summaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
authorPaolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>2017-04-19 14:29:02 (GMT)
committerJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>2017-04-19 14:29:02 (GMT)
commitaee69d78dec0ffdf82e35d57c626e80dddc314d5 (patch)
tree2c4fd06cd298bd2dc6a100dd60bcb7b5a120c40a
parentebb16d0d1b326c252fef9f339a7322ee44ed104f (diff)
block, bfq: introduce the BFQ-v0 I/O scheduler as an extra scheduler
We tag as v0 the version of BFQ containing only BFQ's engine plus hierarchical support. BFQ's engine is introduced by this commit, while hierarchical support is added by next commit. We use the v0 tag to distinguish this minimal version of BFQ from the versions containing also the features and the improvements added by next commits. BFQ-v0 coincides with the version of BFQ submitted a few years ago [1], apart from the introduction of preemption, described below. BFQ is a proportional-share I/O scheduler, whose general structure, plus a lot of code, are borrowed from CFQ. - Each process doing I/O on a device is associated with a weight and a (bfq_)queue. - BFQ grants exclusive access to the device, for a while, to one queue (process) at a time, and implements this service model by associating every queue with a budget, measured in number of sectors. - After a queue is granted access to the device, the budget of the queue is decremented, on each request dispatch, by the size of the request. - The in-service queue is expired, i.e., its service is suspended, only if one of the following events occurs: 1) the queue finishes its budget, 2) the queue empties, 3) a "budget timeout" fires. - The budget timeout prevents processes doing random I/O from holding the device for too long and dramatically reducing throughput. - Actually, as in CFQ, a queue associated with a process issuing sync requests may not be expired immediately when it empties. In contrast, BFQ may idle the device for a short time interval, giving the process the chance to go on being served if it issues a new request in time. Device idling typically boosts the throughput on rotational devices, if processes do synchronous and sequential I/O. In addition, under BFQ, device idling is also instrumental in guaranteeing the desired throughput fraction to processes issuing sync requests (see [2] for details). - With respect to idling for service guarantees, if several processes are competing for the device at the same time, but all processes (and groups, after the following commit) have the same weight, then BFQ guarantees the expected throughput distribution without ever idling the device. Throughput is thus as high as possible in this common scenario. - Queues are scheduled according to a variant of WF2Q+, named B-WF2Q+, and implemented using an augmented rb-tree to preserve an O(log N) overall complexity. See [2] for more details. B-WF2Q+ is also ready for hierarchical scheduling. However, for a cleaner logical breakdown, the code that enables and completes hierarchical support is provided in the next commit, which focuses exactly on this feature. - B-WF2Q+ guarantees a tight deviation with respect to an ideal, perfectly fair, and smooth service. In particular, B-WF2Q+ guarantees that each queue receives a fraction of the device throughput proportional to its weight, even if the throughput fluctuates, and regardless of: the device parameters, the current workload and the budgets assigned to the queue. - The last, budget-independence, property (although probably counterintuitive in the first place) is definitely beneficial, for the following reasons: - First, with any proportional-share scheduler, the maximum deviation with respect to an ideal service is proportional to the maximum budget (slice) assigned to queues. As a consequence, BFQ can keep this deviation tight not only because of the accurate service of B-WF2Q+, but also because BFQ *does not* need to assign a larger budget to a queue to let the queue receive a higher fraction of the device throughput. - Second, BFQ is free to choose, for every process (queue), the budget that best fits the needs of the process, or best leverages the I/O pattern of the process. In particular, BFQ updates queue budgets with a simple feedback-loop algorithm that allows a high throughput to be achieved, while still providing tight latency guarantees to time-sensitive applications. When the in-service queue expires, this algorithm computes the next budget of the queue so as to: - Let large budgets be eventually assigned to the queues associated with I/O-bound applications performing sequential I/O: in fact, the longer these applications are served once got access to the device, the higher the throughput is. - Let small budgets be eventually assigned to the queues associated with time-sensitive applications (which typically perform sporadic and short I/O), because, the smaller the budget assigned to a queue waiting for service is, the sooner B-WF2Q+ will serve that queue (Subsec 3.3 in [2]). - Weights can be assigned to processes only