 cpumask=x Only allow job to run on CPUs defined by mask.
d2e268b0 259 cpus_allowed=x Like 'cpumask', but allow text setting of CPU affinity.
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260 fsync=x If writing with buffered IO, fsync after every
261 'x' blocks have been written.
262 end_fsync=x If 'x', run fsync() after end-of-job.
ebac4655 263 startdelay=x Start this thread x seconds after startup
03b74b3e 264 runtime=x Terminate x seconds after startup. Can include a
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265 normal time suffix if not given in seconds, such as
266 'm' for minutes, 'h' for hours, and 'd' for days.
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267 offset=x Start io at offset x (x string can include k/m/g)
268 invalidate=x Invalidate page cache for file prior to doing io
795407ca 269 sync=x Use sync writes if x and writing buffered IO.
ebac4655 270 mem=x If x == malloc, use malloc for buffers. If x == shm,
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271 use shared memory for buffers. If x == mmap, use
272 anonymous mmap.
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273 exitall When one thread quits, terminate the others
274 bwavgtime=x Average bandwidth stats over an x msec window.
275 create_serialize=x If 'x', serialize file creation.
276 create_fsync=x If 'x', run fsync() after file creation.
f6cbb269 277 unlink If set, unlink files when done.
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278 loops=x Run the job 'x' number of times.
279 verify=x If 'x' == md5, use md5 for verifies. If 'x' == crc32,
280 use crc32 for verifies. md5 is 'safer', but crc32 is
281 a lot faster. Only makes sense for writing to a file.
bac39e0e 282 For other types of checksumming, see HOWTO.
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283 stonewall Wait for preceeding jobs to end before running.
284 numjobs=x Create 'x' similar entries for this job
285 thread Use pthreads instead of forked jobs
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286 zonesize=x
287 zoneskip=y Zone options must be paired. If given, the job
288 will skip y bytes for every x read/written. This
289 can be used to gauge hard drive speed over the entire
290 platter, without reading everything. Both x/y can
291 include k/m/g suffix.
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292 read_iolog=x Open and read io pattern from file 'x'. The file format
293 is described in the HOWTO.
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294 write_iolog=x Write an iolog to file 'x' in the same format as iolog.
295 The iolog options are exclusive, if both given the
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296 read iolog will be performed. Specify a separate file
297 for each job, otherwise the iologs will be interspersed
298 and the file may be corrupt.
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299 write_bw_log Write a bandwidth log.
300 write_lat_log Write a latency log.
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301 lockmem=x Lock down x amount of memory on the machine, to
302 simulate a machine with less memory available. x can
303 include k/m/g suffix.
b6f4d880 304 nice=x Run job at given nice value.
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305 exec_prerun=x Run 'x' before job io is begun.
306 exec_postrun=x Run 'x' after job io has finished.
da86774e 307 ioscheduler=x Use ioscheduler 'x' for this job.
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308 cpuload=x For a CPU io thread, percentage of CPU time to attempt
309 to burn.
ba0fbe10 310 cpuchunks=x Split burn cycles into pieces of x usecs.
ebac4655 311
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313
314Platforms
315---------
316
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317Fio works on (at least) Linux, Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, OSX, NetBSD, Windows
318and FreeBSD. Some features and/or options may only be available on some of
319the platforms, typically because those features only apply to that platform
320(like the solarisaio engine, or the splice engine on Linux).
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321
322Some features are not available on FreeBSD/Solaris even if they could be
323implemented, I'd be happy to take patches for that. An example of that is
324disk utility statistics and (I think) huge page support, support for that
325does exist in FreeBSD/Solaris.
326
327Fio uses pthread mutexes for signalling and locking and FreeBSD does not
328support process shared pthread mutexes. As a result, only threads are
329supported on FreeBSD. This could be fixed with sysv ipc locking or
330other locking alternatives.
331
332Other *BSD platforms are untested, but fio should work there almost out
333of the box. Since I don't do test runs or even compiles on those platforms,
334your mileage may vary. Sending me patches for other platforms is greatly
335appreciated. There's a lot of value in having the same test/benchmark tool
336available on all platforms.
337
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338Note that POSIX aio is not enabled by default on AIX. If you get messages like:
339
340 Symbol resolution failed for /usr/lib/libc.a(posix_aio.o) because:
341 Symbol _posix_kaio_rdwr (number 2) is not exported from dependent module /unix.
342
343you need to enable POSIX aio. Run the following commands as root:
344
345 # lsdev -C -l posix_aio0
346 posix_aio0 Defined Posix Asynchronous I/O
347 # cfgmgr -l posix_aio0
348 # lsdev -C -l posix_aio0
349 posix_aio0 Available Posix Asynchronous I/O
350
351POSIX aio should work now. To make the change permanent:
352
353 # chdev -l posix_aio0 -P -a autoconfig='available'
354 posix_aio0 changed
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355
356
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357Author
358------
359
aae22ca7 360Fio was written by Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> to enable flexible testing
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361of the Linux IO subsystem and schedulers. He got tired of writing
362specific test applications to simulate a given workload, and found that
363the existing io benchmark/test tools out there weren't flexible enough
364to do what he wanted.
365
aae22ca7 366Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> 20060905
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