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-rw-r--r--Documentation/block/00-INDEX2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt517
-rw-r--r--block/Kconfig.iosched11
-rw-r--r--block/Makefile1
-rw-r--r--block/bfq-iosched.c4166
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diff --git a/Documentation/block/00-INDEX b/Documentation/block/00-INDEX
index e55103a..8d55b4b 100644
--- a/Documentation/block/00-INDEX
+++ b/Documentation/block/00-INDEX
@@ -1,5 +1,7 @@
00-INDEX
- This file
+bfq-iosched.txt
+ - BFQ IO scheduler and its tunables
biodoc.txt
- Notes on the Generic Block Layer Rewrite in Linux 2.5
biovecs.txt
diff --git a/Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt b/Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cbf85f6f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,517 @@
+BFQ (Budget Fair Queueing)
+==========================
+
+BFQ is a proportional-share I/O scheduler, with some extra
+low-latency capabilities. In addition to cgroups support (blkio or io
+controllers), BFQ's main features are:
+- BFQ guarantees a high system and application responsiveness, and a
+ low latency for time-sensitive applications, such as audio or video
+ players;
+- BFQ distributes bandwidth, and not just time, among processes or
+ groups (switching back to time distribution when needed to keep
+ throughput high).
+
+On average CPUs, the current version of BFQ can handle devices
+performing at most ~30K IOPS; at most ~50 KIOPS on faster CPUs. As a
+reference, 30-50 KIOPS correspond to very high bandwidths with
+sequential I/O (e.g., 8-12 GB/s if I/O requests are 256 KB large), and
+to 120-200 MB/s with 4KB random I/O. BFQ has not yet been tested on
+multi-queue devices.
+
+The table of contents follow. Impatients can just jump to Section 3.
+
+CONTENTS
+
+1. When may BFQ be useful?
+ 1-1 Personal systems
+ 1-2 Server systems
+2. How does BFQ work?
+3. What are BFQ's tunable?
+4. BFQ group scheduling
+ 4-1 Service guarantees provided
+ 4-2 Interface
+
+1. When may BFQ be useful?
+==========================
+
+BFQ provides the following benefits on personal and server systems.
+
+1-1 Personal systems
+--------------------
+
+Low latency for interactive applications
+
+Regardless of the actual background workload, BFQ guarantees that, for
+interactive tasks, the storage device is virtually as responsive as if
+it was idle. For example, even if one or more of the following
+background workloads are being executed:
+- one or more large files are being read, written or copied,
+- a tree of source files is being compiled,
+- one or more virtual machines are performing I/O,
+- a software update is in progress,
+- indexing daemons are scanning filesystems and updating their
+ databases,
+starting an application or loading a file from within an application
+takes about the same time as if the storage device was idle. As a
+comparison, with CFQ, NOOP or DEADLINE, and in the same conditions,
+applications experience high latencies, or even become unresponsive
+until the background workload terminates (also on SSDs).
+
+Low latency for soft real-time applications
+
+Also soft real-time applications, such as audio and video
+players/streamers, enjoy a low latency and a low drop rate, regardless
+of the background I/O workload. As a consequence, these applications
+do not suffer from almost any glitch due to the background workload.
+
+Higher speed for code-development tasks
+
+If some additional workload happens to be executed in parallel, then
+BFQ executes the I/O-related components of typical code-development
+tasks (compilation, checkout, merge, ...) much more quickly than CFQ,
+NOOP or DEADLINE.
+
+High throughput
+
+On hard disks, BFQ achieves up to 30% higher throughput than CFQ, and
+up to 150% higher throughput than DEADLINE and NOOP, with all the
+sequential workloads considered in our tests. With random workloads,
+and with all the workloads on flash-based devices, BFQ achieves,
+instead, about the same throughput as the other schedulers.
+
+Strong fairness, bandwidth and delay guarantees
+
+BFQ distributes the device throughput, and not just the device time,
+among I/O-bound applications in proportion their weights, with any
+workload and regardless of the device parameters. From these bandwidth
+guarantees, it is possible to compute tight per-I/O-request delay
+guarantees by a simple formula. If not configured for strict service
+guarantees, BFQ switches to time-based resource sharing (only) for
+applications that would otherwise cause a throughput loss.
+
+1-2 Server systems
+------------------
+
+Most benefits for server systems follow from the same service
+properties as above. In particular, regardless of whether additional,
+possibly heavy workloads are being served, BFQ guarantees:
+
+. audio and video-streaming with zero or very low jitter and drop
+ rate;
+
+. fast retrieval of WEB pages and embedded objects;
+
+. real-time recording of data in live-dumping applications (e.g.,
+ packet logging);
+
+. responsiveness in local and remote access to a server.
+
+
+2. How does BFQ work?
+=====================
+
+BFQ is a proportional-share I/O scheduler, whose general structure,
+plus a lot of code, are borrowed from CFQ.
+
+- Each process doing I/O on a device is associated with a weight and a
+ (bfq_)queue.
+
+- BFQ grants exclusive access to the device, for a while, to one queue
+ (process) at a time, and implements this service model by
+ associating every queue with a budget, measured in number of
+ sectors.
+
+ - After a queue is granted access to the device, the budget of the
+ queue is decremented, on each request dispatch, by the size of the
+ request.
+
+ - The in-service queue is expired, i.e., its service is suspended,
+ only if one of the following events occurs: 1) the queue finishes
+ its budget, 2) the queue empties, 3) a "budget timeout" fires.
+
+ - The budget timeout prevents processes doing random I/O from
+ holding the device for too long and dramatically reducing
+ throughput.
+
+ - Actually, as in CFQ, a queue associated with a process issuing
+ sync requests may not be expired immediately when it empties. In
+ contrast, BFQ may idle the device for a short time interval,
+ giving the process the chance to go on being served if it issues
+ a new request in time. Device idling typically boosts the
+ throughput on rotational devices, if processes do synchronous
+ and sequential I/O. In addition, under BFQ, device idling is
+ also instrumental in guaranteeing the desired throughput
+ fraction to processes issuing sync requests (see the description
+ of the slice_idle tunable in this document, or [1, 2], for more
+ details).
+
+ - With respect to idling for service guarantees, if several
+ processes are competing for the device at the same time, but
+ all processes (and groups, after the following commit) have
+ the same weight, then BFQ guarantees the expected throughput
+ distribution without ever idling the device. Throughput is
+ thus as high as possible in this common scenario.
+
+ - If low-latency mode is enabled (default configuration), BFQ
+ executes some special heuristics to detect interactive and soft
+ real-time applications (e.g., video or audio players/streamers),
+ and to reduce their latency. The most important action taken to
+ achieve this goal is to give to the queues associated with these
+ applications more than their fair share of the device
+ throughput. For brevity, we call just "weight-raising" the whole
+ sets of actions taken by BFQ to privilege these queues. In
+ particular, BFQ provides a milder form of weight-raising for
+ interactive applications, and a stronger form for soft real-time
+ applications.
+
+ - BFQ automatically deactivates idling for queues born in a burst of
+ queue creations. In fact, these queues are usually associated with
+ the processes of applications and services that benefit mostly
+ from a high throughput. Examples are systemd during boot, or git
+ grep.
+
+ - As CFQ, BFQ merges queues performing interleaved I/O, i.e.,
+ performing random I/O that becomes mostly sequential if
+ merged. Differently from CFQ, BFQ achieves this goal with a more
+ reactive mechanism, called Early Queue Merge (EQM). EQM is so
+ responsive in detecting interleaved I/O (cooperating processes),
+ that it enables BFQ to achieve a high throughput, by queue
+ merging, even for queues for which CFQ needs a different
+ mechanism, preemption, to get a high throughput. As such EQM is a
+ unified mechanism to achieve a high throughput with interleaved
+ I/O.
+
+ - Queues are scheduled according to a variant of WF2Q+, named
+ B-WF2Q+, and implemented using an augmented rb-tree to preserve an
+ O(log N) overall complexity. See [2] for more details. B-WF2Q+ is
+ also ready for hierarchical scheduling. However, for a cleaner
+ logical breakdown, the code that enables and completes
+ hierarchical support is provided in the next commit, which focuses
+ exactly on this feature.
+
+ - B-WF2Q+ guarantees a tight deviation with respect to an ideal,
+ perfectly fair, and smooth service. In particular, B-WF2Q+
+ guarantees that each queue receives a fraction of the device
+ throughput proportional to its weight, even if the throughput
+ fluctuates, and regardless of: the device parameters, the current
+ workload and the budgets assigned to the queue.
+
+ - The last, budget-independence, property (although probably
+ counterintuitive in the first place) is definitely beneficial, for
+ the following reasons:
+
+ - First, with any proportional-share scheduler, the maximum
+ deviation with respect to an ideal service is proportional to
+ the maximum budget (slice) assigned to queues. As a consequence,
+ BFQ can keep this deviation tight not only because of the
+ accurate service of B-WF2Q+, but also because BFQ *does not*
+ need to assign a larger budget to a queue to let the queue
+ receive a higher fraction of the device throughput.
+
+ - Second, BFQ is free to choose, for every process (queue), the
+ budget that best fits the needs of the process, or best
+ leverages the I/O pattern of the process. In particular, BFQ
+ updates queue budgets with a simple feedback-loop algorithm that
+ allows a high throughput to be achieved, while still providing
+ tight latency guarantees to time-sensitive applications. When
+ the in-service queue expires, this algorithm computes the next
+ budget of the queue so as to:
+
+ - Let large budgets be eventually assigned to the queues
+ associated with I/O-bound applications performing sequential
+ I/O: in fact, the longer these applications are served once
+ got access to the device, the higher the throughput is.
+
+ - Let small budgets be eventually assigned to the queues
+ associated with time-sensitive applications (which typically
+ perform sporadic and short I/O), because, the smaller the
+ budget assigned to a queue waiting for service is, the sooner
+ B-WF2Q+ will serve that queue (Subsec 3.3 in [2]).
+
+- If several processes are competing for the device at the same time,
+ but all processes and groups have the same weight, then BFQ
+ guarantees the expected throughput distribution without ever idling
+ the device. It uses preemption instead. Throughput is then much
+ higher in this common scenario.
+
+- ioprio classes are served in strict priority order, i.e.,
+ lower-priority queues are not served as long as there are
+ higher-priority queues. Among queues in the same class, the
+ bandwidth is distributed in proportion to the weight of each
+ queue. A very thin extra bandwidth is however guaranteed to
+ the Idle class, to prevent it from starving.
+
+
+3. What are BFQ's tunable?
+==========================
+
+The tunables back_seek-max, back_seek_penalty, fifo_expire_async and
+fifo_expire_sync below are the same as in CFQ. Their description is
+just copied from that for CFQ. Some considerations in the description
+of slice_idle are copied from CFQ too.
+
+per-process ioprio and weight
+-----------------------------
+
+Unless the cgroups interface is used, weights can be assigned to
+processes only indirectly, through I/O priorities, and according to
+the relation: weight = (IOPRIO_BE_NR - ioprio) * 10.
+
+slice_idle
+----------
+
+This parameter specifies how long BFQ should idle for next I/O
+request, when certain sync BFQ queues become empty. By default
+slice_idle is a non-zero value. Idling has a double purpose: boosting
+throughput and making sure that the desired throughput distribution is
+respected (see the description of how BFQ works, and, if needed, the
+papers referred there).
+
+As for throughput, idling can be very helpful on highly seeky media
+like single spindle SATA/SAS disks where we can cut down on overall
+number of seeks and see improved throughput.
+
+Setting slice_idle to 0 will remove all the idling on queues and one
+should see an overall improved throughput on faster storage devices
+like multiple SATA/SAS disks in hardware RAID configuration.
+
+So depending on storage and workload, it might be useful to set
+slice_idle=0. In general for SATA/SAS disks and software RAID of
+SATA/SAS disks keeping slice_idle enabled should be useful. For any
+configurations where there are multiple spindles behind single LUN
+(Host based hardware RAID controller or for storage arrays), setting
+slice_idle=0 might end up in better throughput and acceptable
+latencies.
+
+Idling is however necessary to have service guarantees enforced in
+case of differentiated weights or differentiated I/O-request lengths.
+To see why, suppose that a given BFQ queue A must get several I/O
+requests served for each request served for another queue B. Idling
+ensures that, if A makes a new I/O request slightly after becoming
+empty, then no request of B is dispatched in the middle, and thus A
+does not lose the possibility to get more than one request dispatched
+before the next request of B is dispatched. Note that idling
+guarantees the desired differentiated treatment of queues only in
+terms of I/O-request dispatches. To guarantee that the actual service
+order then corresponds to the dispatch order, the strict_guarantees
+tunable must be set too.
+
+There is an important flipside for idling: apart from the above cases
+where it is beneficial also for throughput, idling can severely impact
+throughput. One important case is random workload. Because of this
+issue, BFQ tends to avoid idling as much as possible, when it is not
+beneficial also for throughput. As a consequence of this behavior, and
+of further issues described for the strict_guarantees tunable,
+short-term service guarantees may be occasionally violated. And, in
+some cases, these guarantees may be more important than guaranteeing
+maximum throughput. For example, in video playing/streaming, a very
+low drop rate may be more important than maximum throughput. In these
+cases, consider setting the strict_guarantees parameter.
+
+strict_guarantees
+-----------------
+
+If this parameter is set (default: unset), then BFQ
+
+- always performs idling when the in-service queue becomes empty;
+
+- forces the device to serve one I/O request at a time, by dispatching a
+ new request only if there is no outstanding request.
+
+In the presence of differentiated weights or I/O-request sizes, both
+the above conditions are needed to guarantee that every BFQ queue
+receives its allotted share of the bandwidth. The first condition is
+needed for the reasons explained in the description of the slice_idle
+tunable. The second condition is needed because all modern storage
+devices reorder internally-queued requests, which may trivially break
+the service guarantees enforced by the I/O scheduler.
+
+Setting strict_guarantees may evidently affect throughput.
+
+back_seek_max
+-------------
+
+This specifies, given in Kbytes, the maximum "distance" for backward seeking.
+The distance is the amount of space from the current head location to the
+sectors that are backward in terms of distance.
+
+This parameter allows the scheduler to anticipate requests in the "backward"
+direction and consider them as being the "next" if they are within this
+distance from the current head location.
+
+back_seek_penalty
+-----------------
+
+This parameter is used to compute the cost of backward seeking. If the
+backward distance of request is just 1/back_seek_penalty from a "front"
+request, then the seeking cost of two requests is considered equivalent.
+
+So scheduler will not bias toward one or the other request (otherwise scheduler
+will bias toward front request). Default value of back_seek_penalty is 2.
+
+fifo_expire_async
+-----------------
+
+This parameter is used to set the timeout of asynchronous requests. Default
+value of this is 248ms.
+
+fifo_expire_sync
+----------------
+
+This parameter is used to set the timeout of synchronous requests. Default
+value of this is 124ms. In case to favor synchronous requests over asynchronous
+one, this value should be decreased relative to fifo_expire_async.
+
+low_latency
+-----------
+
+This parameter is used to enable/disable BFQ's low latency mode. By
+default, low latency mode is enabled. If enabled, interactive and soft
+real-time applications are privileged and experience a lower latency,
+as explained in more detail in the description of how BFQ works.
+
+timeout_sync
+------------
+
+Maximum amount of device time that can be given to a task (queue) once
+it has been selected for service. On devices with costly seeks,
+increasing this time usually increases maximum throughput. On the
+opposite end, increasing this time coarsens the granularity of the
+short-term bandwidth and latency guarantees, especially if the
+following parameter is set to zero.
+
+max_budget
+----------
+
+Maximum amount of service, measured in sectors, that can be provided
+to a BFQ queue once it is set in service (of course within the limits
+of the above timeout). According to what said in the description of
+the algorithm, larger values increase the throughput in proportion to
+the percentage of sequential I/O requests issued. The price of larger
+values is that they coarsen the granularity of short-term bandwidth
+and latency guarantees.
+
+The default value is 0, which enables auto-tuning: BFQ sets max_budget
+to the maximum number of sectors that can be served during
+timeout_sync, according to the estimated peak rate.
+
+weights
+-------
+
+Read-only parameter, used to show the weights of the currently active
+BFQ queues.
+
+
+wr_ tunables
+------------
+
+BFQ exports a few parameters to control/tune the behavior of
+low-latency heuristics.
+
+wr_coeff
+
+Factor by which the weight of a weight-raised queue is multiplied. If
+the queue is deemed soft real-time, then the weight is further
+multiplied by an additional, constant factor.
+
+wr_max_time
+
+Maximum duration of a weight-raising period for an interactive task
+(ms). If set to zero (default value), then this value is computed
+automatically, as a function of the peak rate of the device. In any
+case, when the value of this parameter is read, it always reports the
+current duration, regardless of whether it has been set manually or
+computed automatically.
+
+wr_max_softrt_rate
+
+Maximum service rate below which a queue is deemed to be associated
+with a soft real-time application, and is then weight-raised
+accordingly (sectors/sec).
+
+wr_min_idle_time
+
+Minimum idle period after which interactive weight-raising may be
+reactivated for a queue (in ms).
+
+wr_rt_max_time
+
+Maximum weight-raising duration for soft real-time queues (in ms). The
+start time from which this duration is considered is automatically
+moved forward if the queue is detected to be still soft real-time
+before the current soft real-time weight-raising period finishes.
+
+wr_min_inter_arr_async
+
+Minimum period between I/O request arrivals after which weight-raising
+may be reactivated for an already busy async queue (in ms).
+
+
+4. Group scheduling with BFQ
+============================
+
+BFQ supports both cgroup-v1 and cgroup-v2 io controllers, namely blkio
+and io. In particular, BFQ supports weight-based proportional
+share.
+
+4-1 Service guarantees provided
+-------------------------------
+
+With BFQ, proportional share means true proportional share of the
+device bandwidth, according to group weights. For example, a group
+with weight 200 gets twice the bandwidth, and not just twice the time,
+of a group with weight 100.
+
+BFQ supports hierarchies (group trees) of any depth. Bandwidth is
+distributed among groups and processes in the expected way: for each
+group, the children of the group share the whole bandwidth of the
+group in proportion to their weights. In particular, this implies
+that, for each leaf group, every process of the group receives the
+same share of the whole group bandwidth, unless the ioprio of the
+process is modified.