indirectly, through I/O priorities, and according to the relation: weight = 10 * (IOPRIO_BE_NR - ioprio). The next patch provides, instead, a cgroups interface through which weights can be assigned explicitly. - If several processes are competing for the device at the same time, but all processes and groups have the same weight, then BFQ guarantees the expected throughput distribution without ever idling the device. It uses preemption instead. Throughput is then much higher in this common scenario. - ioprio classes are served in strict priority order, i.e., lower-priority queues are not served as long as there are higher-priority queues. Among queues in the same class, the bandwidth is distributed in proportion to the weight of each queue. A very thin extra bandwidth is however guaranteed to the Idle class, to prevent it from starving. - If the strict_guarantees parameter is set (default: unset), then BFQ - always performs idling when the in-service queue becomes empty; - forces the device to serve one I/O request at a time, by dispatching a new request only if there is no outstanding request. In the presence of differentiated weights or I/O-request sizes, both the above conditions are needed to guarantee that every queue receives its allotted share of the bandwidth (see Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt for more details). Setting strict_guarantees may evidently affect throughput. [1] https://lkml.org/lkml/2008/4/1/234 https://lkml.org/lkml/2008/11/11/148 [2] P. Valente and M. Andreolini, "Improving Application Responsiveness with the BFQ Disk I/O Scheduler", Proceedings of the 5th Annual International Systems and Storage Conference (SYSTOR '12), June 2012. Slightly extended version: http://algogroup.unimore.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/bfq-v1-suite- results.pdf Signed-off-by: Fabio Checconi <fchecconi@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org> Signed-off-by: Arianna Avanzini <avanzini.arianna@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
-rw-r--r--Documentation/block/00-INDEX2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt517
-rw-r--r--block/Kconfig.iosched11
-rw-r--r--block/Makefile1
-rw-r--r--block/bfq-iosched.c4166
5 files changed, 4697 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/block/00-INDEX b/Documentation/block/00-INDEX
index e55103a..8d55b4b 100644
--- a/Documentation/block/00-INDEX
+++ b/Documentation/block/00-INDEX
@@ -1,5 +1,7 @@
00-INDEX
- This file
+bfq-iosched.txt
+ - BFQ IO scheduler and its tunables
biodoc.txt
- Notes on the Generic Block Layer Rewrite in Linux 2.5
biovecs.txt
diff --git a/Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt b/Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cbf85f6f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,517 @@
+BFQ (Budget Fair Queueing)
+==========================
+
+BFQ is a proportional-share I/O scheduler, with some extra
+low-latency capabilities. In addition to cgroups support (blkio or io
+controllers), BFQ's main features are:
+- BFQ guarantees a high system and application responsiveness, and a
+ low latency for time-sensitive applications, such as audio or video
+ players;
+- BFQ distributes bandwidth, and not just time, among processes or
+ groups (switching back to time distribution when needed to keep
+ throughput high).
+
+On average CPUs, the current version of BFQ can handle devices
+performing at most ~30K IOPS; at most ~50 KIOPS on faster CPUs. As a
+reference, 30-50 KIOPS correspond to very high bandwidths with
+sequential I/O (e.g., 8-12 GB/s if I/O requests are 256 KB large), and
+to 120-200 MB/s with 4KB random I/O. BFQ has not yet been tested on
+multi-queue devices.
+
+The table of contents follow. Impatients can just jump to Section 3.
+
+CONTENTS
+
+1. When may BFQ be useful?
+ 1-1 Personal systems
+ 1-2 Server systems
+2. How does BFQ work?
+3. What are BFQ's tunable?
+4. BFQ group scheduling
+ 4-1 Service guarantees provided
+ 4-2 Interface
+
+1. When may BFQ be useful?
+==========================
+
+BFQ provides the following benefits on personal and server systems.
+
+1-1 Personal systems
+--------------------
+
+Low latency for interactive applications
+
+Regardless of the actual background workload, BFQ guarantees that, for
+interactive tasks, the storage device is virtually as responsive as if
+it was idle. For example, even if one or more of the following
+background workloads are being executed:
+- one or more large files are being read, written or copied,
+- a tree of source files is being compiled,
+- one or more virtual machines are performing I/O,
+- a software update is in progress,
+- indexing daemons are scanning filesystems and updating their
+ databases,
+starting an application or loading a file from within an application
+takes about the same time as if the storage device was idle. As a
+comparison, with CFQ, NOOP or DEADLINE, and in the same conditions,
+applications experience high latencies, or even become unresponsive
+until the background workload terminates (also on SSDs).
+
+Low latency for soft real-time applications
+
+Also soft real-time applications, such as audio and video
+players/streamers, enjoy a low latency and a low drop rate, regardless
+of the background I/O workload. As a consequence, these applications
+do not suffer from almost any glitch due to the background workload.
+
+Higher speed for code-development tasks
+
+If some additional workload happens to be executed in parallel, then
+BFQ executes the I/O-related components of typical code-development
+tasks (compilation, checkout, merge, ...) much more quickly than CFQ,
+NOOP or DEADLINE.
+
+High throughput
+
+On hard disks, BFQ achieves up to 30% higher throughput than CFQ, and
+up to 150% higher throughput than DEADLINE and NOOP, with all the
+sequential workloads considered in our tests. With random workloads,
+and with all the workloads on flash-based devices, BFQ achieves,
+instead, about the same throughput as the other schedulers.
+
+Strong fairness, bandwidth and delay guarantees
+
+BFQ distributes the device throughput, and not just the device time,
+among I/O-bound applications in proportion their weights, with any
+workload and regardless of the device parameters. From these bandwidth
+guarantees, it is possible to compute tight per-I/O-request delay
+guarantees by a simple formula. If not configured for strict service
+guarantees, BFQ switches to time-based resource sharing (only) for
+applications that would otherwise cause a throughput loss.
+
+1-2 Server systems
+------------------
+
+Most benefits for server systems follow from the same service
+properties as above. In particular, regardless of whether additional,
+possibly heavy workloads are being served, BFQ guarantees:
+
+. audio and video-streaming with zero or very low jitter and drop
+ rate;
+
+. fast retrieval of WEB pages and embedded objects;
+
+. real-time recording of data in live-dumping applications (e.g.,
+ packet logging);
+
+. responsiveness in local and remote access to a server.
+
+
+2. How does BFQ work?
+=====================
+
+BFQ is a proportional-share I/O scheduler, whose general structure,
+plus a lot of code, are borrowed from CFQ.
+
+- Each process doing I/O on a device is associated with a weight and a
+ (bfq_)queue.
+
+- BFQ grants exclusive access to the device, for a while, to one queue
+ (process) at a time, and implements this service model by
+ associating every queue with a budget, measured in number of
+ sectors.
+
+ - After a queue is granted access to the device, the budget of the
+ queue is decremented, on each request dispatch, by the size of the
+ request.
+
+ - The in-service queue is expired, i.e., its service is suspended,
+ only if one of the following events occurs: 1) the queue finishes
+ its budget, 2) the queue empties, 3) a "budget timeout" fires.
+
+ - The budget timeout prevents processes doing random I/O from
+ holding the device for too long and dramatically reducing
+ throughput.
+
+ - Actually, as in CFQ, a queue associated with a process issuing
+ sync requests may not be expired immediately when it empties. In
+ contrast, BFQ may idle the device for a short time interval,
+ giving the process the chance to go on being served if it issues
+ a new request in time. Device idling typically boosts the
+ throughput on rotational devices, if processes do synchronous
+ and sequential I/O. In addition, under BFQ, device idling is
+ also instrumental in guaranteeing the desired throughput
+ fraction to processes issuing sync requests (see the description
+ of the slice_idle tunable in this document, or [1, 2], for more
+ details).
+
+ - With respect to idling for service guarantees, if several
+ processes are competing for the device at the same time, but
+ all processes (and groups, after the following commit) have
+ the same weight, then BFQ guarantees the expected throughput
+ distribution without ever idling the device. Throughput is
+ thus as high as possible in this common scenario.
+
+ - If low-latency mode is enabled (default configuration), BFQ
+ executes some special heuristics to detect interactive and soft
+ real-time applications (e.g., video or audio players/streamers),
+ and to reduce their latency. The most important action taken to
+ achieve this goal is to give to the queues associated with these
+ applications more than their fair share of the device
+ throughput. For brevity, we call just "weight-raising" the whole
+ sets of actions taken by BFQ to privilege these queues. In
+ particular, BFQ provides a milder form of weight-raising for
+ interactive applications, and a stronger form for soft real-time
+ applications.
+
+ - BFQ automatically deactivates idling for queues born in a burst of
+ queue creations. In fact, these queues are usually associated with
+ the processes of applications and services that benefit mostly
+ from a high throughput. Examples are systemd during boot, or git
+ grep.