+
+The resource-sharing guarantee for a group may partially or totally
+switch from bandwidth to time, if providing bandwidth guarantees to
+the group lowers the throughput too much. This switch occurs on a
+per-process basis: if a process of a leaf group causes throughput loss
+if served in such a way to receive its share of the bandwidth, then
+BFQ switches back to just time-based proportional share for that
+process.
+
+4-2 Interface
+-------------
+
+To get proportional sharing of bandwidth with BFQ for a given device,
+BFQ must of course be the active scheduler for that device.
+
+Within each group directory, the names of the files associated with
+BFQ-specific cgroup parameters and stats begin with the "bfq."
+prefix. So, with cgroups-v1 or cgroups-v2, the full prefix for
+BFQ-specific files is "blkio.bfq." or "io.bfq." For example, the group
+parameter to set the weight of a group with BFQ is blkio.bfq.weight
+or io.bfq.weight.
+
+Parameters to set
+-----------------
+
+For each group, there is only the following parameter to set.
+
+weight (namely blkio.bfq.weight or io.bfq-weight): the weight of the
+group inside its parent. Available values: 1..10000 (default 100). The
+linear mapping between ioprio and weights, described at the beginning
+of the tunable section, is still valid, but all weights higher than
+IOPRIO_BE_NR*10 are mapped to ioprio 0.
+
+
+[1] P. Valente, A. Avanzini, "Evolution of the BFQ Storage I/O
+ Scheduler", Proceedings of the First Workshop on Mobile System
+ Technologies (MST-2015), May 2015.
+ http://algogroup.unimore.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/mst-2015.pdf
+
+[2] P. Valente and M. Andreolini, "Improving Application
+ Responsiveness with the BFQ Disk I/O Scheduler", Proceedings of
+ the 5th Annual International Systems and Storage Conference
+ (SYSTOR '12), June 2012.
+ Slightly extended version:
+ http://algogroup.unimore.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/bfq-v1-suite-
+ results.pdf
diff --git a/block/Kconfig.iosched b/block/Kconfig.iosched
index 916e69c..6fc3602 100644
--- a/block/Kconfig.iosched
+++ b/block/Kconfig.iosched
@@ -78,6 +78,17 @@ config MQ_IOSCHED_KYBER
synchronous writes, it will self-tune queue depths to achieve that
goal.
+config IOSCHED_BFQ
+ tristate "BFQ I/O scheduler"
+ default n
+ ---help---
+ BFQ I/O scheduler for BLK-MQ. BFQ distributes the bandwidth of
+ of the device among all processes according to their weights,
+ regardless of the device parameters and with any workload. It
+ also guarantees a low latency to interactive and soft
+ real-time applications. Details in
+ Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt
+
endmenu
endif
diff --git a/block/Makefile b/block/Makefile
index 6146d2e..4c1d68c 100644
--- a/block/Makefile
+++ b/block/Makefile
@@ -21,6 +21,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_IOSCHED_DEADLINE) += deadline-iosched.o
obj-$(CONFIG_IOSCHED_CFQ) += cfq-iosched.o
obj-$(CONFIG_MQ_IOSCHED_DEADLINE) += mq-deadline.o
obj-$(CONFIG_MQ_IOSCHED_KYBER) += kyber-iosched.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_IOSCHED_BFQ) += bfq-iosched.o
obj-$(CONFIG_BLOCK_COMPAT) += compat_ioctl.o
obj-$(CONFIG_BLK_CMDLINE_PARSER) += cmdline-parser.o
diff --git a/block/bfq-iosched.c b/block/bfq-iosched.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c4e7d8d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/block/bfq-iosched.c
@@ -0,0 +1,4166 @@
+/*
+ * Budget Fair Queueing (BFQ) I/O scheduler.
+ *
+ * Based on ideas and code from CFQ:
+ * Copyright (C) 2003 Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2008 Fabio Checconi <fabio@gandalf.sssup.it>
+ * Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2010 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
+ * Arianna Avanzini <avanzini@google.com>
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2017 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the
+ * License, or (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
+ * General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * BFQ is a proportional-share I/O scheduler, with some extra
+ * low-latency capabilities. BFQ also supports full hierarchical
+ * scheduling through cgroups. Next paragraphs provide an introduction
+ * on BFQ inner workings. Details on BFQ benefits, usage and
+ * limitations can be found in Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt.
+ *
+ * BFQ is a proportional-share storage-I/O scheduling algorithm based
+ * on the slice-by-slice service scheme of CFQ. But BFQ assigns
+ * budgets, measured in number of sectors, to processes instead of
+ * time slices. The device is not granted to the in-service process
+ * for a given time slice, but until it has exhausted its assigned
+ * budget. This change from the time to the service domain enables BFQ
+ * to distribute the device throughput among processes as desired,
+ * without any distortion due to throughput fluctuations, or to device
+ * internal queueing. BFQ uses an ad hoc internal scheduler, called
+ * B-WF2Q+, to schedule processes according to their budgets. More
+ * precisely, BFQ schedules queues associated with processes. Each
+ * process/queue is assigned a user-configurable weight, and B-WF2Q+
+ * guarantees that each queue receives a fraction of the throughput
+ * proportional to its weight. Thanks to the accurate policy of
+ * B-WF2Q+, BFQ can afford to assign high budgets to I/O-bound
+ * processes issuing sequential requests (to boost the throughput),
+ * and yet guarantee a low latency to interactive and soft real-time
+ * applications.
+ *
+ * In particular, to provide these low-latency guarantees, BFQ
+ * explicitly privileges the I/O of two classes of time-sensitive
+ * applications: interactive and soft real-time. This feature enables
+ * BFQ to provide applications in these classes with a very low
+ * latency. Finally, BFQ also features additional heuristics for
+ * preserving both a low latency and a high throughput on NCQ-capable,
+ * rotational or flash-based devices, and to get the job done quickly
+ * for applications consisting in many I/O-bound processes.
+ *
+ * BFQ is described in [1], where also a reference to the initial, more
+ * theoretical paper on BFQ can be found. The interested reader can find
+ * in the latter paper full details on the main algorithm, as well as
+ * formulas of the guarantees and formal proofs of all the properties.
+ * With respect to the version of BFQ presented in these papers, this
+ * implementation adds a few more heuristics, such as the one that
+ * guarantees a low latency to soft real-time applications, and a
+ * hierarchical extension based on H-WF2Q+.
+ *
+ * B-WF2Q+ is based on WF2Q+, which is described in [2], together with
+ * H-WF2Q+, while the augmented tree used here to implement B-WF2Q+
+ * with O(log N) complexity derives from the one introduced with EEVDF
+ * in [3].
+ *
+ * [1] P. Valente, A. Avanzini, "Evolution of the BFQ Storage I/O
+ * Scheduler", Proceedings of the First Workshop on Mobile System
+ * Technologies (MST-2015), May 2015.
+ * http://algogroup.unimore.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/mst-2015.pdf
+ *
+ * [2] Jon C.R. Bennett and H. Zhang, "Hierarchical Packet Fair Queueing
+ * Algorithms", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 5(5):675-689,
+ * Oct 1997.
+ *
+ * http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~hzhang/papers/TON-97-Oct.ps.gz
+ *
+ * [3] I. Stoica and H. Abdel-Wahab, "Earliest Eligible Virtual Deadline
+ * First: A Flexible and Accurate Mechanism for Proportional Share
+ * Resource Allocation", technical report.
+ *
+ * http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~istoica/papers/eevdf-tr-95.pdf
+ */
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/blkdev.h>
+#include <linux/elevator.h>
+#include <linux/ktime.h>
+#include <linux/rbtree.h>
+#include <linux/ioprio.h>
+#include <linux/sbitmap.h>
+#include <linux/delay.h>
+
+#include "blk.h"
+#include "blk-mq.h"
+#include "blk-mq-tag.h"
+#include "blk-mq-sched.h"
+#include <linux/blktrace_api.h>
+#include <linux/hrtimer.h>
+#include <linux/blk-cgroup.h>
+
+#define BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES 3
+#define BFQ_CL_IDLE_TIMEOUT (HZ/5)
+
+#define BFQ_MIN_WEIGHT 1
+#define BFQ_MAX_WEIGHT 1000
+#define BFQ_WEIGHT_CONVERSION_COEFF 10
+
+#define BFQ_DEFAULT_QUEUE_IOPRIO 4
+
+#define BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_WEIGHT 10
+#define BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_IOPRIO 0
+#define BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_CLASS IOPRIO_CLASS_BE
+
+struct bfq_entity;
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_service_tree - per ioprio_class service tree.
+ *
+ * Each service tree represents a B-WF2Q+ scheduler on its own. Each
+ * ioprio_class has its own independent scheduler, and so its own
+ * bfq_service_tree. All the fields are protected by the queue lock
+ * of the containing bfqd.
+ */
+struct bfq_service_tree {
+ /* tree for active entities (i.e., those backlogged) */
+ struct rb_root active;
+ /* tree for idle entities (i.e., not backlogged, with V <= F_i)*/
+ struct rb_root idle;
+
+ /* idle entity with minimum F_i */
+ struct bfq_entity *first_idle;
+ /* idle entity with maximum F_i */
+ struct bfq_entity *last_idle;
+
+ /* scheduler virtual time */
+ u64 vtime;
+ /* scheduler weight sum; active and idle entities contribute to it */
+ unsigned long wsum;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_sched_data - multi-class scheduler.
+ *
+ * bfq_sched_data is the basic scheduler queue. It supports three
+ * ioprio_classes, and can be used either as a toplevel queue or as
+ * an intermediate queue on a hierarchical setup.
+ * @next_in_service points to the active entity of the sched_data
+ * service trees that will be scheduled next.
+ *
+ * The supported ioprio_classes are the same as in CFQ, in descending
+ * priority order, IOPRIO_CLASS_RT, IOPRIO_CLASS_BE, IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE.
+ * Requests from higher priority queues are served before all the
+ * requests from lower priority queues; among requests of the same
+ * queue requests are served according to B-WF2Q+.
+ * All the fields are protected by the queue lock of the containing bfqd.
+ */
+struct bfq_sched_data {
+ /* entity in service */
+ struct bfq_entity *in_service_entity;
+ /* head-of-the-line entity in the scheduler */
+ struct bfq_entity *next_in_service;
+ /* array of service trees, one per ioprio_class */
+ struct bfq_service_tree service_tree[BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES];
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_entity - schedulable entity.
+ *
+ * A bfq_entity is used to represent a bfq_queue (leaf node in the upper
+ * level scheduler). Each entity belongs to the sched_data of the parent
+ * group hierarchy. Non-leaf entities have also their own sched_data,
+ * stored in @my_sched_data.
+ *
+ * Each entity stores independently its priority values; this would
+ * allow different weights on different devices, but this
+ * functionality is not exported to userspace by now. Priorities and
+ * weights are updated lazily, first storing the new values into the
+ * new_* fields, then setting the @prio_changed flag. As soon as
+ * there is a transition in the entity state that allows the priority
+ * update to take place the effective and the requested priority
+ * values are synchronized.
+ *
+ * The weight value is calculated from the ioprio to export the same
+ * interface as CFQ. When dealing with ``well-behaved'' queues (i.e.,
+ * queues that do not spend too much time to consume their budget
+ * and have true sequential behavior, and when there are no external
+ * factors breaking anticipation) the relative weights at each level
+ * of the hierarchy should be guaranteed. All the fields are
+ * protected by the queue lock of the containing bfqd.
+ */
+struct bfq_entity {
+ /* service_tree member */
+ struct rb_node rb_node;
+
+ /*
+ * flag, true if the entity is on a tree (either the active or
+ * the idle one of its service_tree).
+ */
+ int on_st;
+
+ /* B-WF2Q+ start and finish timestamps [sectors/weight] */
+ u64 start, finish;
+
+ /* tree the entity is enqueued into; %NULL if not on a tree */
+ struct rb_root *tree;
+
+ /*
+ * minimum start time of the (active) subtree rooted at this
+ * entity; used for O(log N) lookups into active trees
+ */
+ u64 min_start;
+
+ /* amount of service received during the last service slot */
+ int service;
+
+ /* budget, used also to calculate F_i: F_i = S_i + @budget / @weight */
+ int budget;
+
+ /* weight of the queue */
+ int weight;
+ /* next weight if a change is in progress */
+ int new_weight;
+
+ /* original weight, used to implement weight boosting */
+ int orig_weight;
+
+ /* parent entity, for hierarchical scheduling */
+ struct bfq_entity *parent;
+
+ /*
+ * For non-leaf nodes in the hierarchy, the associated
+ * scheduler queue, %NULL on leaf nodes.
+ */
+ struct bfq_sched_data *my_sched_data;
+ /* the scheduler queue this entity belongs to */
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sched_data;
+
+ /* flag, set to request a weight, ioprio or ioprio_class change */
+ int prio_changed;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_ttime - per process thinktime stats.
+ */
+struct bfq_ttime {
+ /* completion time of the last request */
+ u64 last_end_request;
+
+ /* total process thinktime */
+ u64 ttime_total;
+ /* number of thinktime samples */
+ unsigned long ttime_samples;
+ /* average process thinktime */
+ u64 ttime_mean;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_queue - leaf schedulable entity.
+ *
+ * A bfq_queue is a leaf request queue; it can be associated with an
+ * io_context or more, if it is async.
+ */
+struct bfq_queue {
+ /* reference counter */
+ int ref;
+ /* parent bfq_data */
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd;
+
+ /* current ioprio and ioprio class */
+ unsigned short ioprio, ioprio_class;
+ /* next ioprio and ioprio class if a change is in progress */
+ unsigned short new_ioprio, new_ioprio_class;
+
+ /* sorted list of pending requests */
+ struct rb_root sort_list;
+ /* if fifo isn't expired, next request to serve */
+ struct request *next_rq;
+ /* number of sync and async requests queued */
+ int queued[2];
+ /* number of requests currently allocated */
+ int allocated;
+ /* number of pending metadata requests */
+ int meta_pending;
+ /* fifo list of requests in sort_list */
+ struct list_head fifo;
+
+ /* entity representing this queue in the scheduler */
+ struct bfq_entity entity;
+
+ /* maximum budget allowed from the feedback mechanism */
+ int max_budget;
+ /* budget expiration (in jiffies) */
+ unsigned long budget_timeout;
+
+ /* number of requests on the dispatch list or inside driver */
+ int dispatched;
+
+ /* status flags */
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ /* node for active/idle bfqq list inside parent bfqd */
+ struct list_head bfqq_list;
+
+ /* associated @bfq_ttime struct */
+ struct bfq_ttime ttime;
+
+ /* bit vector: a 1 for each seeky requests in history */
+ u32 seek_history;
+ /* position of the last request enqueued */
+ sector_t last_request_pos;
+
+ /* Number of consecutive pairs of request completion and
+ * arrival, such that the queue becomes idle after the
+ * completion, but the next request arrives within an idle
+ * time slice; used only if the queue's IO_bound flag has been
+ * cleared.
+ */
+ unsigned int requests_within_timer;
+
+ /* pid of the process owning the queue, used for logging purposes */
+ pid_t pid;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_io_cq - per (request_queue, io_context) structure.
+ */
+struct bfq_io_cq {
+ /* associated io_cq structure */
+ struct io_cq icq; /* must be the first member */
+ /* array of two process queues, the sync and the async */
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq[2];
+ /* per (request_queue, blkcg) ioprio */
+ int ioprio;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_data - per-device data structure.
+ *
+ * All the fields are protected by @lock.
+ */
+struct bfq_data {
+ /* device request queue */
+ struct request_queue *queue;
+ /* dispatch queue */
+ struct list_head dispatch;
+
+ /* root @bfq_sched_data for the device */
+ struct bfq_sched_data sched_data;
+
+ /*
+ * Number of bfq_queues containing requests (including the
+ * queue in service, even if it is idling).
+ */
+ int busy_queues;
+ /* number of queued requests */
+ int queued;
+ /* number of requests dispatched and waiting for completion */
+ int rq_in_driver;
+
+ /*
+ * Maximum number of requests in driver in the last
+ * @hw_tag_samples completed requests.
+ */
+ int max_rq_in_driver;
+ /* number of samples used to calculate hw_tag */
+ int hw_tag_samples;
+ /* flag set to one if the driver is showing a queueing behavior */
+ int hw_tag;
+
+ /* number of budgets assigned */
+ int budgets_assigned;
+
+ /*
+ * Timer set when idling (waiting) for the next request from
+ * the queue in service.
+ */
+ struct hrtimer idle_slice_timer;
+
+ /* bfq_queue in service */
+ struct bfq_queue *in_service_queue;
+ /* bfq_io_cq (bic) associated with the @in_service_queue */
+ struct bfq_io_cq *in_service_bic;
+
+ /* on-disk position of the last served request */
+ sector_t last_position;
+
+ /* beginning of the last budget */
+ ktime_t last_budget_start;
+ /* beginning of the last idle slice */
+ ktime_t last_idling_start;
+ /* number of samples used to calculate @peak_rate */
+ int peak_rate_samples;
+ /*
+ * Peak read/write rate, observed during the service of a
+ * budget [BFQ_RATE_SHIFT * sectors/usec]. The value is
+ * left-shifted by BFQ_RATE_SHIFT to increase precision in
+ * fixed-point calculations.
+ */
+ u64 peak_rate;
+ /* maximum budget allotted to a bfq_queue before rescheduling */
+ int bfq_max_budget;
+
+ /* list of all the bfq_queues active on the device */
+ struct list_head active_list;
+ /* list of all the bfq_queues idle on the device */
+ struct list_head idle_list;
+
+ /*
+ * Timeout for async/sync requests; when it fires, requests
+ * are served in fifo order.
+ */
+ u64 bfq_fifo_expire[2];
+ /* weight of backward seeks wrt forward ones */
+ unsigned int bfq_back_penalty;
+ /* maximum allowed backward seek */
+ unsigned int bfq_back_max;
+ /* maximum idling time */
+ u32 bfq_slice_idle;
+ /* last time CLASS_IDLE was served */
+ u64 bfq_class_idle_last_service;
+
+ /* user-configured max budget value (0 for auto-tuning) */
+ int bfq_user_max_budget;
+ /*
+ * Timeout for bfq_queues to consume their budget; used to
+ * prevent seeky queues from imposing long latencies to
+ * sequential or quasi-sequential ones (this also implies that
+ * seeky queues cannot receive guarantees in the service
+ * domain; after a timeout they are charged for the time they
+ * have been in service, to preserve fairness among them, but
+ * without service-domain guarantees).
+ */
+ unsigned int bfq_timeout;
+
+ /*
+ * Number of consecutive requests that must be issued within
+ * the idle time slice to set again idling to a queue which
+ * was marked as non-I/O-bound (see the definition of the
+ * IO_bound flag for further details).
+ */
+ unsigned int bfq_requests_within_timer;
+
+ /*
+ * Force device idling whenever needed to provide accurate
+ * service guarantees, without caring about throughput
+ * issues. CAVEAT: this may even increase latencies, in case
+ * of useless idling for processes that did stop doing I/O.
+ */
+ bool strict_guarantees;
+
+ /* fallback dummy bfqq for extreme OOM conditions */
+ struct bfq_queue oom_bfqq;
+
+ spinlock_t lock;
+
+ /*
+ * bic associated with the task issuing current bio for
+ * merging. This and the next field are used as a support to
+ * be able to perform the bic lookup, needed by bio-merge
+ * functions, before the scheduler lock is taken, and thus
+ * avoid taking the request-queue lock while the scheduler
+ * lock is being held.
+ */
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bio_bic;
+ /* bfqq associated with the task issuing current bio for merging */
+ struct bfq_queue *bio_bfqq;
+};
+
+enum bfqq_state_flags {
+ BFQQF_busy = 0, /* has requests or is in service */
+ BFQQF_wait_request, /* waiting for a request */
+ BFQQF_non_blocking_wait_rq, /*
+ * waiting for a request
+ * without idling the device
+ */
+ BFQQF_fifo_expire, /* FIFO checked in this slice */
+ BFQQF_idle_window, /* slice idling enabled */
+ BFQQF_sync, /* synchronous queue */
+ BFQQF_budget_new, /* no completion with this budget */
+ BFQQF_IO_bound, /*
+ * bfqq has timed-out at least once
+ * having consumed at most 2/10 of
+ * its budget
+ */
+};
+
+#define BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(name) \
+static void bfq_mark_bfqq_##name(struct bfq_queue *bfqq) \
+{ \
+ __set_bit(BFQQF_##name, &(bfqq)->flags); \
+} \
+static void bfq_clear_bfqq_##name(struct bfq_queue *bfqq) \
+{ \
+ __clear_bit(BFQQF_##name, &(bfqq)->flags); \
+} \
+static int bfq_bfqq_##name(const struct bfq_queue *bfqq) \
+{ \
+ return test_bit(BFQQF_##name, &(bfqq)->flags); \
+}
+
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(busy);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(wait_request);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(non_blocking_wait_rq);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(fifo_expire);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(idle_window);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(sync);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(budget_new);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(IO_bound);
+#undef BFQ_BFQQ_FNS
+
+/* Logging facilities. */
+#define bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, fmt, args...) \
+ blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "bfq%d " fmt, (bfqq)->pid, ##args)
+
+#define bfq_log(bfqd, fmt, args...) \
+ blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "bfq " fmt, ##args)
+
+/* Expiration reasons. */
+enum bfqq_expiration {
+ BFQQE_TOO_IDLE = 0, /*
+ * queue has been idling for
+ * too long
+ */
+ BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT, /* budget took too long to be used */
+ BFQQE_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED, /* budget consumed */
+ BFQQE_NO_MORE_REQUESTS, /* the queue has no more requests */
+ BFQQE_PREEMPTED /* preemption in progress */
+};
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_entity_to_bfqq(struct bfq_entity *entity);
+
+static struct bfq_service_tree *
+bfq_entity_service_tree(struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sched_data = entity->sched_data;
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+ unsigned int idx = bfqq ? bfqq->ioprio_class - 1 :
+ BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_CLASS - 1;
+
+ return sched_data->service_tree + idx;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bic_to_bfqq(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, bool is_sync)
+{
+ return bic->bfqq[is_sync];
+}
+
+static void bic_set_bfqq(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ bool is_sync)
+{
+ bic->bfqq[is_sync] = bfqq;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_data *bic_to_bfqd(struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
+{
+ return bic->icq.q->elevator->elevator_data;
+}
+
+static void bfq_check_ioprio_change(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bio *bio);
+static void bfq_put_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_get_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bio *bio, bool is_sync,
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic);
+static void bfq_exit_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
+
+/*
+ * Array of async queues for all the processes, one queue
+ * per ioprio value per ioprio_class.
+ */
+struct bfq_queue *async_bfqq[2][IOPRIO_BE_NR];
+/* Async queue for the idle class (ioprio is ignored) */
+struct bfq_queue *async_idle_bfqq;
+
+/* Expiration time of sync (0) and async (1) requests, in ns. */
+static const u64 bfq_fifo_expire[2] = { NSEC_PER_SEC / 4, NSEC_PER_SEC / 8 };
+
+/* Maximum backwards seek (magic number lifted from CFQ), in KiB. */
+static const int bfq_back_max = 16 * 1024;
+
+/* Penalty of a backwards seek, in number of sectors. */
+static const int bfq_back_penalty = 2;
+
+/* Idling period duration, in ns. */
+static u64 bfq_slice_idle = NSEC_PER_SEC / 125;
+
+/* Minimum number of assigned budgets for which stats are safe to compute. */
+static const int bfq_stats_min_budgets = 194;
+
+/* Default maximum budget values, in sectors and number of requests. */
+static const int bfq_default_max_budget = 16 * 1024;
+
+/* Default timeout values, in jiffies, approximating CFQ defaults. */
+static const int bfq_timeout = HZ / 8;
+
+static struct kmem_cache *bfq_pool;
+
+/* Below this threshold (in ms), we consider thinktime immediate. */
+#define BFQ_MIN_TT (2 * NSEC_PER_MSEC)
+
+/* hw_tag detection: parallel requests threshold and min samples needed. */
+#define BFQ_HW_QUEUE_THRESHOLD 4
+#define BFQ_HW_QUEUE_SAMPLES 32
+
+#define BFQQ_SEEK_THR (sector_t)(8 * 100)
+#define BFQQ_SECT_THR_NONROT (sector_t)(2 * 32)
+#define BFQQ_CLOSE_THR (sector_t)(8 * 1024)
+#define BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq) (hweight32(bfqq->seek_history) > 32/8)
+
+/* Budget feedback step. */
+#define BFQ_BUDGET_STEP 128
+
+/* Min samples used for peak rate estimation (for autotuning). */
+#define BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES 32
+
+/* Shift used for peak rate fixed precision calculations. */
+#define BFQ_RATE_SHIFT 16
+
+#define BFQ_SERVICE_TREE_INIT ((struct bfq_service_tree) \
+ { RB_ROOT, RB_ROOT, NULL, NULL, 0, 0 })
+
+#define RQ_BIC(rq) ((struct bfq_io_cq *) (rq)->elv.priv[0])
+#define RQ_BFQQ(rq) ((rq)->elv.priv[1])
+
+/**
+ * icq_to_bic - convert iocontext queue structure to bfq_io_cq.
+ * @icq: the iocontext queue.
+ */
+static struct bfq_io_cq *icq_to_bic(struct io_cq *icq)
+{
+ /* bic->icq is the first member, %NULL will convert to %NULL */
+ return container_of(icq, struct bfq_io_cq, icq);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_bic_lookup - search into @ioc a bic associated to @bfqd.
+ * @bfqd: the lookup key.
+ * @ioc: the io_context of the process doing I/O.
+ * @q: the request queue.
+ */
+static struct bfq_io_cq *bfq_bic_lookup(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct io_context *ioc,
+ struct request_queue *q)
+{
+ if (ioc) {
+ unsigned long flags;
+ struct bfq_io_cq *icq;
+
+ spin_lock_irqsave(q->queue_lock, flags);
+ icq = icq_to_bic(ioc_lookup_icq(ioc, q));
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(q->queue_lock, flags);
+
+ return icq;
+ }
+
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Next two macros are just fake loops for the moment. They will
+ * become true loops in the cgroups-enabled variant of the code. Such
+ * a variant, in its turn, will be introduced by next commit.
+ */
+#define for_each_entity(entity) \
+ for (; entity ; entity = NULL)
+
+#define for_each_entity_safe(entity, parent) \
+ for (parent = NULL; entity ; entity = parent)
+
+static int bfq_update_next_in_service(struct bfq_sched_data *sd)
+{
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void bfq_check_next_in_service(struct bfq_sched_data *sd,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+}
+
+static void bfq_update_budget(struct bfq_entity *next_in_service)
+{
+}
+
+/*
+ * Shift for timestamp calculations. This actually limits the maximum
+ * service allowed in one timestamp delta (small shift values increase it),
+ * the maximum total weight that can be used for the queues in the system
+ * (big shift values increase it), and the period of virtual time
+ * wraparounds.
+ */
+#define WFQ_SERVICE_SHIFT 22
+
+/**
+ * bfq_gt - compare two timestamps.
+ * @a: first ts.
+ * @b: second ts.
+ *
+ * Return @a > @b, dealing with wrapping correctly.
+ */
+static int bfq_gt(u64 a, u64 b)
+{
+ return (s64)(a - b) > 0;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_entity_to_bfqq(struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = NULL;
+
+ if (!entity->my_sched_data)
+ bfqq = container_of(entity, struct bfq_queue, entity);
+
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * bfq_delta - map service into the virtual time domain.
+ * @service: amount of service.
+ * @weight: scale factor (weight of an entity or weight sum).
+ */
+static u64 bfq_delta(unsigned long service, unsigned long weight)
+{
+ u64 d = (u64)service << WFQ_SERVICE_SHIFT;
+
+ do_div(d, weight);
+ return d;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_calc_finish - assign the finish time to an entity.
+ * @entity: the entity to act upon.
+ * @service: the service to be charged to the entity.
+ */
+static void bfq_calc_finish(struct bfq_entity *entity, unsigned long service)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+
+ entity->finish = entity->start +
+ bfq_delta(service, entity->weight);
+
+ if (bfqq) {
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+ "calc_finish: serv %lu, w %d",
+ service, entity->weight);
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+ "calc_finish: start %llu, finish %llu, delta %llu",
+ entity->start, entity->finish,
+ bfq_delta(service, entity->weight));
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_entity_of - get an entity from a node.
+ * @node: the node field of the entity.
+ *
+ * Convert a node pointer to the relative entity. This is used only
+ * to simplify the logic of some functions and not as the generic
+ * conversion mechanism because, e.g., in the tree walking functions,
+ * the check for a %NULL value would be redundant.
+ */
+static struct bfq_entity *bfq_entity_of(struct rb_node *node)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = NULL;
+
+ if (node)
+ entity = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+
+ return entity;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_extract - remove an entity from a tree.
+ * @root: the tree root.
+ * @entity: the entity to remove.
+ */
+static void bfq_extract(struct rb_root *root, struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ entity->tree = NULL;
+ rb_erase(&entity->rb_node, root);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_idle_extract - extract an entity from the idle tree.
+ * @st: the service tree of the owning @entity.
+ * @entity: the entity being removed.
+ */
+static void bfq_idle_extract(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+ struct rb_node *next;
+
+ if (entity == st->first_idle) {
+ next = rb_next(&entity->rb_node);
+ st->first_idle = bfq_entity_of(next);
+ }
+
+ if (entity == st->last_idle) {
+ next = rb_prev(&entity->rb_node);
+ st->last_idle = bfq_entity_of(next);
+ }
+
+ bfq_extract(&st->idle, entity);
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ list_del(&bfqq->bfqq_list);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_insert - generic tree insertion.
+ * @root: tree root.
+ * @entity: entity to insert.
+ *
+ * This is used for the idle and the active tree, since they are both
+ * ordered by finish time.
+ */
+static void bfq_insert(struct rb_root *root, struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entry;
+ struct rb_node **node = &root->rb_node;
+ struct rb_node *parent = NULL;
+
+ while (*node) {
+ parent = *node;
+ entry = rb_entry(parent, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+
+ if (bfq_gt(entry->finish, entity->finish))
+ node = &parent->rb_left;
+ else
+ node = &parent->rb_right;
+ }
+
+ rb_link_node(&entity->rb_node, parent, node);
+ rb_insert_color(&entity->rb_node, root);
+
+ entity->tree = root;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_update_min - update the min_start field of a entity.
+ * @entity: the entity to update.
+ * @node: one of its children.
+ *
+ * This function is called when @entity may store an invalid value for
+ * min_start due to updates to the active tree. The function assumes
+ * that the subtree rooted at @node (which may be its left or its right
+ * child) has a valid min_start value.
+ */
+static void bfq_update_min(struct bfq_entity *entity, struct rb_node *node)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *child;
+
+ if (node) {
+ child = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+ if (bfq_gt(entity->min_start, child->min_start))
+ entity->min_start = child->min_start;
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_update_active_node - recalculate min_start.
+ * @node: the node to update.
+ *
+ * @node may have changed position or one of its children may have moved,
+ * this function updates its min_start value. The left and right subtrees
+ * are assumed to hold a correct min_start value.
+ */
+static void bfq_update_active_node(struct rb_node *node)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+
+ entity->min_start = entity->start;
+ bfq_update_min(entity, node->rb_right);
+ bfq_update_min(entity, node->rb_left);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_update_active_tree - update min_start for the whole active tree.
+ * @node: the starting node.
+ *
+ * @node must be the deepest modified node after an update. This function
+ * updates its min_start using the values held by its children, assuming
+ * that they did not change, and then updates all the nodes that may have
+ * changed in the path to the root. The only nodes that may have changed
+ * are the ones in the path or their siblings.
+ */
+static void bfq_update_active_tree(struct rb_node *node)
+{
+ struct rb_node *parent;
+
+up:
+ bfq_update_active_node(node);
+
+ parent = rb_parent(node);
+ if (!parent)
+ return;
+
+ if (node == parent->rb_left && parent->rb_right)
+ bfq_update_active_node(parent->rb_right);
+ else if (parent->rb_left)
+ bfq_update_active_node(parent->rb_left);
+
+ node = parent;
+ goto up;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_active_insert - insert an entity in the active tree of its
+ * group/device.
+ * @st: the service tree of the entity.
+ * @entity: the entity being inserted.
+ *
+ * The active tree is ordered by finish time, but an extra key is kept
+ * per each node, containing the minimum value for the start times of
+ * its children (and the node itself), so it's possible to search for
+ * the eligible node with the lowest finish time in logarithmic time.
+ */
+static void bfq_active_insert(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+ struct rb_node *node = &entity->rb_node;
+
+ bfq_insert(&st->active, entity);
+
+ if (node->rb_left)
+ node = node->rb_left;
+ else if (node->rb_right)
+ node = node->rb_right;
+
+ bfq_update_active_tree(node);
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ list_add(&bfqq->bfqq_list, &bfqq->bfqd->active_list);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_ioprio_to_weight - calc a weight from an ioprio.
+ * @ioprio: the ioprio value to convert.
+ */
+static unsigned short bfq_ioprio_to_weight(int ioprio)
+{
+ return (IOPRIO_BE_NR - ioprio) * BFQ_WEIGHT_CONVERSION_COEFF;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_weight_to_ioprio - calc an ioprio from a weight.
+ * @weight: the weight value to convert.
+ *
+ * To preserve as much as possible the old only-ioprio user interface,
+ * 0 is used as an escape ioprio value for weights (numerically) equal or
+ * larger than IOPRIO_BE_NR * BFQ_WEIGHT_CONVERSION_COEFF.
+ */
+static unsigned short bfq_weight_to_ioprio(int weight)
+{
+ return max_t(int, 0,
+ IOPRIO_BE_NR * BFQ_WEIGHT_CONVERSION_COEFF - weight);
+}
+
+static void bfq_get_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+
+ if (bfqq) {
+ bfqq->ref++;
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "get_entity: %p %d",
+ bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_find_deepest - find the deepest node that an extraction can modify.
+ * @node: the node being removed.
+ *
+ * Do the first step of an extraction in an rb tree, looking for the
+ * node that will replace @node, and returning the deepest node that
+ * the following modifications to the tree can touch. If @node is the
+ * last node in the tree return %NULL.
+ */
+static struct rb_node *bfq_find_deepest(struct rb_node *node)
+{
+ struct rb_node *deepest;
+
+ if (!node->rb_right && !node->rb_left)
+ deepest = rb_parent(node);
+ else if (!node->rb_right)
+ deepest = node->rb_left;
+ else if (!node->rb_left)
+ deepest = node->rb_right;
+ else {
+ deepest = rb_next(node);
+ if (deepest->rb_right)
+ deepest = deepest->rb_right;
+ else if (rb_parent(deepest) != node)
+ deepest = rb_parent(deepest);
+ }
+
+ return deepest;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_active_extract - remove an entity from the active tree.
+ * @st: the service_tree containing the tree.
+ * @entity: the entity being removed.
+ */
+static void bfq_active_extract(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+ struct rb_node *node;
+
+ node = bfq_find_deepest(&entity->rb_node);
+ bfq_extract(&st->active, entity);
+
+ if (node)
+ bfq_update_active_tree(node);
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ list_del(&bfqq->bfqq_list);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_idle_insert - insert an entity into the idle tree.
+ * @st: the service tree containing the tree.
+ * @entity: the entity to insert.
+ */
+static void bfq_idle_insert(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+ struct bfq_entity *first_idle = st->first_idle;
+ struct bfq_entity *last_idle = st->last_idle;
+
+ if (!first_idle || bfq_gt(first_idle->finish, entity->finish))
+ st->first_idle = entity;
+ if (!last_idle || bfq_gt(entity->finish, last_idle->finish))
+ st->last_idle = entity;
+
+ bfq_insert(&st->idle, entity);
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ list_add(&bfqq->bfqq_list, &bfqq->bfqd->idle_list);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_forget_entity - do not consider entity any longer for scheduling
+ * @st: the service tree.
+ * @entity: the entity being removed.
+ * @is_in_service: true if entity is currently the in-service entity.
+ *
+ * Forget everything about @entity. In addition, if entity represents
+ * a queue, and the latter is not in service, then release the service
+ * reference to the queue (the one taken through bfq_get_entity). In
+ * fact, in this case, there is really no more service reference to
+ * the queue, as the latter is also outside any service tree. If,
+ * instead, the queue is in service, then __bfq_bfqd_reset_in_service
+ * will take care of putting the reference when the queue finally
+ * stops being served.