+
+ - As CFQ, BFQ merges queues performing interleaved I/O, i.e.,
+ performing random I/O that becomes mostly sequential if
+ merged. Differently from CFQ, BFQ achieves this goal with a more
+ reactive mechanism, called Early Queue Merge (EQM). EQM is so
+ responsive in detecting interleaved I/O (cooperating processes),
+ that it enables BFQ to achieve a high throughput, by queue
+ merging, even for queues for which CFQ needs a different
+ mechanism, preemption, to get a high throughput. As such EQM is a
+ unified mechanism to achieve a high throughput with interleaved
+ I/O.
+
+ - Queues are scheduled according to a variant of WF2Q+, named
+ B-WF2Q+, and implemented using an augmented rb-tree to preserve an
+ O(log N) overall complexity. See [2] for more details. B-WF2Q+ is
+ also ready for hierarchical scheduling. However, for a cleaner
+ logical breakdown, the code that enables and completes
+ hierarchical support is provided in the next commit, which focuses
+ exactly on this feature.
+
+ - B-WF2Q+ guarantees a tight deviation with respect to an ideal,
+ perfectly fair, and smooth service. In particular, B-WF2Q+
+ guarantees that each queue receives a fraction of the device
+ throughput proportional to its weight, even if the throughput
+ fluctuates, and regardless of: the device parameters, the current
+ workload and the budgets assigned to the queue.
+
+ - The last, budget-independence, property (although probably
+ counterintuitive in the first place) is definitely beneficial, for
+ the following reasons:
+
+ - First, with any proportional-share scheduler, the maximum
+ deviation with respect to an ideal service is proportional to
+ the maximum budget (slice) assigned to queues. As a consequence,
+ BFQ can keep this deviation tight not only because of the
+ accurate service of B-WF2Q+, but also because BFQ *does not*
+ need to assign a larger budget to a queue to let the queue
+ receive a higher fraction of the device throughput.
+
+ - Second, BFQ is free to choose, for every process (queue), the
+ budget that best fits the needs of the process, or best
+ leverages the I/O pattern of the process. In particular, BFQ
+ updates queue budgets with a simple feedback-loop algorithm that
+ allows a high throughput to be achieved, while still providing
+ tight latency guarantees to time-sensitive applications. When
+ the in-service queue expires, this algorithm computes the next
+ budget of the queue so as to:
+
+ - Let large budgets be eventually assigned to the queues
+ associated with I/O-bound applications performing sequential
+ I/O: in fact, the longer these applications are served once
+ got access to the device, the higher the throughput is.
+
+ - Let small budgets be eventually assigned to the queues
+ associated with time-sensitive applications (which typically
+ perform sporadic and short I/O), because, the smaller the
+ budget assigned to a queue waiting for service is, the sooner
+ B-WF2Q+ will serve that queue (Subsec 3.3 in [2]).
+
+- If several processes are competing for the device at the same time,
+ but all processes and groups have the same weight, then BFQ
+ guarantees the expected throughput distribution without ever idling
+ the device. It uses preemption instead. Throughput is then much
+ higher in this common scenario.
+
+- ioprio classes are served in strict priority order, i.e.,
+ lower-priority queues are not served as long as there are
+ higher-priority queues. Among queues in the same class, the
+ bandwidth is distributed in proportion to the weight of each
+ queue. A very thin extra bandwidth is however guaranteed to
+ the Idle class, to prevent it from starving.
+
+
+3. What are BFQ's tunable?
+==========================
+
+The tunables back_seek-max, back_seek_penalty, fifo_expire_async and
+fifo_expire_sync below are the same as in CFQ. Their description is
+just copied from that for CFQ. Some considerations in the description
+of slice_idle are copied from CFQ too.
+
+per-process ioprio and weight
+-----------------------------
+
+Unless the cgroups interface is used, weights can be assigned to
+processes only indirectly, through I/O priorities, and according to
+the relation: weight = (IOPRIO_BE_NR - ioprio) * 10.
+
+slice_idle
+----------
+
+This parameter specifies how long BFQ should idle for next I/O
+request, when certain sync BFQ queues become empty. By default
+slice_idle is a non-zero value. Idling has a double purpose: boosting
+throughput and making sure that the desired throughput distribution is
+respected (see the description of how BFQ works, and, if needed, the
+papers referred there).