+ */
+static void bfq_forget_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity,
+ bool is_in_service)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+
+ entity->on_st = 0;
+ st->wsum -= entity->weight;
+ if (bfqq && !is_in_service)
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_put_idle_entity - release the idle tree ref of an entity.
+ * @st: service tree for the entity.
+ * @entity: the entity being released.
+ */
+static void bfq_put_idle_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ bfq_idle_extract(st, entity);
+ bfq_forget_entity(st, entity,
+ entity == entity->sched_data->in_service_entity);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_forget_idle - update the idle tree if necessary.
+ * @st: the service tree to act upon.
+ *
+ * To preserve the global O(log N) complexity we only remove one entry here;
+ * as the idle tree will not grow indefinitely this can be done safely.
+ */
+static void bfq_forget_idle(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *first_idle = st->first_idle;
+ struct bfq_entity *last_idle = st->last_idle;
+
+ if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&st->active) && last_idle &&
+ !bfq_gt(last_idle->finish, st->vtime)) {
+ /*
+ * Forget the whole idle tree, increasing the vtime past
+ * the last finish time of idle entities.
+ */
+ st->vtime = last_idle->finish;
+ }
+
+ if (first_idle && !bfq_gt(first_idle->finish, st->vtime))
+ bfq_put_idle_entity(st, first_idle);
+}
+
+static struct bfq_service_tree *
+__bfq_entity_update_weight_prio(struct bfq_service_tree *old_st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_service_tree *new_st = old_st;
+
+ if (entity->prio_changed) {
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+ unsigned short prev_weight, new_weight;
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = NULL;
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+
+ old_st->wsum -= entity->weight;
+
+ if (entity->new_weight != entity->orig_weight) {
+ if (entity->new_weight < BFQ_MIN_WEIGHT ||
+ entity->new_weight > BFQ_MAX_WEIGHT) {
+ pr_crit("update_weight_prio: new_weight %d\n",
+ entity->new_weight);
+ if (entity->new_weight < BFQ_MIN_WEIGHT)
+ entity->new_weight = BFQ_MIN_WEIGHT;
+ else
+ entity->new_weight = BFQ_MAX_WEIGHT;
+ }
+ entity->orig_weight = entity->new_weight;
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfqq->ioprio =
+ bfq_weight_to_ioprio(entity->orig_weight);
+ }
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfqq->ioprio_class = bfqq->new_ioprio_class;
+ entity->prio_changed = 0;
+
+ /*
+ * NOTE: here we may be changing the weight too early,
+ * this will cause unfairness. The correct approach
+ * would have required additional complexity to defer
+ * weight changes to the proper time instants (i.e.,
+ * when entity->finish <= old_st->vtime).
+ */
+ new_st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
+
+ prev_weight = entity->weight;
+ new_weight = entity->orig_weight;
+ entity->weight = new_weight;
+
+ new_st->wsum += entity->weight;
+
+ if (new_st != old_st)
+ entity->start = new_st->vtime;
+ }
+
+ return new_st;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_bfqq_served - update the scheduler status after selection for
+ * service.
+ * @bfqq: the queue being served.
+ * @served: bytes to transfer.
+ *
+ * NOTE: this can be optimized, as the timestamps of upper level entities
+ * are synchronized every time a new bfqq is selected for service. By now,
+ * we keep it to better check consistency.
+ */
+static void bfq_bfqq_served(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, int served)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+ struct bfq_service_tree *st;
+
+ for_each_entity(entity) {
+ st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
+
+ entity->service += served;
+
+ st->vtime += bfq_delta(served, st->wsum);
+ bfq_forget_idle(st);
+ }
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "bfqq_served %d secs", served);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_bfqq_charge_full_budget - set the service to the entity budget.
+ * @bfqq: the queue that needs a service update.
+ *
+ * When it's not possible to be fair in the service domain, because
+ * a queue is not consuming its budget fast enough (the meaning of
+ * fast depends on the timeout parameter), we charge it a full
+ * budget. In this way we should obtain a sort of time-domain
+ * fairness among all the seeky/slow queues.
+ */
+static void bfq_bfqq_charge_full_budget(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "charge_full_budget");
+
+ bfq_bfqq_served(bfqq, entity->budget - entity->service);
+}
+
+/**
+ * __bfq_activate_entity - activate an entity.
+ * @entity: the entity being activated.
+ * @non_blocking_wait_rq: true if this entity was waiting for a request
+ *
+ * Called whenever an entity is activated, i.e., it is not active and one
+ * of its children receives a new request, or has to be reactivated due to
+ * budget exhaustion. It uses the current budget of the entity (and the
+ * service received if @entity is active) of the queue to calculate its
+ * timestamps.
+ */
+static void __bfq_activate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity,
+ bool non_blocking_wait_rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sd = entity->sched_data;
+ struct bfq_service_tree *st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
+ bool backshifted = false;
+
+ if (entity == sd->in_service_entity) {
+ /*
+ * If we are requeueing the current entity we have
+ * to take care of not charging to it service it has
+ * not received.
+ */
+ bfq_calc_finish(entity, entity->service);
+ entity->start = entity->finish;
+ sd->in_service_entity = NULL;
+ } else if (entity->tree == &st->active) {
+ /*
+ * Requeueing an entity due to a change of some
+ * next_in_service entity below it. We reuse the
+ * old start time.
+ */
+ bfq_active_extract(st, entity);
+ } else {
+ unsigned long long min_vstart;
+
+ /* See comments on bfq_fqq_update_budg_for_activation */
+ if (non_blocking_wait_rq && bfq_gt(st->vtime, entity->finish)) {
+ backshifted = true;
+ min_vstart = entity->finish;
+ } else
+ min_vstart = st->vtime;
+
+ if (entity->tree == &st->idle) {
+ /*
+ * Must be on the idle tree, bfq_idle_extract() will
+ * check for that.
+ */
+ bfq_idle_extract(st, entity);
+ entity->start = bfq_gt(min_vstart, entity->finish) ?
+ min_vstart : entity->finish;
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * The finish time of the entity may be invalid, and
+ * it is in the past for sure, otherwise the queue
+ * would have been on the idle tree.
+ */
+ entity->start = min_vstart;
+ st->wsum += entity->weight;
+ /*
+ * entity is about to be inserted into a service tree,
+ * and then set in service: get a reference to make
+ * sure entity does not disappear until it is no
+ * longer in service or scheduled for service.
+ */
+ bfq_get_entity(entity);
+
+ entity->on_st = 1;
+ }
+ }
+
+ st = __bfq_entity_update_weight_prio(st, entity);
+ bfq_calc_finish(entity, entity->budget);
+
+ /*
+ * If some queues enjoy backshifting for a while, then their
+ * (virtual) finish timestamps may happen to become lower and
+ * lower than the system virtual time. In particular, if
+ * these queues often happen to be idle for short time
+ * periods, and during such time periods other queues with
+ * higher timestamps happen to be busy, then the backshifted
+ * timestamps of the former queues can become much lower than
+ * the system virtual time. In fact, to serve the queues with
+ * higher timestamps while the ones with lower timestamps are
+ * idle, the system virtual time may be pushed-up to much
+ * higher values than the finish timestamps of the idle
+ * queues. As a consequence, the finish timestamps of all new
+ * or newly activated queues may end up being much larger than
+ * those of lucky queues with backshifted timestamps. The
+ * latter queues may then monopolize the device for a lot of
+ * time. This would simply break service guarantees.
+ *
+ * To reduce this problem, push up a little bit the
+ * backshifted timestamps of the queue associated with this
+ * entity (only a queue can happen to have the backshifted
+ * flag set): just enough to let the finish timestamp of the
+ * queue be equal to the current value of the system virtual
+ * time. This may introduce a little unfairness among queues
+ * with backshifted timestamps, but it does not break
+ * worst-case fairness guarantees.
+ */
+ if (backshifted && bfq_gt(st->vtime, entity->finish)) {
+ unsigned long delta = st->vtime - entity->finish;
+
+ entity->start += delta;
+ entity->finish += delta;
+ }
+
+ bfq_active_insert(st, entity);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_activate_entity - activate an entity and its ancestors if necessary.
+ * @entity: the entity to activate.
+ * @non_blocking_wait_rq: true if this entity was waiting for a request
+ *
+ * Activate @entity and all the entities on the path from it to the root.
+ */
+static void bfq_activate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity,
+ bool non_blocking_wait_rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sd;
+
+ for_each_entity(entity) {
+ __bfq_activate_entity(entity, non_blocking_wait_rq);
+
+ sd = entity->sched_data;
+ if (!bfq_update_next_in_service(sd))
+ /*
+ * No need to propagate the activation to the
+ * upper entities, as they will be updated when
+ * the in-service entity is rescheduled.
+ */
+ break;
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * __bfq_deactivate_entity - deactivate an entity from its service tree.
+ * @entity: the entity to deactivate.
+ * @requeue: if false, the entity will not be put into the idle tree.
+ *
+ * Deactivate an entity, independently from its previous state. If the
+ * entity was not on a service tree just return, otherwise if it is on
+ * any scheduler tree, extract it from that tree, and if necessary
+ * and if the caller did not specify @requeue, put it on the idle tree.
+ *
+ * Return %1 if the caller should update the entity hierarchy, i.e.,
+ * if the entity was in service or if it was the next_in_service for
+ * its sched_data; return %0 otherwise.
+ */
+static int __bfq_deactivate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity, int requeue)
+{
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sd = entity->sched_data;
+ struct bfq_service_tree *st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
+ int is_in_service = entity == sd->in_service_entity;
+ int ret = 0;
+
+ if (!entity->on_st)
+ return 0;
+
+ if (is_in_service) {
+ bfq_calc_finish(entity, entity->service);
+ sd->in_service_entity = NULL;
+ } else if (entity->tree == &st->active)
+ bfq_active_extract(st, entity);
+ else if (entity->tree == &st->idle)
+ bfq_idle_extract(st, entity);
+
+ if (is_in_service || sd->next_in_service == entity)
+ ret = bfq_update_next_in_service(sd);
+
+ if (!requeue || !bfq_gt(entity->finish, st->vtime))
+ bfq_forget_entity(st, entity, is_in_service);
+ else
+ bfq_idle_insert(st, entity);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_deactivate_entity - deactivate an entity.
+ * @entity: the entity to deactivate.
+ * @requeue: true if the entity can be put on the idle tree
+ */
+static void bfq_deactivate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity, int requeue)
+{
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sd;
+ struct bfq_entity *parent = NULL;
+
+ for_each_entity_safe(entity, parent) {
+ sd = entity->sched_data;
+
+ if (!__bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, requeue))
+ /*
+ * The parent entity is still backlogged, and
+ * we don't need to update it as it is still
+ * in service.
+ */
+ break;
+
+ if (sd->next_in_service)
+ /*
+ * The parent entity is still backlogged and
+ * the budgets on the path towards the root
+ * need to be updated.
+ */
+ goto update;
+
+ /*
+ * If we get here, then the parent is no more backlogged and
+ * we want to propagate the deactivation upwards.
+ */
+ requeue = 1;
+ }
+
+ return;
+
+update:
+ entity = parent;
+ for_each_entity(entity) {
+ __bfq_activate_entity(entity, false);
+
+ sd = entity->sched_data;
+ if (!bfq_update_next_in_service(sd))
+ break;
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_update_vtime - update vtime if necessary.
+ * @st: the service tree to act upon.
+ *
+ * If necessary update the service tree vtime to have at least one
+ * eligible entity, skipping to its start time. Assumes that the
+ * active tree of the device is not empty.
+ *
+ * NOTE: this hierarchical implementation updates vtimes quite often,
+ * we may end up with reactivated processes getting timestamps after a
+ * vtime skip done because we needed a ->first_active entity on some
+ * intermediate node.
+ */
+static void bfq_update_vtime(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entry;
+ struct rb_node *node = st->active.rb_node;
+
+ entry = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+ if (bfq_gt(entry->min_start, st->vtime)) {
+ st->vtime = entry->min_start;
+ bfq_forget_idle(st);
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_first_active_entity - find the eligible entity with
+ * the smallest finish time
+ * @st: the service tree to select from.
+ *
+ * This function searches the first schedulable entity, starting from the
+ * root of the tree and going on the left every time on this side there is
+ * a subtree with at least one eligible (start >= vtime) entity. The path on
+ * the right is followed only if a) the left subtree contains no eligible
+ * entities and b) no eligible entity has been found yet.
+ */
+static struct bfq_entity *bfq_first_active_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entry, *first = NULL;
+ struct rb_node *node = st->active.rb_node;
+
+ while (node) {
+ entry = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+left:
+ if (!bfq_gt(entry->start, st->vtime))
+ first = entry;
+
+ if (node->rb_left) {
+ entry = rb_entry(node->rb_left,
+ struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+ if (!bfq_gt(entry->min_start, st->vtime)) {
+ node = node->rb_left;
+ goto left;
+ }
+ }
+ if (first)
+ break;
+ node = node->rb_right;
+ }
+
+ return first;
+}
+
+/**
+ * __bfq_lookup_next_entity - return the first eligible entity in @st.
+ * @st: the service tree.
+ *
+ * Update the virtual time in @st and return the first eligible entity
+ * it contains.
+ */
+static struct bfq_entity *__bfq_lookup_next_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ bool force)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity, *new_next_in_service = NULL;
+
+ if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&st->active))
+ return NULL;
+
+ bfq_update_vtime(st);
+ entity = bfq_first_active_entity(st);
+
+ /*
+ * If the chosen entity does not match with the sched_data's
+ * next_in_service and we are forcedly serving the IDLE priority
+ * class tree, bubble up budget update.
+ */
+ if (unlikely(force && entity != entity->sched_data->next_in_service)) {
+ new_next_in_service = entity;
+ for_each_entity(new_next_in_service)
+ bfq_update_budget(new_next_in_service);
+ }
+
+ return entity;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_lookup_next_entity - return the first eligible entity in @sd.
+ * @sd: the sched_data.
+ * @extract: if true the returned entity will be also extracted from @sd.
+ *
+ * NOTE: since we cache the next_in_service entity at each level of the
+ * hierarchy, the complexity of the lookup can be decreased with
+ * absolutely no effort just returning the cached next_in_service value;
+ * we prefer to do full lookups to test the consistency of the data
+ * structures.
+ */
+static struct bfq_entity *bfq_lookup_next_entity(struct bfq_sched_data *sd,
+ int extract,
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_service_tree *st = sd->service_tree;
+ struct bfq_entity *entity;
+ int i = 0;
+
+ /*
+ * Choose from idle class, if needed to guarantee a minimum
+ * bandwidth to this class. This should also mitigate
+ * priority-inversion problems in case a low priority task is
+ * holding file system resources.
+ */
+ if (bfqd &&
+ jiffies - bfqd->bfq_class_idle_last_service >
+ BFQ_CL_IDLE_TIMEOUT) {
+ entity = __bfq_lookup_next_entity(st + BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES - 1,
+ true);
+ if (entity) {
+ i = BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES - 1;
+ bfqd->bfq_class_idle_last_service = jiffies;
+ sd->next_in_service = entity;
+ }
+ }
+ for (; i < BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES; i++) {
+ entity = __bfq_lookup_next_entity(st + i, false);
+ if (entity) {
+ if (extract) {
+ bfq_check_next_in_service(sd, entity);
+ bfq_active_extract(st + i, entity);
+ sd->in_service_entity = entity;
+ sd->next_in_service = NULL;
+ }
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+
+ return entity;
+}
+
+static bool next_queue_may_preempt(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sd = &bfqd->sched_data;
+
+ return sd->next_in_service != sd->in_service_entity;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Get next queue for service.
+ */
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_get_next_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = NULL;
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sd;
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+
+ if (bfqd->busy_queues == 0)
+ return NULL;
+
+ sd = &bfqd->sched_data;
+ for (; sd ; sd = entity->my_sched_data) {
+ entity = bfq_lookup_next_entity(sd, 1, bfqd);
+ entity->service = 0;
+ }
+
+ bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+static void __bfq_bfqd_reset_in_service(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *in_serv_bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
+ struct bfq_entity *in_serv_entity = &in_serv_bfqq->entity;
+
+ if (bfqd->in_service_bic) {
+ put_io_context(bfqd->in_service_bic->icq.ioc);
+ bfqd->in_service_bic = NULL;
+ }
+
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(in_serv_bfqq);
+ hrtimer_try_to_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+ bfqd->in_service_queue = NULL;
+
+ /*
+ * in_serv_entity is no longer in service, so, if it is in no
+ * service tree either, then release the service reference to
+ * the queue it represents (taken with bfq_get_entity).
+ */
+ if (!in_serv_entity->on_st)
+ bfq_put_queue(in_serv_bfqq);
+}
+
+static void bfq_deactivate_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ int requeue)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+ bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, requeue);
+}
+
+static void bfq_activate_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+ bfq_activate_entity(entity, bfq_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq));
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Called when the bfqq no longer has requests pending, remove it from
+ * the service tree.
+ */
+static void bfq_del_bfqq_busy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ int requeue)
+{
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "del from busy");
+
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_busy(bfqq);
+
+ bfqd->busy_queues--;
+
+ bfq_deactivate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, requeue);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Called when an inactive queue receives a new request.
+ */
+static void bfq_add_bfqq_busy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "add to busy");
+
+ bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_busy(bfqq);
+ bfqd->busy_queues++;
+}
+
+static void bfq_init_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+
+ entity->weight = entity->new_weight;
+ entity->orig_weight = entity->new_weight;
+
+ bfqq->ioprio = bfqq->new_ioprio;
+ bfqq->ioprio_class = bfqq->new_ioprio_class;
+
+ entity->sched_data = &bfqq->bfqd->sched_data;
+}
+
+#define bfq_class_idle(bfqq) ((bfqq)->ioprio_class == IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE)
+#define bfq_class_rt(bfqq) ((bfqq)->ioprio_class == IOPRIO_CLASS_RT)
+
+#define bfq_sample_valid(samples) ((samples) > 80)
+
+/*
+ * Scheduler run of queue, if there are requests pending and no one in the
+ * driver that will restart queueing.