+
+As for throughput, idling can be very helpful on highly seeky media
+like single spindle SATA/SAS disks where we can cut down on overall
+number of seeks and see improved throughput.
+
+Setting slice_idle to 0 will remove all the idling on queues and one
+should see an overall improved throughput on faster storage devices
+like multiple SATA/SAS disks in hardware RAID configuration.
+
+So depending on storage and workload, it might be useful to set
+slice_idle=0. In general for SATA/SAS disks and software RAID of
+SATA/SAS disks keeping slice_idle enabled should be useful. For any
+configurations where there are multiple spindles behind single LUN
+(Host based hardware RAID controller or for storage arrays), setting
+slice_idle=0 might end up in better throughput and acceptable
+latencies.
+
+Idling is however necessary to have service guarantees enforced in
+case of differentiated weights or differentiated I/O-request lengths.
+To see why, suppose that a given BFQ queue A must get several I/O
+requests served for each request served for another queue B. Idling
+ensures that, if A makes a new I/O request slightly after becoming
+empty, then no request of B is dispatched in the middle, and thus A
+does not lose the possibility to get more than one request dispatched
+before the next request of B is dispatched. Note that idling
+guarantees the desired differentiated treatment of queues only in
+terms of I/O-request dispatches. To guarantee that the actual service
+order then corresponds to the dispatch order, the strict_guarantees
+tunable must be set too.
+
+There is an important flipside for idling: apart from the above cases
+where it is beneficial also for throughput, idling can severely impact
+throughput. One important case is random workload. Because of this
+issue, BFQ tends to avoid idling as much as possible, when it is not
+beneficial also for throughput. As a consequence of this behavior, and
+of further issues described for the strict_guarantees tunable,
+short-term service guarantees may be occasionally violated. And, in
+some cases, these guarantees may be more important than guaranteeing
+maximum throughput. For example, in video playing/streaming, a very
+low drop rate may be more important than maximum throughput. In these
+cases, consider setting the strict_guarantees parameter.
+
+strict_guarantees
+-----------------
+
+If this parameter is set (default: unset), then BFQ
+
+- always performs idling when the in-service queue becomes empty;
+
+- forces the device to serve one I/O request at a time, by dispatching a
+ new request only if there is no outstanding request.
+
+In the presence of differentiated weights or I/O-request sizes, both
+the above conditions are needed to guarantee that every BFQ queue
+receives its allotted share of the bandwidth. The first condition is
+needed for the reasons explained in the description of the slice_idle
+tunable. The second condition is needed because all modern storage
+devices reorder internally-queued requests, which may trivially break
+the service guarantees enforced by the I/O scheduler.
+
+Setting strict_guarantees may evidently affect throughput.
+
+back_seek_max
+-------------
+
+This specifies, given in Kbytes, the maximum "distance" for backward seeking.
+The distance is the amount of space from the current head location to the
+sectors that are backward in terms of distance.
+
+This parameter allows the scheduler to anticipate requests in the "backward"
+direction and consider them as being the "next" if they are within this
+distance from the current head location.
+
+back_seek_penalty
+-----------------
+
+This parameter is used to compute the cost of backward seeking. If the
+backward distance of request is just 1/back_seek_penalty from a "front"
+request, then the seeking cost of two requests is considered equivalent.
+
+So scheduler will not bias toward one or the other request (otherwise scheduler
+will bias toward front request). Default value of back_seek_penalty is 2.
+
+fifo_expire_async
+-----------------
+
+This parameter is used to set the timeout of asynchronous requests. Default
+value of this is 248ms.
+
+fifo_expire_sync
+----------------
+
+This parameter is used to set the timeout of synchronous requests. Default
+value of this is 124ms. In case to favor synchronous requests over asynchronous
+one, this value should be decreased relative to fifo_expire_async.
+
+low_latency
+-----------
+
+This parameter is used to enable/disable BFQ's low latency mode. By
+default, low latency mode is enabled. If enabled, interactive and soft
+real-time applications are privileged and experience a lower latency,
+as explained in more detail in the description of how BFQ works.
+
+timeout_sync
+------------
+
+Maximum amount of device time that can be given to a task (queue) once
+it has been selected for service. On devices with costly seeks,
+increasing this time usually increases maximum throughput. On the
+opposite end, increasing this time coarsens the granularity of the
+short-term bandwidth and latency guarantees, especially if the
+following parameter is set to zero.
+
+max_budget
+----------
+
+Maximum amount of service, measured in sectors, that can be provided
+to a BFQ queue once it is set in service (of course within the limits
+of the above timeout). According to what said in the description of
+the algorithm, larger values increase the throughput in proportion to
+the percentage of sequential I/O requests issued. The price of larger
+values is that they coarsen the granularity of short-term bandwidth
+and latency guarantees.
+
+The default value is 0, which enables auto-tuning: BFQ sets max_budget
+to the maximum number of sectors that can be served during
+timeout_sync, according to the estimated peak rate.
+
+weights
+-------
+
+Read-only parameter, used to show the weights of the currently active
+BFQ queues.
+
+
+wr_ tunables
+------------
+
+BFQ exports a few parameters to control/tune the behavior of
+low-latency heuristics.
+
+wr_coeff
+
+Factor by which the weight of a weight-raised queue is multiplied. If
+the queue is deemed soft real-time, then the weight is further
+multiplied by an additional, constant factor.
+
+wr_max_time
+
+Maximum duration of a weight-raising period for an interactive task
+(ms). If set to zero (default value), then this value is computed
+automatically, as a function of the peak rate of the device. In any
+case, when the value of this parameter is read, it always reports the
+current duration, regardless of whether it has been set manually or
+computed automatically.
+
+wr_max_softrt_rate
+
+Maximum service rate below which a queue is deemed to be associated
+with a soft real-time application, and is then weight-raised
+accordingly (sectors/sec).
+
+wr_min_idle_time
+
+Minimum idle period after which interactive weight-raising may be
+reactivated for a queue (in ms).
+
+wr_rt_max_time
+
+Maximum weight-raising duration for soft real-time queues (in ms). The
+start time from which this duration is considered is automatically
+moved forward if the queue is detected to be still soft real-time
+before the current soft real-time weight-raising period finishes.
+
+wr_min_inter_arr_async
+
+Minimum period between I/O request arrivals after which weight-raising
+may be reactivated for an already busy async queue (in ms).
+
+
+4. Group scheduling with BFQ
+============================
+
+BFQ supports both cgroup-v1 and cgroup-v2 io controllers, namely blkio
+and io. In particular, BFQ supports weight-based proportional
+share.
+
+4-1 Service guarantees provided
+-------------------------------
+
+With BFQ, proportional share means true proportional share of the
+device bandwidth, according to group weights. For example, a group
+with weight 200 gets twice the bandwidth, and not just twice the time,
+of a group with weight 100.
+
+BFQ supports hierarchies (group trees) of any depth. Bandwidth is
+distributed among groups and processes in the expected way: for each
+group, the children of the group share the whole bandwidth of the
+group in proportion to their weights. In particular, this implies
+that, for each leaf group, every process of the group receives the
+same share of the whole group bandwidth, unless the ioprio of the
+process is modified.
+
+The resource-sharing guarantee for a group may partially or totally
+switch from bandwidth to time, if providing bandwidth guarantees to
+the group lowers the throughput too much. This switch occurs on a
+per-process basis: if a process of a leaf group causes throughput loss
+if served in such a way to receive its share of the bandwidth, then
+BFQ switches back to just time-based proportional share for that
+process.
+
+4-2 Interface
+-------------
+
+To get proportional sharing of bandwidth with BFQ for a given device,
+BFQ must of course be the active scheduler for that device.
+
+Within each group directory, the names of the files associated with
+BFQ-specific cgroup parameters and stats begin with the "bfq."
+prefix. So, with cgroups-v1 or cgroups-v2, the full prefix for
+BFQ-specific files is "blkio.bfq." or "io.bfq." For example, the group
+parameter to set the weight of a group with BFQ is blkio.bfq.weight
+or io.bfq.weight.
+
+Parameters to set
+-----------------
+
+For each group, there is only the following parameter to set.
+
+weight (namely blkio.bfq.weight or io.bfq-weight): the weight of the
+group inside its parent. Available values: 1..10000 (default 100). The
+linear mapping between ioprio and weights, described at the beginning
+of the tunable section, is still valid, but all weights higher than
+IOPRIO_BE_NR*10 are mapped to ioprio 0.