+ */
+static void bfq_schedule_dispatch(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ if (bfqd->queued != 0) {
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "schedule dispatch");
+ blk_mq_run_hw_queues(bfqd->queue, true);
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Lifted from AS - choose which of rq1 and rq2 that is best served now.
+ * We choose the request that is closesr to the head right now. Distance
+ * behind the head is penalized and only allowed to a certain extent.
+ */
+static struct request *bfq_choose_req(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct request *rq1,
+ struct request *rq2,
+ sector_t last)
+{
+ sector_t s1, s2, d1 = 0, d2 = 0;
+ unsigned long back_max;
+#define BFQ_RQ1_WRAP 0x01 /* request 1 wraps */
+#define BFQ_RQ2_WRAP 0x02 /* request 2 wraps */
+ unsigned int wrap = 0; /* bit mask: requests behind the disk head? */
+
+ if (!rq1 || rq1 == rq2)
+ return rq2;
+ if (!rq2)
+ return rq1;
+
+ if (rq_is_sync(rq1) && !rq_is_sync(rq2))
+ return rq1;
+ else if (rq_is_sync(rq2) && !rq_is_sync(rq1))
+ return rq2;
+ if ((rq1->cmd_flags & REQ_META) && !(rq2->cmd_flags & REQ_META))
+ return rq1;
+ else if ((rq2->cmd_flags & REQ_META) && !(rq1->cmd_flags & REQ_META))
+ return rq2;
+
+ s1 = blk_rq_pos(rq1);
+ s2 = blk_rq_pos(rq2);
+
+ /*
+ * By definition, 1KiB is 2 sectors.
+ */
+ back_max = bfqd->bfq_back_max * 2;
+
+ /*
+ * Strict one way elevator _except_ in the case where we allow
+ * short backward seeks which are biased as twice the cost of a
+ * similar forward seek.
+ */
+ if (s1 >= last)
+ d1 = s1 - last;
+ else if (s1 + back_max >= last)
+ d1 = (last - s1) * bfqd->bfq_back_penalty;
+ else
+ wrap |= BFQ_RQ1_WRAP;
+
+ if (s2 >= last)
+ d2 = s2 - last;
+ else if (s2 + back_max >= last)
+ d2 = (last - s2) * bfqd->bfq_back_penalty;
+ else
+ wrap |= BFQ_RQ2_WRAP;
+
+ /* Found required data */
+
+ /*
+ * By doing switch() on the bit mask "wrap" we avoid having to
+ * check two variables for all permutations: --> faster!
+ */
+ switch (wrap) {
+ case 0: /* common case for CFQ: rq1 and rq2 not wrapped */
+ if (d1 < d2)
+ return rq1;
+ else if (d2 < d1)
+ return rq2;
+
+ if (s1 >= s2)
+ return rq1;
+ else
+ return rq2;
+
+ case BFQ_RQ2_WRAP:
+ return rq1;
+ case BFQ_RQ1_WRAP:
+ return rq2;
+ case BFQ_RQ1_WRAP|BFQ_RQ2_WRAP: /* both rqs wrapped */
+ default:
+ /*
+ * Since both rqs are wrapped,
+ * start with the one that's further behind head
+ * (--> only *one* back seek required),
+ * since back seek takes more time than forward.
+ */
+ if (s1 <= s2)
+ return rq1;
+ else
+ return rq2;
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return expired entry, or NULL to just start from scratch in rbtree.
+ */
+static struct request *bfq_check_fifo(struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct request *last)
+{
+ struct request *rq;
+
+ if (bfq_bfqq_fifo_expire(bfqq))
+ return NULL;
+
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_fifo_expire(bfqq);
+
+ rq = rq_entry_fifo(bfqq->fifo.next);
+
+ if (rq == last || ktime_get_ns() < rq->fifo_time)
+ return NULL;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "check_fifo: returned %p", rq);
+ return rq;
+}
+
+static struct request *bfq_find_next_rq(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct request *last)
+{
+ struct rb_node *rbnext = rb_next(&last->rb_node);
+ struct rb_node *rbprev = rb_prev(&last->rb_node);
+ struct request *next, *prev = NULL;
+
+ /* Follow expired path, else get first next available. */
+ next = bfq_check_fifo(bfqq, last);
+ if (next)
+ return next;
+
+ if (rbprev)
+ prev = rb_entry_rq(rbprev);
+
+ if (rbnext)
+ next = rb_entry_rq(rbnext);
+ else {
+ rbnext = rb_first(&bfqq->sort_list);
+ if (rbnext && rbnext != &last->rb_node)
+ next = rb_entry_rq(rbnext);
+ }
+
+ return bfq_choose_req(bfqd, next, prev, blk_rq_pos(last));
+}
+
+static unsigned long bfq_serv_to_charge(struct request *rq,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ return blk_rq_sectors(rq);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_updated_next_req - update the queue after a new next_rq selection.
+ * @bfqd: the device data the queue belongs to.
+ * @bfqq: the queue to update.
+ *
+ * If the first request of a queue changes we make sure that the queue
+ * has enough budget to serve at least its first request (if the
+ * request has grown). We do this because if the queue has not enough
+ * budget for its first request, it has to go through two dispatch
+ * rounds to actually get it dispatched.
+ */
+static void bfq_updated_next_req(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+ struct request *next_rq = bfqq->next_rq;
+ unsigned long new_budget;
+
+ if (!next_rq)
+ return;
+
+ if (bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue)
+ /*
+ * In order not to break guarantees, budgets cannot be
+ * changed after an entity has been selected.
+ */
+ return;
+
+ new_budget = max_t(unsigned long, bfqq->max_budget,
+ bfq_serv_to_charge(next_rq, bfqq));
+ if (entity->budget != new_budget) {
+ entity->budget = new_budget;
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "updated next rq: new budget %lu",
+ new_budget);
+ bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+ }
+}
+
+static int bfq_bfqq_budget_left(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+ return entity->budget - entity->service;
+}
+
+/*
+ * If enough samples have been computed, return the current max budget
+ * stored in bfqd, which is dynamically updated according to the
+ * estimated disk peak rate; otherwise return the default max budget
+ */
+static int bfq_max_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ if (bfqd->budgets_assigned < bfq_stats_min_budgets)
+ return bfq_default_max_budget;
+ else
+ return bfqd->bfq_max_budget;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return min budget, which is a fraction of the current or default
+ * max budget (trying with 1/32)
+ */
+static int bfq_min_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ if (bfqd->budgets_assigned < bfq_stats_min_budgets)
+ return bfq_default_max_budget / 32;
+ else
+ return bfqd->bfq_max_budget / 32;
+}
+
+static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ bool compensate,
+ enum bfqq_expiration reason);
+
+/*
+ * The next function, invoked after the input queue bfqq switches from
+ * idle to busy, updates the budget of bfqq. The function also tells
+ * whether the in-service queue should be expired, by returning
+ * true. The purpose of expiring the in-service queue is to give bfqq
+ * the chance to possibly preempt the in-service queue, and the reason
+ * for preempting the in-service queue is to achieve the following
+ * goal: guarantee to bfqq its reserved bandwidth even if bfqq has
+ * expired because it has remained idle.
+ *
+ * In particular, bfqq may have expired for one of the following two
+ * reasons:
+ *
+ * - BFQQE_NO_MORE_REQUESTS bfqq did not enjoy any device idling
+ * and did not make it to issue a new request before its last
+ * request was served;
+ *
+ * - BFQQE_TOO_IDLE bfqq did enjoy device idling, but did not issue
+ * a new request before the expiration of the idling-time.
+ *
+ * Even if bfqq has expired for one of the above reasons, the process
+ * associated with the queue may be however issuing requests greedily,
+ * and thus be sensitive to the bandwidth it receives (bfqq may have
+ * remained idle for other reasons: CPU high load, bfqq not enjoying
+ * idling, I/O throttling somewhere in the path from the process to
+ * the I/O scheduler, ...). But if, after every expiration for one of
+ * the above two reasons, bfqq has to wait for the service of at least
+ * one full budget of another queue before being served again, then
+ * bfqq is likely to get a much lower bandwidth or resource time than
+ * its reserved ones. To address this issue, two countermeasures need
+ * to be taken.
+ *
+ * First, the budget and the timestamps of bfqq need to be updated in
+ * a special way on bfqq reactivation: they need to be updated as if
+ * bfqq did not remain idle and did not expire. In fact, if they are
+ * computed as if bfqq expired and remained idle until reactivation,
+ * then the process associated with bfqq is treated as if, instead of
+ * being greedy, it stopped issuing requests when bfqq remained idle,
+ * and restarts issuing requests only on this reactivation. In other
+ * words, the scheduler does not help the process recover the "service
+ * hole" between bfqq expiration and reactivation. As a consequence,
+ * the process receives a lower bandwidth than its reserved one. In
+ * contrast, to recover this hole, the budget must be updated as if
+ * bfqq was not expired at all before this reactivation, i.e., it must
+ * be set to the value of the remaining budget when bfqq was
+ * expired. Along the same line, timestamps need to be assigned the
+ * value they had the last time bfqq was selected for service, i.e.,
+ * before last expiration. Thus timestamps need to be back-shifted
+ * with respect to their normal computation (see [1] for more details
+ * on this tricky aspect).
+ *
+ * Secondly, to allow the process to recover the hole, the in-service
+ * queue must be expired too, to give bfqq the chance to preempt it
+ * immediately. In fact, if bfqq has to wait for a full budget of the
+ * in-service queue to be completed, then it may become impossible to
+ * let the process recover the hole, even if the back-shifted
+ * timestamps of bfqq are lower than those of the in-service queue. If
+ * this happens for most or all of the holes, then the process may not
+ * receive its reserved bandwidth. In this respect, it is worth noting
+ * that, being the service of outstanding requests unpreemptible, a
+ * little fraction of the holes may however be unrecoverable, thereby
+ * causing a little loss of bandwidth.
+ *
+ * The last important point is detecting whether bfqq does need this
+ * bandwidth recovery. In this respect, the next function deems the
+ * process associated with bfqq greedy, and thus allows it to recover
+ * the hole, if: 1) the process is waiting for the arrival of a new
+ * request (which implies that bfqq expired for one of the above two
+ * reasons), and 2) such a request has arrived soon. The first
+ * condition is controlled through the flag non_blocking_wait_rq,
+ * while the second through the flag arrived_in_time. If both
+ * conditions hold, then the function computes the budget in the
+ * above-described special way, and signals that the in-service queue
+ * should be expired. Timestamp back-shifting is done later in
+ * __bfq_activate_entity.
+ */
+static bool bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ bool arrived_in_time)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+ if (bfq_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq) && arrived_in_time) {
+ /*
+ * We do not clear the flag non_blocking_wait_rq here, as
+ * the latter is used in bfq_activate_bfqq to signal
+ * that timestamps need to be back-shifted (and is
+ * cleared right after).
+ */
+
+ /*
+ * In next assignment we rely on that either
+ * entity->service or entity->budget are not updated
+ * on expiration if bfqq is empty (see
+ * __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget). Thus both quantities
+ * remain unchanged after such an expiration, and the
+ * following statement therefore assigns to
+ * entity->budget the remaining budget on such an
+ * expiration. For clarity, entity->service is not
+ * updated on expiration in any case, and, in normal
+ * operation, is reset only when bfqq is selected for
+ * service (see bfq_get_next_queue).
+ */
+ entity->budget = min_t(unsigned long,
+ bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq),
+ bfqq->max_budget);
+
+ return true;
+ }
+
+ entity->budget = max_t(unsigned long, bfqq->max_budget,
+ bfq_serv_to_charge(bfqq->next_rq, bfqq));
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq);
+ return false;
+}
+
+static void bfq_bfqq_handle_idle_busy_switch(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct request *rq)
+{
+ bool bfqq_wants_to_preempt,
+ /*
+ * See the comments on
+ * bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation for
+ * details on the usage of the next variable.
+ */
+ arrived_in_time = ktime_get_ns() <=
+ bfqq->ttime.last_end_request +
+ bfqd->bfq_slice_idle * 3;
+
+ /*
+ * Update budget and check whether bfqq may want to preempt
+ * the in-service queue.
+ */
+ bfqq_wants_to_preempt =
+ bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation(bfqd, bfqq,
+ arrived_in_time);
+
+ if (!bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq)) {
+ if (arrived_in_time) {
+ bfqq->requests_within_timer++;
+ if (bfqq->requests_within_timer >=
+ bfqd->bfq_requests_within_timer)
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+ } else
+ bfqq->requests_within_timer = 0;
+ }
+
+ bfq_add_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq);
+
+ /*
+ * Expire in-service queue only if preemption may be needed
+ * for guarantees. In this respect, the function
+ * next_queue_may_preempt just checks a simple, necessary
+ * condition, and not a sufficient condition based on
+ * timestamps. In fact, for the latter condition to be
+ * evaluated, timestamps would need first to be updated, and
+ * this operation is quite costly (see the comments on the
+ * function bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation).
+ */
+ if (bfqd->in_service_queue && bfqq_wants_to_preempt &&
+ next_queue_may_preempt(bfqd))
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqd->in_service_queue,
+ false, BFQQE_PREEMPTED);
+}
+
+static void bfq_add_request(struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+ struct request *next_rq, *prev;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "add_request %d", rq_is_sync(rq));
+ bfqq->queued[rq_is_sync(rq)]++;
+ bfqd->queued++;
+
+ elv_rb_add(&bfqq->sort_list, rq);
+
+ /*
+ * Check if this request is a better next-serve candidate.
+ */
+ prev = bfqq->next_rq;
+ next_rq = bfq_choose_req(bfqd, bfqq->next_rq, rq, bfqd->last_position);
+ bfqq->next_rq = next_rq;
+
+ if (!bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq)) /* switching to busy ... */
+ bfq_bfqq_handle_idle_busy_switch(bfqd, bfqq, rq);
+ else if (prev != bfqq->next_rq)
+ bfq_updated_next_req(bfqd, bfqq);
+}
+
+static struct request *bfq_find_rq_fmerge(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bio *bio,
+ struct request_queue *q)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->bio_bfqq;
+
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ return elv_rb_find(&bfqq->sort_list, bio_end_sector(bio));
+
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+#if 0 /* Still not clear if we can do without next two functions */
+static void bfq_activate_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+
+ bfqd->rq_in_driver++;
+ bfqd->last_position = blk_rq_pos(rq) + blk_rq_sectors(rq);
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "activate_request: new bfqd->last_position %llu",
+ (unsigned long long)bfqd->last_position);
+}
+
+static void bfq_deactivate_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+
+ bfqd->rq_in_driver--;
+}
+#endif
+
+static void bfq_remove_request(struct request_queue *q,
+ struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+ const int sync = rq_is_sync(rq);
+
+ if (bfqq->next_rq == rq) {
+ bfqq->next_rq = bfq_find_next_rq(bfqd, bfqq, rq);
+ bfq_updated_next_req(bfqd, bfqq);
+ }
+
+ if (rq->queuelist.prev != &rq->queuelist)
+ list_del_init(&rq->queuelist);
+ bfqq->queued[sync]--;
+ bfqd->queued--;
+ elv_rb_del(&bfqq->sort_list, rq);
+
+ elv_rqhash_del(q, rq);
+ if (q->last_merge == rq)
+ q->last_merge = NULL;
+
+ if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list)) {
+ bfqq->next_rq = NULL;
+
+ if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq) && bfqq != bfqd->in_service_queue) {
+ bfq_del_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq, 1);
+ /*
+ * bfqq emptied. In normal operation, when
+ * bfqq is empty, bfqq->entity.service and
+ * bfqq->entity.budget must contain,
+ * respectively, the service received and the
+ * budget used last time bfqq emptied. These
+ * facts do not hold in this case, as at least
+ * this last removal occurred while bfqq is
+ * not in service. To avoid inconsistencies,
+ * reset both bfqq->entity.service and
+ * bfqq->entity.budget, if bfqq has still a
+ * process that may issue I/O requests to it.
+ */
+ bfqq->entity.budget = bfqq->entity.service = 0;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (rq->cmd_flags & REQ_META)
+ bfqq->meta_pending--;
+}
+
+static bool bfq_bio_merge(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx, struct bio *bio)
+{
+ struct request_queue *q = hctx->queue;
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+ struct request *free = NULL;
+ /*
+ * bfq_bic_lookup grabs the queue_lock: invoke it now and
+ * store its return value for later use, to avoid nesting
+ * queue_lock inside the bfqd->lock. We assume that the bic
+ * returned by bfq_bic_lookup does not go away before
+ * bfqd->lock is taken.
+ */
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic = bfq_bic_lookup(bfqd, current->io_context, q);
+ bool ret;
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ if (bic)
+ bfqd->bio_bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, op_is_sync(bio->bi_opf));
+ else
+ bfqd->bio_bfqq = NULL;
+ bfqd->bio_bic = bic;
+
+ ret = blk_mq_sched_try_merge(q, bio, &free);
+
+ if (free)
+ blk_mq_free_request(free);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int bfq_request_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request **req,
+ struct bio *bio)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+ struct request *__rq;
+
+ __rq = bfq_find_rq_fmerge(bfqd, bio, q);
+ if (__rq && elv_bio_merge_ok(__rq, bio)) {
+ *req = __rq;
+ return ELEVATOR_FRONT_MERGE;
+ }
+
+ return ELEVATOR_NO_MERGE;
+}
+
+static void bfq_request_merged(struct request_queue *q, struct request *req,
+ enum elv_merge type)
+{
+ if (type == ELEVATOR_FRONT_MERGE &&
+ rb_prev(&req->rb_node) &&
+ blk_rq_pos(req) <
+ blk_rq_pos(container_of(rb_prev(&req->rb_node),
+ struct request, rb_node))) {
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(req);
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+ struct request *prev, *next_rq;
+
+ /* Reposition request in its sort_list */
+ elv_rb_del(&bfqq->sort_list, req);
+ elv_rb_add(&bfqq->sort_list, req);
+
+ /* Choose next request to be served for bfqq */
+ prev = bfqq->next_rq;
+ next_rq = bfq_choose_req(bfqd, bfqq->next_rq, req,
+ bfqd->last_position);
+ bfqq->next_rq = next_rq;
+ /*
+ * If next_rq changes, update the queue's budget to fit
+ * the new request.