+
+
+[1] P. Valente, A. Avanzini, "Evolution of the BFQ Storage I/O
+ Scheduler", Proceedings of the First Workshop on Mobile System
+ Technologies (MST-2015), May 2015.
+ http://algogroup.unimore.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/mst-2015.pdf
+
+[2] P. Valente and M. Andreolini, "Improving Application
+ Responsiveness with the BFQ Disk I/O Scheduler", Proceedings of
+ the 5th Annual International Systems and Storage Conference
+ (SYSTOR '12), June 2012.
+ Slightly extended version:
+ http://algogroup.unimore.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/bfq-v1-suite-
+ results.pdf
diff --git a/block/Kconfig.iosched b/block/Kconfig.iosched
index 916e69c..6fc3602 100644
--- a/block/Kconfig.iosched
+++ b/block/Kconfig.iosched
@@ -78,6 +78,17 @@ config MQ_IOSCHED_KYBER
synchronous writes, it will self-tune queue depths to achieve that
goal.
+config IOSCHED_BFQ
+ tristate "BFQ I/O scheduler"
+ default n
+ ---help---
+ BFQ I/O scheduler for BLK-MQ. BFQ distributes the bandwidth of
+ of the device among all processes according to their weights,
+ regardless of the device parameters and with any workload. It
+ also guarantees a low latency to interactive and soft
+ real-time applications. Details in
+ Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt
+
endmenu
endif
diff --git a/block/Makefile b/block/Makefile
index 6146d2e..4c1d68c 100644
--- a/block/Makefile
+++ b/block/Makefile
@@ -21,6 +21,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_IOSCHED_DEADLINE) += deadline-iosched.o
obj-$(CONFIG_IOSCHED_CFQ) += cfq-iosched.o
obj-$(CONFIG_MQ_IOSCHED_DEADLINE) += mq-deadline.o
obj-$(CONFIG_MQ_IOSCHED_KYBER) += kyber-iosched.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_IOSCHED_BFQ) += bfq-iosched.o
obj-$(CONFIG_BLOCK_COMPAT) += compat_ioctl.o
obj-$(CONFIG_BLK_CMDLINE_PARSER) += cmdline-parser.o
diff --git a/block/bfq-iosched.c b/block/bfq-iosched.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c4e7d8d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/block/bfq-iosched.c
@@ -0,0 +1,4166 @@
+/*
+ * Budget Fair Queueing (BFQ) I/O scheduler.
+ *
+ * Based on ideas and code from CFQ:
+ * Copyright (C) 2003 Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2008 Fabio Checconi <fabio@gandalf.sssup.it>
+ * Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2010 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
+ * Arianna Avanzini <avanzini@google.com>
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2017 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the
+ * License, or (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
+ * General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * BFQ is a proportional-share I/O scheduler, with some extra
+ * low-latency capabilities. BFQ also supports full hierarchical
+ * scheduling through cgroups. Next paragraphs provide an introduction
+ * on BFQ inner workings. Details on BFQ benefits, usage and
+ * limitations can be found in Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt.
+ *
+ * BFQ is a proportional-share storage-I/O scheduling algorithm based
+ * on the slice-by-slice service scheme of CFQ. But BFQ assigns
+ * budgets, measured in number of sectors, to processes instead of
+ * time slices. The device is not granted to the in-service process
+ * for a given time slice, but until it has exhausted its assigned
+ * budget. This change from the time to the service domain enables BFQ
+ * to distribute the device throughput among processes as desired,
+ * without any distortion due to throughput fluctuations, or to device
+ * internal queueing. BFQ uses an ad hoc internal scheduler, called
+ * B-WF2Q+, to schedule processes according to their budgets. More
+ * precisely, BFQ schedules queues associated with processes. Each
+ * process/queue is assigned a user-configurable weight, and B-WF2Q+
+ * guarantees that each queue receives a fraction of the throughput
+ * proportional to its weight. Thanks to the accurate policy of
+ * B-WF2Q+, BFQ can afford to assign high budgets to I/O-bound
+ * processes issuing sequential requests (to boost the throughput),
+ * and yet guarantee a low latency to interactive and soft real-time
+ * applications.