+ */
+ if (prev != bfqq->next_rq)
+ bfq_updated_next_req(bfqd, bfqq);
+ }
+}
+
+static void bfq_requests_merged(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
+ struct request *next)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq), *next_bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(next);
+
+ if (!RB_EMPTY_NODE(&rq->rb_node))
+ return;
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqq->bfqd->lock);
+
+ /*
+ * If next and rq belong to the same bfq_queue and next is older
+ * than rq, then reposition rq in the fifo (by substituting next
+ * with rq). Otherwise, if next and rq belong to different
+ * bfq_queues, never reposition rq: in fact, we would have to
+ * reposition it with respect to next's position in its own fifo,
+ * which would most certainly be too expensive with respect to
+ * the benefits.
+ */
+ if (bfqq == next_bfqq &&
+ !list_empty(&rq->queuelist) && !list_empty(&next->queuelist) &&
+ next->fifo_time < rq->fifo_time) {
+ list_del_init(&rq->queuelist);
+ list_replace_init(&next->queuelist, &rq->queuelist);
+ rq->fifo_time = next->fifo_time;
+ }
+
+ if (bfqq->next_rq == next)
+ bfqq->next_rq = rq;
+
+ bfq_remove_request(q, next);
+
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqq->bfqd->lock);
+}
+
+static bool bfq_allow_bio_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
+ struct bio *bio)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+ bool is_sync = op_is_sync(bio->bi_opf);
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->bio_bfqq;
+
+ /*
+ * Disallow merge of a sync bio into an async request.
+ */
+ if (is_sync && !rq_is_sync(rq))
+ return false;
+
+ /*
+ * Lookup the bfqq that this bio will be queued with. Allow
+ * merge only if rq is queued there.
+ */
+ if (!bfqq)
+ return false;
+
+ return bfqq == RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+}
+
+static void __bfq_set_in_service_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ if (bfqq) {
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq);
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_fifo_expire(bfqq);
+
+ bfqd->budgets_assigned = (bfqd->budgets_assigned * 7 + 256) / 8;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+ "set_in_service_queue, cur-budget = %d",
+ bfqq->entity.budget);
+ }
+
+ bfqd->in_service_queue = bfqq;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Get and set a new queue for service.
+ */
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_set_in_service_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_get_next_queue(bfqd);
+
+ __bfq_set_in_service_queue(bfqd, bfqq);
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+/*
+ * bfq_default_budget - return the default budget for @bfqq on @bfqd.
+ * @bfqd: the device descriptor.
+ * @bfqq: the queue to consider.
+ *
+ * We use 3/4 of the @bfqd maximum budget as the default value
+ * for the max_budget field of the queues. This lets the feedback
+ * mechanism to start from some middle ground, then the behavior
+ * of the process will drive the heuristics towards high values, if
+ * it behaves as a greedy sequential reader, or towards small values
+ * if it shows a more intermittent behavior.
+ */
+static unsigned long bfq_default_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ unsigned long budget;
+
+ /*
+ * When we need an estimate of the peak rate we need to avoid
+ * to give budgets that are too short due to previous
+ * measurements. So, in the first 10 assignments use a
+ * ``safe'' budget value. For such first assignment the value
+ * of bfqd->budgets_assigned happens to be lower than 194.
+ * See __bfq_set_in_service_queue for the formula by which
+ * this field is computed.
+ */
+ if (bfqd->budgets_assigned < 194 && bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget == 0)
+ budget = bfq_default_max_budget;
+ else
+ budget = bfqd->bfq_max_budget;
+
+ return budget - budget / 4;
+}
+
+static void bfq_arm_slice_timer(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic;
+ u32 sl;
+
+ /* Processes have exited, don't wait. */
+ bic = bfqd->in_service_bic;
+ if (!bic || atomic_read(&bic->icq.ioc->active_ref) == 0)
+ return;
+
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq);
+
+ /*
+ * We don't want to idle for seeks, but we do want to allow
+ * fair distribution of slice time for a process doing back-to-back
+ * seeks. So allow a little bit of time for him to submit a new rq.
+ */
+ sl = bfqd->bfq_slice_idle;
+ /*
+ * Grant only minimum idle time if the queue is seeky.
+ */
+ if (BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq))
+ sl = min_t(u64, sl, BFQ_MIN_TT);
+
+ bfqd->last_idling_start = ktime_get();
+ hrtimer_start(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer, ns_to_ktime(sl),
+ HRTIMER_MODE_REL);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Set the maximum time for the in-service queue to consume its
+ * budget. This prevents seeky processes from lowering the disk
+ * throughput (always guaranteed with a time slice scheme as in CFQ).
+ */
+static void bfq_set_budget_timeout(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
+ unsigned int timeout_coeff = bfqq->entity.weight /
+ bfqq->entity.orig_weight;
+
+ bfqd->last_budget_start = ktime_get();
+
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq);
+ bfqq->budget_timeout = jiffies +
+ bfqd->bfq_timeout * timeout_coeff;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "set budget_timeout %u",
+ jiffies_to_msecs(bfqd->bfq_timeout * timeout_coeff));
+}
+
+/*
+ * Remove request from internal lists.
+ */
+static void bfq_dispatch_remove(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+
+ /*
+ * For consistency, the next instruction should have been
+ * executed after removing the request from the queue and
+ * dispatching it. We execute instead this instruction before
+ * bfq_remove_request() (and hence introduce a temporary
+ * inconsistency), for efficiency. In fact, should this
+ * dispatch occur for a non in-service bfqq, this anticipated
+ * increment prevents two counters related to bfqq->dispatched
+ * from risking to be, first, uselessly decremented, and then
+ * incremented again when the (new) value of bfqq->dispatched
+ * happens to be taken into account.
+ */
+ bfqq->dispatched++;
+
+ bfq_remove_request(q, rq);
+}
+
+static void __bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ __bfq_bfqd_reset_in_service(bfqd);
+
+ if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list))
+ bfq_del_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq, 1);
+ else
+ bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+}
+
+/**
+ * __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget - try to adapt the budget to the @bfqq behavior.
+ * @bfqd: device data.
+ * @bfqq: queue to update.
+ * @reason: reason for expiration.
+ *
+ * Handle the feedback on @bfqq budget at queue expiration.
+ * See the body for detailed comments.
+ */
+static void __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ enum bfqq_expiration reason)
+{
+ struct request *next_rq;
+ int budget, min_budget;
+
+ budget = bfqq->max_budget;
+ min_budget = bfq_min_budget(bfqd);
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "recalc_budg: last budg %d, budg left %d",
+ bfqq->entity.budget, bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq));
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "recalc_budg: last max_budg %d, min budg %d",
+ budget, bfq_min_budget(bfqd));
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "recalc_budg: sync %d, seeky %d",
+ bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq), BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqd->in_service_queue));
+
+ if (bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq)) {
+ switch (reason) {
+ /*
+ * Caveat: in all the following cases we trade latency
+ * for throughput.
+ */
+ case BFQQE_TOO_IDLE:
+ if (budget > min_budget + BFQ_BUDGET_STEP)
+ budget -= BFQ_BUDGET_STEP;
+ else
+ budget = min_budget;
+ break;
+ case BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT:
+ budget = bfq_default_budget(bfqd, bfqq);
+ break;
+ case BFQQE_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED:
+ /*
+ * The process still has backlog, and did not
+ * let either the budget timeout or the disk
+ * idling timeout expire. Hence it is not
+ * seeky, has a short thinktime and may be
+ * happy with a higher budget too. So
+ * definitely increase the budget of this good
+ * candidate to boost the disk throughput.
+ */
+ budget = min(budget + 8 * BFQ_BUDGET_STEP,
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget);
+ break;
+ case BFQQE_NO_MORE_REQUESTS:
+ /*
+ * For queues that expire for this reason, it
+ * is particularly important to keep the
+ * budget close to the actual service they
+ * need. Doing so reduces the timestamp
+ * misalignment problem described in the
+ * comments in the body of
+ * __bfq_activate_entity. In fact, suppose
+ * that a queue systematically expires for
+ * BFQQE_NO_MORE_REQUESTS and presents a
+ * new request in time to enjoy timestamp
+ * back-shifting. The larger the budget of the
+ * queue is with respect to the service the
+ * queue actually requests in each service
+ * slot, the more times the queue can be
+ * reactivated with the same virtual finish
+ * time. It follows that, even if this finish
+ * time is pushed to the system virtual time
+ * to reduce the consequent timestamp
+ * misalignment, the queue unjustly enjoys for
+ * many re-activations a lower finish time
+ * than all newly activated queues.
+ *
+ * The service needed by bfqq is measured
+ * quite precisely by bfqq->entity.service.
+ * Since bfqq does not enjoy device idling,
+ * bfqq->entity.service is equal to the number
+ * of sectors that the process associated with
+ * bfqq requested to read/write before waiting
+ * for request completions, or blocking for
+ * other reasons.
+ */
+ budget = max_t(int, bfqq->entity.service, min_budget);
+ break;
+ default:
+ return;
+ }
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * Async queues get always the maximum possible
+ * budget, as for them we do not care about latency
+ * (in addition, their ability to dispatch is limited
+ * by the charging factor).
+ */
+ budget = bfqd->bfq_max_budget;
+ }
+
+ bfqq->max_budget = budget;
+
+ if (bfqd->budgets_assigned >= bfq_stats_min_budgets &&
+ !bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget)
+ bfqq->max_budget = min(bfqq->max_budget, bfqd->bfq_max_budget);
+
+ /*
+ * If there is still backlog, then assign a new budget, making
+ * sure that it is large enough for the next request. Since
+ * the finish time of bfqq must be kept in sync with the
+ * budget, be sure to call __bfq_bfqq_expire() *after* this
+ * update.
+ *
+ * If there is no backlog, then no need to update the budget;
+ * it will be updated on the arrival of a new request.
+ */
+ next_rq = bfqq->next_rq;
+ if (next_rq)
+ bfqq->entity.budget = max_t(unsigned long, bfqq->max_budget,
+ bfq_serv_to_charge(next_rq, bfqq));
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "head sect: %u, new budget %d",
+ next_rq ? blk_rq_sectors(next_rq) : 0,
+ bfqq->entity.budget);
+}
+
+static unsigned long bfq_calc_max_budget(u64 peak_rate, u64 timeout)
+{
+ unsigned long max_budget;
+
+ /*
+ * The max_budget calculated when autotuning is equal to the
+ * amount of sectors transferred in timeout at the estimated
+ * peak rate. To get this value, peak_rate is, first,
+ * multiplied by 1000, because timeout is measured in ms,
+ * while peak_rate is measured in sectors/usecs. Then the
+ * result of this multiplication is right-shifted by
+ * BFQ_RATE_SHIFT, because peak_rate is equal to the value of
+ * the peak rate left-shifted by BFQ_RATE_SHIFT.
+ */
+ max_budget = (unsigned long)(peak_rate * 1000 *
+ timeout >> BFQ_RATE_SHIFT);
+
+ return max_budget;
+}
+
+/*
+ * In addition to updating the peak rate, checks whether the process
+ * is "slow", and returns 1 if so. This slow flag is used, in addition
+ * to the budget timeout, to reduce the amount of service provided to
+ * seeky processes, and hence reduce their chances to lower the
+ * throughput. See the code for more details.
+ */
+static bool bfq_update_peak_rate(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ bool compensate)
+{
+ u64 bw, usecs, expected, timeout;
+ ktime_t delta;
+ int update = 0;
+
+ if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) || bfq_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq))
+ return false;
+
+ if (compensate)
+ delta = bfqd->last_idling_start;
+ else
+ delta = ktime_get();
+ delta = ktime_sub(delta, bfqd->last_budget_start);
+ usecs = ktime_to_us(delta);
+
+ /* don't use too short time intervals */
+ if (usecs < 1000)
+ return false;
+
+ /*
+ * Calculate the bandwidth for the last slice. We use a 64 bit
+ * value to store the peak rate, in sectors per usec in fixed
+ * point math. We do so to have enough precision in the estimate
+ * and to avoid overflows.
+ */
+ bw = (u64)bfqq->entity.service << BFQ_RATE_SHIFT;
+ do_div(bw, (unsigned long)usecs);
+
+ timeout = jiffies_to_msecs(bfqd->bfq_timeout);
+
+ /*
+ * Use only long (> 20ms) intervals to filter out spikes for
+ * the peak rate estimation.
+ */
+ if (usecs > 20000) {
+ if (bw > bfqd->peak_rate) {
+ bfqd->peak_rate = bw;
+ update = 1;
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "new peak_rate=%llu", bw);
+ }
+
+ update |= bfqd->peak_rate_samples == BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES - 1;
+
+ if (bfqd->peak_rate_samples < BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES)
+ bfqd->peak_rate_samples++;
+
+ if (bfqd->peak_rate_samples == BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES &&
+ update && bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget == 0) {
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget =
+ bfq_calc_max_budget(bfqd->peak_rate,
+ timeout);
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "new max_budget=%d",
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget);
+ }
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * A process is considered ``slow'' (i.e., seeky, so that we
+ * cannot treat it fairly in the service domain, as it would
+ * slow down too much the other processes) if, when a slice
+ * ends for whatever reason, it has received service at a
+ * rate that would not be high enough to complete the budget
+ * before the budget timeout expiration.
+ */
+ expected = bw * 1000 * timeout >> BFQ_RATE_SHIFT;
+
+ /*
+ * Caveat: processes doing IO in the slower disk zones will
+ * tend to be slow(er) even if not seeky. And the estimated
+ * peak rate will actually be an average over the disk
+ * surface. Hence, to not be too harsh with unlucky processes,
+ * we keep a budget/3 margin of safety before declaring a
+ * process slow.
+ */
+ return expected > (4 * bfqq->entity.budget) / 3;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return the farthest past time instant according to jiffies
+ * macros.
+ */
+static unsigned long bfq_smallest_from_now(void)
+{
+ return jiffies - MAX_JIFFY_OFFSET;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_bfqq_expire - expire a queue.
+ * @bfqd: device owning the queue.
+ * @bfqq: the queue to expire.
+ * @compensate: if true, compensate for the time spent idling.
+ * @reason: the reason causing the expiration.
+ *
+ *
+ * If the process associated with the queue is slow (i.e., seeky), or
+ * in case of budget timeout, or, finally, if it is async, we
+ * artificially charge it an entire budget (independently of the
+ * actual service it received). As a consequence, the queue will get
+ * higher timestamps than the correct ones upon reactivation, and
+ * hence it will be rescheduled as if it had received more service
+ * than what it actually received. In the end, this class of processes
+ * will receive less service in proportion to how slowly they consume
+ * their budgets (and hence how seriously they tend to lower the
+ * throughput).
+ *
+ * In contrast, when a queue expires because it has been idling for
+ * too much or because it exhausted its budget, we do not touch the
+ * amount of service it has received. Hence when the queue will be
+ * reactivated and its timestamps updated, the latter will be in sync
+ * with the actual service received by the queue until expiration.
+ *
+ * Charging a full budget to the first type of queues and the exact
+ * service to the others has the effect of using the WF2Q+ policy to
+ * schedule the former on a timeslice basis, without violating the
+ * service domain guarantees of the latter.
+ */
+static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ bool compensate,
+ enum bfqq_expiration reason)
+{
+ bool slow;
+ int ref;
+
+ /*
+ * Update device peak rate for autotuning and check whether the
+ * process is slow (see bfq_update_peak_rate).
+ */
+ slow = bfq_update_peak_rate(bfqd, bfqq, compensate);
+
+ /*
+ * As above explained, 'punish' slow (i.e., seeky), timed-out
+ * and async queues, to favor sequential sync workloads.
+ */
+ if (slow || reason == BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT)
+ bfq_bfqq_charge_full_budget(bfqq);
+
+ if (reason == BFQQE_TOO_IDLE &&
+ bfqq->entity.service <= 2 * bfqq->entity.budget / 10)
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+ "expire (%d, slow %d, num_disp %d, idle_win %d)", reason,
+ slow, bfqq->dispatched, bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq));
+
+ /*
+ * Increase, decrease or leave budget unchanged according to
+ * reason.
+ */
+ __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget(bfqd, bfqq, reason);
+ ref = bfqq->ref;
+ __bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq);
+
+ /* mark bfqq as waiting a request only if a bic still points to it */
+ if (ref > 1 && !bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq) &&
+ reason != BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT &&
+ reason != BFQQE_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED)
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Budget timeout is not implemented through a dedicated timer, but
+ * just checked on request arrivals and completions, as well as on
+ * idle timer expirations.
+ */
+static bool bfq_bfqq_budget_timeout(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ if (bfq_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq) ||
+ time_is_after_jiffies(bfqq->budget_timeout))
+ return false;
+ return true;
+}
+
+/*
+ * If we expire a queue that is actively waiting (i.e., with the
+ * device idled) for the arrival of a new request, then we may incur
+ * the timestamp misalignment problem described in the body of the
+ * function __bfq_activate_entity. Hence we return true only if this
+ * condition does not hold, or if the queue is slow enough to deserve
+ * only to be kicked off for preserving a high throughput.
+ */
+static bool bfq_may_expire_for_budg_timeout(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+ "may_budget_timeout: wait_request %d left %d timeout %d",
+ bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq),
+ bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq) >= bfqq->entity.budget / 3,
+ bfq_bfqq_budget_timeout(bfqq));
+
+ return (!bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq) ||
+ bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq) >= bfqq->entity.budget / 3)
+ &&
+ bfq_bfqq_budget_timeout(bfqq);
+}
+
+/*
+ * For a queue that becomes empty, device idling is allowed only if
+ * this function returns true for the queue. And this function returns
+ * true only if idling is beneficial for throughput.
+ */
+static bool bfq_bfqq_may_idle(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+ bool idling_boosts_thr;
+
+ if (bfqd->strict_guarantees)
+ return true;
+
+ /*
+ * The value of the next variable is computed considering that
+ * idling is usually beneficial for the throughput if:
+ * (a) the device is not NCQ-capable, or
+ * (b) regardless of the presence of NCQ, the request pattern
+ * for bfqq is I/O-bound (possible throughput losses
+ * caused by granting idling to seeky queues are mitigated
+ * by the fact that, in all scenarios where boosting
+ * throughput is the best thing to do, i.e., in all
+ * symmetric scenarios, only a minimal idle time is
+ * allowed to seeky queues).
+ */
+ idling_boosts_thr = !bfqd->hw_tag || bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+
+ /*
+ * We have now the components we need to compute the return
+ * value of the function, which is true only if both the
+ * following conditions hold:
+ * 1) bfqq is sync, because idling make sense only for sync queues;
+ * 2) idling boosts the throughput.
+ */
+ return bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) && idling_boosts_thr;
+}
+
+/*
+ * If the in-service queue is empty but the function bfq_bfqq_may_idle
+ * returns true, then:
+ * 1) the queue must remain in service and cannot be expired, and
+ * 2) the device must be idled to wait for the possible arrival of a new
+ * request for the queue.
+ * See the comments on the function bfq_bfqq_may_idle for the reasons
+ * why performing device idling is the best choice to boost the throughput
+ * and preserve service guarantees when bfq_bfqq_may_idle itself
+ * returns true.
+ */
+static bool bfq_bfqq_must_idle(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+
+ return RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list) && bfqd->bfq_slice_idle != 0 &&
+ bfq_bfqq_may_idle(bfqq);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Select a queue for service. If we have a current queue in service,
+ * check whether to continue servicing it, or retrieve and set a new one.
+ */
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_select_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+ struct request *next_rq;
+ enum bfqq_expiration reason = BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT;
+
+ bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
+ if (!bfqq)
+ goto new_queue;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "select_queue: already in-service queue");
+
+ if (bfq_may_expire_for_budg_timeout(bfqq) &&
+ !bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq) &&
+ !bfq_bfqq_must_idle(bfqq))
+ goto expire;
+
+check_queue:
+ /*
+ * This loop is rarely executed more than once. Even when it
+ * happens, it is much more convenient to re-execute this loop
+ * than to return NULL and trigger a new dispatch to get a
+ * request served.
+ */
+ next_rq = bfqq->next_rq;
+ /*
+ * If bfqq has requests queued and it has enough budget left to
+ * serve them, keep the queue, otherwise expire it.
+ */
+ if (next_rq) {
+ if (bfq_serv_to_charge(next_rq, bfqq) >
+ bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq)) {
+ /*
+ * Expire the queue for budget exhaustion,
+ * which makes sure that the next budget is
+ * enough to serve the next request, even if
+ * it comes from the fifo expired path.
+ */
+ reason = BFQQE_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED;
+ goto expire;
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * The idle timer may be pending because we may
+ * not disable disk idling even when a new request
+ * arrives.
+ */
+ if (bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq)) {
+ /*
+ * If we get here: 1) at least a new request
+ * has arrived but we have not disabled the
+ * timer because the request was too small,
+ * 2) then the block layer has unplugged
+ * the device, causing the dispatch to be
+ * invoked.
+ *
+ * Since the device is unplugged, now the
+ * requests are probably large enough to
+ * provide a reasonable throughput.
+ * So we disable idling.
+ */
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq);
+ hrtimer_try_to_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+ }
+ goto keep_queue;
+ }
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * No requests pending. However, if the in-service queue is idling
+ * for a new request, or has requests waiting for a completion and
+ * may idle after their completion, then keep it anyway.
+ */
+ if (bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq) ||
+ (bfqq->dispatched != 0 && bfq_bfqq_may_idle(bfqq))) {
+ bfqq = NULL;
+ goto keep_queue;
+ }
+
+ reason = BFQQE_NO_MORE_REQUESTS;
+expire:
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, false, reason);
+new_queue:
+ bfqq = bfq_set_in_service_queue(bfqd);
+ if (bfqq) {
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "select_queue: checking new queue");
+ goto check_queue;
+ }
+keep_queue:
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "select_queue: returned this queue");
+ else
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "select_queue: no queue returned");
+
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Dispatch next request from bfqq.
+ */
+static struct request *bfq_dispatch_rq_from_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct request *rq = bfqq->next_rq;
+ unsigned long service_to_charge;
+
+ service_to_charge = bfq_serv_to_charge(rq, bfqq);
+
+ bfq_bfqq_served(bfqq, service_to_charge);
+
+ bfq_dispatch_remove(bfqd->queue, rq);
+
+ if (!bfqd->in_service_bic) {
+ atomic_long_inc(&RQ_BIC(rq)->icq.ioc->refcount);
+ bfqd->in_service_bic = RQ_BIC(rq);
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Expire bfqq, pretending that its budget expired, if bfqq
+ * belongs to CLASS_IDLE and other queues are waiting for
+ * service.
+ */
+ if (bfqd->busy_queues > 1 && bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
+ goto expire;
+
+ return rq;
+
+expire:
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, false, BFQQE_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED);
+ return rq;
+}
+
+static bool bfq_has_work(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = hctx->queue->elevator->elevator_data;
+
+ /*
+ * Avoiding lock: a race on bfqd->busy_queues should cause at
+ * most a call to dispatch for nothing
+ */
+ return !list_empty_careful(&bfqd->dispatch) ||
+ bfqd->busy_queues > 0;
+}
+
+static struct request *__bfq_dispatch_request(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = hctx->queue->elevator->elevator_data;
+ struct request *rq = NULL;
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = NULL;
+
+ if (!list_empty(&bfqd->dispatch)) {
+ rq = list_first_entry(&bfqd->dispatch, struct request,
+ queuelist);
+ list_del_init(&rq->queuelist);
+
+ bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+
+ if (bfqq) {
+ /*
+ * Increment counters here, because this
+ * dispatch does not follow the standard
+ * dispatch flow (where counters are
+ * incremented)
+ */
+ bfqq->dispatched++;
+
+ goto inc_in_driver_start_rq;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * We exploit the put_rq_private hook to decrement
+ * rq_in_driver, but put_rq_private will not be
+ * invoked on this request. So, to avoid unbalance,
+ * just start this request, without incrementing
+ * rq_in_driver. As a negative consequence,
+ * rq_in_driver is deceptively lower than it should be
+ * while this request is in service. This may cause
+ * bfq_schedule_dispatch to be invoked uselessly.
+ *
+ * As for implementing an exact solution, the
+ * put_request hook, if defined, is probably invoked
+ * also on this request. So, by exploiting this hook,
+ * we could 1) increment rq_in_driver here, and 2)
+ * decrement it in put_request. Such a solution would
+ * let the value of the counter be always accurate,
+ * but it would entail using an extra interface
+ * function. This cost seems higher than the benefit,
+ * being the frequency of non-elevator-private
+ * requests very low.
+ */
+ goto start_rq;
+ }
+
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "dispatch requests: %d busy queues", bfqd->busy_queues);
+
+ if (bfqd->busy_queues == 0)
+ goto exit;
+
+ /*
+ * Force device to serve one request at a time if
+ * strict_guarantees is true. Forcing this service scheme is
+ * currently the ONLY way to guarantee that the request
+ * service order enforced by the scheduler is respected by a
+ * queueing device. Otherwise the device is free even to make
+ * some unlucky request wait for as long as the device
+ * wishes.
+ *
+ * Of course, serving one request at at time may cause loss of
+ * throughput.
+ */
+ if (bfqd->strict_guarantees && bfqd->rq_in_driver > 0)
+ goto exit;
+
+ bfqq = bfq_select_queue(bfqd);
+ if (!bfqq)
+ goto exit;
+
+ rq = bfq_dispatch_rq_from_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+
+ if (rq) {
+inc_in_driver_start_rq:
+ bfqd->rq_in_driver++;
+start_rq:
+ rq->rq_flags |= RQF_STARTED;
+ }
+exit:
+ return rq;
+}
+
+static struct request *bfq_dispatch_request(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = hctx->queue->elevator->elevator_data;
+ struct request *rq;
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ rq = __bfq_dispatch_request(hctx);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ return rq;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Task holds one reference to the queue, dropped when task exits. Each rq
+ * in-flight on this queue also holds a reference, dropped when rq is freed.
+ *
+ * Scheduler lock must be held here. Recall not to use bfqq after calling
+ * this function on it.
+ */
+static void bfq_put_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ if (bfqq->bfqd)
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "put_queue: %p %d",
+ bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+
+ bfqq->ref--;
+ if (bfqq->ref)
+ return;
+
+ kmem_cache_free(bfq_pool, bfqq);
+}
+
+static void bfq_exit_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ if (bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue) {
+ __bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq);
+ bfq_schedule_dispatch(bfqd);
+ }
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "exit_bfqq: %p, %d", bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq); /* release process reference */
+}
+
+static void bfq_exit_icq_bfqq(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, bool is_sync)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, is_sync);
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd;
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfqd = bfqq->bfqd; /* NULL if scheduler already exited */
+
+ if (bfqq && bfqd) {
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ spin_lock_irqsave(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ bfq_exit_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+ bic_set_bfqq(bic, NULL, is_sync);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ }
+}
+
+static void bfq_exit_icq(struct io_cq *icq)
+{
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic = icq_to_bic(icq);
+
+ bfq_exit_icq_bfqq(bic, true);
+ bfq_exit_icq_bfqq(bic, false);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Update the entity prio values; note that the new values will not
+ * be used until the next (re)activation.
+ */
+static void
+bfq_set_next_ioprio_data(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
+{
+ struct task_struct *tsk = current;
+ int ioprio_class;
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+
+ if (!bfqd)
+ return;
+
+ ioprio_class = IOPRIO_PRIO_CLASS(bic->ioprio);
+ switch (ioprio_class) {
+ default:
+ dev_err(bfqq->bfqd->queue->backing_dev_info->dev,
+ "bfq: bad prio class %d\n", ioprio_class);
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_NONE:
+ /*
+ * No prio set, inherit CPU scheduling settings.
+ */
+ bfqq->new_ioprio = task_nice_ioprio(tsk);
+ bfqq->new_ioprio_class = task_nice_ioclass(tsk);
+ break;
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_RT:
+ bfqq->new_ioprio = IOPRIO_PRIO_DATA(bic->ioprio);
+ bfqq->new_ioprio_class = IOPRIO_CLASS_RT;
+ break;
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_BE:
+ bfqq->new_ioprio = IOPRIO_PRIO_DATA(bic->ioprio);
+ bfqq->new_ioprio_class = IOPRIO_CLASS_BE;
+ break;
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE:
+ bfqq->new_ioprio_class = IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE;
+ bfqq->new_ioprio = 7;
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+ break;
+ }
+
+ if (bfqq->new_ioprio >= IOPRIO_BE_NR) {
+ pr_crit("bfq_set_next_ioprio_data: new_ioprio %d\n",
+ bfqq->new_ioprio);
+ bfqq->new_ioprio = IOPRIO_BE_NR;
+ }
+
+ bfqq->entity.new_weight = bfq_ioprio_to_weight(bfqq->new_ioprio);
+ bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+}
+
+static void bfq_check_ioprio_change(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bio *bio)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bic_to_bfqd(bic);
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+ int ioprio = bic->icq.ioc->ioprio;
+
+ /*
+ * This condition may trigger on a newly created bic, be sure to
+ * drop the lock before returning.
+ */
+ if (unlikely(!bfqd) || likely(bic->ioprio == ioprio))
+ return;
+
+ bic->ioprio = ioprio;
+
+ bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, false);
+ if (bfqq) {
+ /* release process reference on this queue */
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+ bfqq = bfq_get_queue(bfqd, bio, BLK_RW_ASYNC, bic);
+ bic_set_bfqq(bic, bfqq, false);
+ }
+
+ bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, true);
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfq_set_next_ioprio_data(bfqq, bic);
+}
+
+static void bfq_init_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic, pid_t pid, int is_sync)
+{
+ RB_CLEAR_NODE(&bfqq->entity.rb_node);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bfqq->fifo);
+
+ bfqq->ref = 0;
+ bfqq->bfqd = bfqd;
+
+ if (bic)
+ bfq_set_next_ioprio_data(bfqq, bic);
+
+ if (is_sync) {
+ if (!bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_sync(bfqq);
+ } else
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_sync(bfqq);
+
+ /* set end request to minus infinity from now */
+ bfqq->ttime.last_end_request = ktime_get_ns() + 1;
+
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+
+ bfqq->pid = pid;
+
+ /* Tentative initial value to trade off between thr and lat */
+ bfqq->max_budget = bfq_default_budget(bfqd, bfqq);
+ bfqq->budget_timeout = bfq_smallest_from_now();
+ bfqq->pid = pid;
+
+ /* first request is almost certainly seeky */
+ bfqq->seek_history = 1;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue **bfq_async_queue_prio(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ int ioprio_class, int ioprio)
+{
+ switch (ioprio_class) {
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_RT:
+ return &async_bfqq[0][ioprio];
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_NONE:
+ ioprio = IOPRIO_NORM;
+ /* fall through */
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_BE:
+ return &async_bfqq[1][ioprio];
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE:
+ return &async_idle_bfqq;
+ default:
+ return NULL;
+ }
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_get_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bio *bio, bool is_sync,
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
+{
+ const int ioprio = IOPRIO_PRIO_DATA(bic->ioprio);
+ const int ioprio_class = IOPRIO_PRIO_CLASS(bic->ioprio);
+ struct bfq_queue **async_bfqq = NULL;
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+
+ rcu_read_lock();
+
+ if (!is_sync) {
+ async_bfqq = bfq_async_queue_prio(bfqd, ioprio_class,
+ ioprio);
+ bfqq = *async_bfqq;
+ if (bfqq)
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ bfqq = kmem_cache_alloc_node(bfq_pool,
+ GFP_NOWAIT | __GFP_ZERO | __GFP_NOWARN,
+ bfqd->queue->node);
+
+ if (bfqq) {
+ bfq_init_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, bic, current->pid,
+ is_sync);
+ bfq_init_entity(&bfqq->entity);
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "allocated");
+ } else {
+ bfqq = &bfqd->oom_bfqq;
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "using oom bfqq");
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Pin the queue now that it's allocated, scheduler exit will
+ * prune it.
+ */
+ if (async_bfqq) {
+ bfqq->ref++;
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+ "get_queue, bfqq not in async: %p, %d",
+ bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+ *async_bfqq = bfqq;
+ }
+
+out:
+ bfqq->ref++; /* get a process reference to this queue */
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "get_queue, at end: %p, %d", bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+ rcu_read_unlock();
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+static void bfq_update_io_thinktime(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_ttime *ttime = &bfqq->ttime;
+ u64 elapsed = ktime_get_ns() - bfqq->ttime.last_end_request;
+
+ elapsed = min_t(u64, elapsed, 2ULL * bfqd->bfq_slice_idle);
+
+ ttime->ttime_samples = (7*bfqq->ttime.ttime_samples + 256) / 8;
+ ttime->ttime_total = div_u64(7*ttime->ttime_total + 256*elapsed, 8);
+ ttime->ttime_mean = div64_ul(ttime->ttime_total + 128,
+ ttime->ttime_samples);
+}
+
+static void
+bfq_update_io_seektime(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct request *rq)
+{
+ sector_t sdist = 0;
+
+ if (bfqq->last_request_pos) {
+ if (bfqq->last_request_pos < blk_rq_pos(rq))
+ sdist = blk_rq_pos(rq) - bfqq->last_request_pos;
+ else
+ sdist = bfqq->last_request_pos - blk_rq_pos(rq);
+ }
+
+ bfqq->seek_history <<= 1;
+ bfqq->seek_history |= sdist > BFQQ_SEEK_THR &&
+ (!blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue) ||
+ blk_rq_sectors(rq) < BFQQ_SECT_THR_NONROT);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Disable idle window if the process thinks too long or seeks so much that
+ * it doesn't matter.
+ */
+static void bfq_update_idle_window(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
+{
+ int enable_idle;
+
+ /* Don't idle for async or idle io prio class. */
+ if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) || bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
+ return;
+
+ enable_idle = bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+
+ if (atomic_read(&bic->icq.ioc->active_ref) == 0 ||
+ bfqd->bfq_slice_idle == 0 ||
+ (bfqd->hw_tag && BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq)))
+ enable_idle = 0;
+ else if (bfq_sample_valid(bfqq->ttime.ttime_samples)) {
+ if (bfqq->ttime.ttime_mean > bfqd->bfq_slice_idle)
+ enable_idle = 0;
+ else
+ enable_idle = 1;
+ }
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "update_idle_window: enable_idle %d",
+ enable_idle);
+
+ if (enable_idle)
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+ else
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Called when a new fs request (rq) is added to bfqq. Check if there's
+ * something we should do about it.
+ */
+static void bfq_rq_enqueued(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic = RQ_BIC(rq);
+
+ if (rq->cmd_flags & REQ_META)
+ bfqq->meta_pending++;
+
+ bfq_update_io_thinktime(bfqd, bfqq);
+ bfq_update_io_seektime(bfqd, bfqq, rq);
+ if (bfqq->entity.service > bfq_max_budget(bfqd) / 8 ||
+ !BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq))
+ bfq_update_idle_window(bfqd, bfqq, bic);
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+ "rq_enqueued: idle_window=%d (seeky %d)",
+ bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq), BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq));
+
+ bfqq->last_request_pos = blk_rq_pos(rq) + blk_rq_sectors(rq);
+
+ if (bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue && bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq)) {
+ bool small_req = bfqq->queued[rq_is_sync(rq)] == 1 &&
+ blk_rq_sectors(rq) < 32;
+ bool budget_timeout = bfq_bfqq_budget_timeout(bfqq);
+
+ /*
+ * There is just this request queued: if the request
+ * is small and the queue is not to be expired, then
+ * just exit.
+ *
+ * In this way, if the device is being idled to wait
+ * for a new request from the in-service queue, we
+ * avoid unplugging the device and committing the
+ * device to serve just a small request. On the
+ * contrary, we wait for the block layer to decide
+ * when to unplug the device: hopefully, new requests
+ * will be merged to this one quickly, then the device
+ * will be unplugged and larger requests will be
+ * dispatched.
+ */
+ if (small_req && !budget_timeout)
+ return;
+
+ /*
+ * A large enough request arrived, or the queue is to
+ * be expired: in both cases disk idling is to be
+ * stopped, so clear wait_request flag and reset
+ * timer.
+ */
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq);
+ hrtimer_try_to_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+
+ /*
+ * The queue is not empty, because a new request just
+ * arrived. Hence we can safely expire the queue, in
+ * case of budget timeout, without risking that the
+ * timestamps of the queue are not updated correctly.
+ * See [1] for more details.
+ */
+ if (budget_timeout)
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, false,
+ BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT);
+ }
+}
+
+static void __bfq_insert_request(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+
+ bfq_add_request(rq);
+
+ rq->fifo_time = ktime_get_ns() + bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[rq_is_sync(rq)];
+ list_add_tail(&rq->queuelist, &bfqq->fifo);
+
+ bfq_rq_enqueued(bfqd, bfqq, rq);
+}
+
+static void bfq_insert_request(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx, struct request *rq,
+ bool at_head)
+{
+ struct request_queue *q = hctx->queue;
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ if (blk_mq_sched_try_insert_merge(q, rq)) {
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ return;
+ }
+
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ blk_mq_sched_request_inserted(rq);
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ if (at_head || blk_rq_is_passthrough(rq)) {
+ if (at_head)
+ list_add(&rq->queuelist, &bfqd->dispatch);
+ else
+ list_add_tail(&rq->queuelist, &bfqd->dispatch);
+ } else {
+ __bfq_insert_request(bfqd, rq);
+
+ if (rq_mergeable(rq)) {
+ elv_rqhash_add(q, rq);
+ if (!q->last_merge)
+ q->last_merge = rq;
+ }
+ }
+
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+}
+
+static void bfq_insert_requests(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx,
+ struct list_head *list, bool at_head)
+{
+ while (!list_empty(list)) {
+ struct request *rq;
+
+ rq = list_first_entry(list, struct request, queuelist);
+ list_del_init(&rq->queuelist);
+ bfq_insert_request(hctx, rq, at_head);
+ }
+}
+
+static void bfq_update_hw_tag(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ bfqd->max_rq_in_driver = max_t(int, bfqd->max_rq_in_driver,
+ bfqd->rq_in_driver);
+
+ if (bfqd->hw_tag == 1)
+ return;
+
+ /*
+ * This sample is valid if the number of outstanding requests
+ * is large enough to allow a queueing behavior. Note that the
+ * sum is not exact, as it's not taking into account deactivated
+ * requests.
+ */
+ if (bfqd->rq_in_driver + bfqd->queued < BFQ_HW_QUEUE_THRESHOLD)
+ return;
+
+ if (bfqd->hw_tag_samples++ < BFQ_HW_QUEUE_SAMPLES)
+ return;
+
+ bfqd->hw_tag = bfqd->max_rq_in_driver > BFQ_HW_QUEUE_THRESHOLD;
+ bfqd->max_rq_in_driver = 0;
+ bfqd->hw_tag_samples = 0;
+}
+
+static void bfq_completed_request(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ bfq_update_hw_tag(bfqd);
+
+ bfqd->rq_in_driver--;
+ bfqq->dispatched--;
+
+ bfqq->ttime.last_end_request = ktime_get_ns();
+
+ /*
+ * If this is the in-service queue, check if it needs to be expired,
+ * or if we want to idle in case it has no pending requests.
+ */
+ if (bfqd->in_service_queue == bfqq) {
+ if (bfq_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq))
+ bfq_set_budget_timeout(bfqd);
+
+ if (bfq_bfqq_must_idle(bfqq)) {
+ bfq_arm_slice_timer(bfqd);
+ return;
+ } else if (bfq_may_expire_for_budg_timeout(bfqq))
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, false,
+ BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT);
+ else if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list) &&
+ (bfqq->dispatched == 0 ||
+ !bfq_bfqq_may_idle(bfqq)))
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, false,
+ BFQQE_NO_MORE_REQUESTS);
+ }
+}
+
+static void bfq_put_rq_priv_body(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ bfqq->allocated--;
+
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+}
+
+static void bfq_put_rq_private(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+
+
+ if (likely(rq->rq_flags & RQF_STARTED)) {
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ spin_lock_irqsave(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+
+ bfq_completed_request(bfqq, bfqd);
+ bfq_put_rq_priv_body(bfqq);
+
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * Request rq may be still/already in the scheduler,
+ * in which case we need to remove it. And we cannot
+ * defer such a check and removal, to avoid
+ * inconsistencies in the time interval from the end
+ * of this function to the start of the deferred work.
+ * This situation seems to occur only in process
+ * context, as a consequence of a merge. In the
+ * current version of the code, this implies that the
+ * lock is held.
+ */
+
+ if (!RB_EMPTY_NODE(&rq->rb_node))
+ bfq_remove_request(q, rq);
+ bfq_put_rq_priv_body(bfqq);
+ }
+
+ rq->elv.priv[0] = NULL;
+ rq->elv.priv[1] = NULL;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Allocate bfq data structures associated with this request.
+ */
+static int bfq_get_rq_private(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
+ struct bio *bio)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic = icq_to_bic(rq->elv.icq);
+ const int is_sync = rq_is_sync(rq);
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ bfq_check_ioprio_change(bic, bio);
+
+ if (!bic)
+ goto queue_fail;
+
+ bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, is_sync);
+ if (!bfqq || bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq) {
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+ bfqq = bfq_get_queue(bfqd, bio, is_sync, bic);
+ bic_set_bfqq(bic, bfqq, is_sync);
+ }
+
+ bfqq->allocated++;
+ bfqq->ref++;
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "get_request %p: bfqq %p, %d",
+ rq, bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+
+ rq->elv.priv[0] = bic;
+ rq->elv.priv[1] = bfqq;
+
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ return 0;
+
+queue_fail:
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ return 1;
+}
+
+static void bfq_idle_slice_timer_body(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+ enum bfqq_expiration reason;
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ spin_lock_irqsave(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq);
+
+ if (bfqq != bfqd->in_service_queue) {
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ return;
+ }
+
+ if (bfq_bfqq_budget_timeout(bfqq))
+ /*
+ * Also here the queue can be safely expired
+ * for budget timeout without wasting
+ * guarantees
+ */
+ reason = BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT;
+ else if (bfqq->queued[0] == 0 && bfqq->queued[1] == 0)
+ /*
+ * The queue may not be empty upon timer expiration,
+ * because we may not disable the timer when the
+ * first request of the in-service queue arrives
+ * during disk idling.
+ */
+ reason = BFQQE_TOO_IDLE;
+ else
+ goto schedule_dispatch;
+
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, true, reason);
+
+schedule_dispatch:
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ bfq_schedule_dispatch(bfqd);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Handler of the expiration of the timer running if the in-service queue
+ * is idling inside its time slice.
+ */
+static enum hrtimer_restart bfq_idle_slice_timer(struct hrtimer *timer)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = container_of(timer, struct bfq_data,
+ idle_slice_timer);
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
+
+ /*
+ * Theoretical race here: the in-service queue can be NULL or
+ * different from the queue that was idling if a new request
+ * arrives for the current queue and there is a full dispatch
+ * cycle that changes the in-service queue. This can hardly
+ * happen, but in the worst case we just expire a queue too
+ * early.
+ */
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfq_idle_slice_timer_body(bfqq);
+
+ return HRTIMER_NORESTART;
+}
+
+static void __bfq_put_async_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue **bfqq_ptr)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = *bfqq_ptr;
+
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "put_async_bfqq: %p", bfqq);
+ if (bfqq) {
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "put_async_bfqq: putting %p, %d",
+ bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+ *bfqq_ptr = NULL;
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Release the extra reference of the async queues as the device
+ * goes away.
+ */
+static void bfq_put_async_queues(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ int i, j;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < 2; i++)
+ for (j = 0; j < IOPRIO_BE_NR; j++)
+ __bfq_put_async_bfqq(bfqd, &async_bfqq[i][j]);
+
+ __bfq_put_async_bfqq(bfqd, &async_idle_bfqq);
+}
+
+static void bfq_exit_queue(struct elevator_queue *e)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data;
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq, *n;
+
+ hrtimer_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ list_for_each_entry_safe(bfqq, n, &bfqd->idle_list, bfqq_list)
+ bfq_deactivate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, false);
+ bfq_put_async_queues(bfqd);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ hrtimer_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+
+ kfree(bfqd);
+}
+
+static int bfq_init_queue(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_type *e)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd;
+ struct elevator_queue *eq;
+ int i;
+
+ eq = elevator_alloc(q, e);
+ if (!eq)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ bfqd = kzalloc_node(sizeof(*bfqd), GFP_KERNEL, q->node);
+ if (!bfqd) {
+ kobject_put(&eq->kobj);
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ }
+ eq->elevator_data = bfqd;
+
+ /*
+ * Our fallback bfqq if bfq_find_alloc_queue() runs into OOM issues.
+ * Grab a permanent reference to it, so that the normal code flow
+ * will not attempt to free it.
+ */
+ bfq_init_bfqq(bfqd, &bfqd->oom_bfqq, NULL, 1, 0);
+ bfqd->oom_bfqq.ref++;
+ bfqd->oom_bfqq.new_ioprio = BFQ_DEFAULT_QUEUE_IOPRIO;
+ bfqd->oom_bfqq.new_ioprio_class = IOPRIO_CLASS_BE;
+ bfqd->oom_bfqq.entity.new_weight =
+ bfq_ioprio_to_weight(bfqd->oom_bfqq.new_ioprio);
+ /*
+ * Trigger weight initialization, according to ioprio, at the
+ * oom_bfqq's first activation. The oom_bfqq's ioprio and ioprio
+ * class won't be changed any more.
+ */
+ bfqd->oom_bfqq.entity.prio_changed = 1;
+
+ bfqd->queue = q;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES; i++)
+ bfqd->sched_data.service_tree[i] = BFQ_SERVICE_TREE_INIT;
+
+ hrtimer_init(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer, CLOCK_MONOTONIC,
+ HRTIMER_MODE_REL);
+ bfqd->idle_slice_timer.function = bfq_idle_slice_timer;
+
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bfqd->active_list);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bfqd->idle_list);
+
+ bfqd->hw_tag = -1;
+
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget = bfq_default_max_budget;
+
+ bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[0] = bfq_fifo_expire[0];
+ bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[1] = bfq_fifo_expire[1];
+ bfqd->bfq_back_max = bfq_back_max;
+ bfqd->bfq_back_penalty = bfq_back_penalty;
+ bfqd->bfq_slice_idle = bfq_slice_idle;
+ bfqd->bfq_class_idle_last_service = 0;
+ bfqd->bfq_timeout = bfq_timeout;
+
+ bfqd->bfq_requests_within_timer = 120;
+
+ spin_lock_init(&bfqd->lock);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bfqd->dispatch);
+
+ q->elevator = eq;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void bfq_slab_kill(void)
+{
+ kmem_cache_destroy(bfq_pool);
+}
+
+static int __init bfq_slab_setup(void)
+{
+ bfq_pool = KMEM_CACHE(bfq_queue, 0);
+ if (!bfq_pool)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static ssize_t bfq_var_show(unsigned int var, char *page)
+{
+ return sprintf(page, "%u\n", var);
+}
+
+static ssize_t bfq_var_store(unsigned long *var, const char *page,
+ size_t count)
+{
+ unsigned long new_val;
+ int ret = kstrtoul(page, 10, &new_val);
+
+ if (ret == 0)
+ *var = new_val;
+
+ return count;
+}
+
+#define SHOW_FUNCTION(__FUNC, __VAR, __CONV) \
+static ssize_t __FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, char *page) \
+{ \
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data; \
+ u64 __data = __VAR; \
+ if (__CONV == 1) \
+ __data = jiffies_to_msecs(__data); \
+ else if (__CONV == 2) \
+ __data = div_u64(__data, NSEC_PER_MSEC); \
+ return bfq_var_show(__data, (page)); \
+}
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_sync_show, bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[1], 2);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_async_show, bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[0], 2);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_back_seek_max_show, bfqd->bfq_back_max, 0);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_back_seek_penalty_show, bfqd->bfq_back_penalty, 0);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_show, bfqd->bfq_slice_idle, 2);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_max_budget_show, bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget, 0);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_timeout_sync_show, bfqd->bfq_timeout, 1);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_strict_guarantees_show, bfqd->strict_guarantees, 0);
+#undef SHOW_FUNCTION
+
+#define USEC_SHOW_FUNCTION(__FUNC, __VAR) \
+static ssize_t __FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, char *page) \
+{ \
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data; \
+ u64 __data = __VAR; \
+ __data = div_u64(__data, NSEC_PER_USEC); \
+ return bfq_var_show(__data, (page)); \
+}
+USEC_SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_us_show, bfqd->bfq_slice_idle);
+#undef USEC_SHOW_FUNCTION
+
+#define STORE_FUNCTION(__FUNC, __PTR, MIN, MAX, __CONV) \
+static ssize_t \
+__FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, const char *page, size_t count) \
+{ \
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data; \
+ unsigned long uninitialized_var(__data); \
+ int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count); \
+ if (__data < (MIN)) \
+ __data = (MIN); \
+ else if (__data > (MAX)) \
+ __data = (MAX); \
+ if (__CONV == 1) \
+ *(__PTR) = msecs_to_jiffies(__data); \
+ else if (__CONV == 2) \
+ *(__PTR) = (u64)__data * NSEC_PER_MSEC; \
+ else \
+ *(__PTR) = __data; \
+ return ret; \
+}
+STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_sync_store, &bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[1], 1,
+ INT_MAX, 2);
+STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_async_store, &bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[0], 1,
+ INT_MAX, 2);
+STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_back_seek_max_store, &bfqd->bfq_back_max, 0, INT_MAX, 0);
+STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_back_seek_penalty_store, &bfqd->bfq_back_penalty, 1,
+ INT_MAX, 0);
+STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_store, &bfqd->bfq_slice_idle, 0, INT_MAX, 2);
+#undef STORE_FUNCTION
+
+#define USEC_STORE_FUNCTION(__FUNC, __PTR, MIN, MAX) \
+static ssize_t __FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, const char *page, size_t count)\
+{ \
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data; \
+ unsigned long uninitialized_var(__data); \
+ int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count); \
+ if (__data < (MIN)) \
+ __data = (MIN); \
+ else if (__data > (MAX)) \
+ __data = (MAX); \
+ *(__PTR) = (u64)__data * NSEC_PER_USEC; \
+ return ret; \
+}
+USEC_STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_us_store, &bfqd->bfq_slice_idle, 0,
+ UINT_MAX);
+#undef USEC_STORE_FUNCTION
+
+static unsigned long bfq_estimated_max_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ u64 timeout = jiffies_to_msecs(bfqd->bfq_timeout);
+
+ if (bfqd->peak_rate_samples >= BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES)
+ return bfq_calc_max_budget(bfqd->peak_rate, timeout);
+ else
+ return bfq_default_max_budget;
+}
+
+static ssize_t bfq_max_budget_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
+ const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data;
+ unsigned long uninitialized_var(__data);
+ int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count);
+
+ if (__data == 0)
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget = bfq_estimated_max_budget(bfqd);
+ else {
+ if (__data > INT_MAX)
+ __data = INT_MAX;
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget = __data;
+ }
+
+ bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget = __data;
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Leaving this name to preserve name compatibility with cfq
+ * parameters, but this timeout is used for both sync and async.
+ */
+static ssize_t bfq_timeout_sync_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
+ const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data;
+ unsigned long uninitialized_var(__data);
+ int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count);
+
+ if (__data < 1)
+ __data = 1;
+ else if (__data > INT_MAX)
+ __data = INT_MAX;
+
+ bfqd->bfq_timeout = msecs_to_jiffies(__data);
+ if (bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget == 0)
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget = bfq_estimated_max_budget(bfqd);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static ssize_t bfq_strict_guarantees_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
+ const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data;
+ unsigned long uninitialized_var(__data);
+ int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count);
+
+ if (__data > 1)
+ __data = 1;
+ if (!bfqd->strict_guarantees && __data == 1
+ && bfqd->bfq_slice_idle < 8 * NSEC_PER_MSEC)
+ bfqd->bfq_slice_idle = 8 * NSEC_PER_MSEC;
+
+ bfqd->strict_guarantees = __data;
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+#define BFQ_ATTR(name) \
+ __ATTR(name, 0644, bfq_##name##_show, bfq_##name##_store)
+
+static struct elv_fs_entry bfq_attrs[] = {
+ BFQ_ATTR(fifo_expire_sync),
+ BFQ_ATTR(fifo_expire_async),
+ BFQ_ATTR(back_seek_max),
+ BFQ_ATTR(back_seek_penalty),
+ BFQ_ATTR(slice_idle),
+ BFQ_ATTR(slice_idle_us),
+ BFQ_ATTR(max_budget),
+ BFQ_ATTR(timeout_sync),
+ BFQ_ATTR(strict_guarantees),
+ __ATTR_NULL
+};
+
+static struct elevator_type iosched_bfq_mq = {
+ .ops.mq = {
+ .get_rq_priv = bfq_get_rq_private,
+ .put_rq_priv = bfq_put_rq_private,
+ .exit_icq = bfq_exit_icq,
+ .insert_requests = bfq_insert_requests,
+ .dispatch_request = bfq_dispatch_request,
+ .next_request = elv_rb_latter_request,
+ .former_request = elv_rb_former_request,
+ .allow_merge = bfq_allow_bio_merge,
+ .bio_merge = bfq_bio_merge,
+ .request_merge = bfq_request_merge,
+ .requests_merged = bfq_requests_merged,
+ .request_merged = bfq_request_merged,
+ .has_work = bfq_has_work,
+ .init_sched = bfq_init_queue,
+ .exit_sched = bfq_exit_queue,
+ },
+
+ .uses_mq = true,
+ .icq_size = sizeof(struct bfq_io_cq),
+ .icq_align = __alignof__(struct bfq_io_cq),
+ .elevator_attrs = bfq_attrs,
+ .elevator_name = "bfq",
+ .elevator_owner = THIS_MODULE,
+};
+
+static int __init bfq_init(void)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ ret = -ENOMEM;
+ if (bfq_slab_setup())
+ goto err_pol_unreg;
+
+ ret = elv_register(&iosched_bfq_mq);
+ if (ret)
+ goto err_pol_unreg;
+
+ return 0;
+
+err_pol_unreg:
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static void __exit bfq_exit(void)
+{
+ elv_unregister(&iosched_bfq_mq);
+ bfq_slab_kill();
+}
+
+module_init(bfq_init);
+module_exit(bfq_exit);
+
+MODULE_AUTHOR("Paolo Valente");
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
+MODULE_DESCRIPTION("MQ Budget Fair Queueing I/O Scheduler");