+ *
+ * In particular, to provide these low-latency guarantees, BFQ
+ * explicitly privileges the I/O of two classes of time-sensitive
+ * applications: interactive and soft real-time. This feature enables
+ * BFQ to provide applications in these classes with a very low
+ * latency. Finally, BFQ also features additional heuristics for
+ * preserving both a low latency and a high throughput on NCQ-capable,
+ * rotational or flash-based devices, and to get the job done quickly
+ * for applications consisting in many I/O-bound processes.
+ *
+ * BFQ is described in [1], where also a reference to the initial, more
+ * theoretical paper on BFQ can be found. The interested reader can find
+ * in the latter paper full details on the main algorithm, as well as
+ * formulas of the guarantees and formal proofs of all the properties.
+ * With respect to the version of BFQ presented in these papers, this
+ * implementation adds a few more heuristics, such as the one that
+ * guarantees a low latency to soft real-time applications, and a
+ * hierarchical extension based on H-WF2Q+.
+ *
+ * B-WF2Q+ is based on WF2Q+, which is described in [2], together with
+ * H-WF2Q+, while the augmented tree used here to implement B-WF2Q+
+ * with O(log N) complexity derives from the one introduced with EEVDF
+ * in [3].
+ *
+ * [1] P. Valente, A. Avanzini, "Evolution of the BFQ Storage I/O
+ * Scheduler", Proceedings of the First Workshop on Mobile System
+ * Technologies (MST-2015), May 2015.
+ * http://algogroup.unimore.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/mst-2015.pdf
+ *
+ * [2] Jon C.R. Bennett and H. Zhang, "Hierarchical Packet Fair Queueing
+ * Algorithms", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 5(5):675-689,
+ * Oct 1997.
+ *
+ * http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~hzhang/papers/TON-97-Oct.ps.gz
+ *
+ * [3] I. Stoica and H. Abdel-Wahab, "Earliest Eligible Virtual Deadline
+ * First: A Flexible and Accurate Mechanism for Proportional Share
+ * Resource Allocation", technical report.
+ *
+ * http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~istoica/papers/eevdf-tr-95.pdf
+ */
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/blkdev.h>
+#include <linux/elevator.h>
+#include <linux/ktime.h>
+#include <linux/rbtree.h>
+#include <linux/ioprio.h>
+#include <linux/sbitmap.h>
+#include <linux/delay.h>
+
+#include "blk.h"
+#include "blk-mq.h"
+#include "blk-mq-tag.h"
+#include "blk-mq-sched.h"
+#include <linux/blktrace_api.h>
+#include <linux/hrtimer.h>
+#include <linux/blk-cgroup.h>
+
+#define BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES 3
+#define BFQ_CL_IDLE_TIMEOUT (HZ/5)
+
+#define BFQ_MIN_WEIGHT 1
+#define BFQ_MAX_WEIGHT 1000
+#define BFQ_WEIGHT_CONVERSION_COEFF 10
+
+#define BFQ_DEFAULT_QUEUE_IOPRIO 4
+
+#define BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_WEIGHT 10
+#define BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_IOPRIO 0
+#define BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_CLASS IOPRIO_CLASS_BE
+
+struct bfq_entity;
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_service_tree - per ioprio_class service tree.
+ *
+ * Each service tree represents a B-WF2Q+ scheduler on its own. Each
+ * ioprio_class has its own independent scheduler, and so its own
+ * bfq_service_tree. All the fields are protected by the queue lock
+ * of the containing bfqd.
+ */
+struct bfq_service_tree {
+ /* tree for active entities (i.e., those backlogged) */
+ struct rb_root active;
+ /* tree for idle entities (i.e., not backlogged, with V <= F_i)*/
+ struct rb_root idle;
+
+ /* idle entity with minimum F_i */
+ struct bfq_entity *first_idle;
+ /* idle entity with maximum F_i */
+ struct bfq_entity *last_idle;
+
+ /* scheduler virtual time */
+ u64 vtime;
+ /* scheduler weight sum; active and idle entities contribute to it */
+ unsigned long wsum;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_sched_data - multi-class scheduler.
+ *
+ * bfq_sched_data is the basic scheduler queue. It supports three
+ * ioprio_classes, and can be used either as a toplevel queue or as
+ * an intermediate queue on a hierarchical setup.
+ * @next_in_service points to the active entity of the sched_data
+ * service trees that will be scheduled next.
+ *
+ * The supported ioprio_classes are the same as in CFQ, in descending
+ * priority order, IOPRIO_CLASS_RT, IOPRIO_CLASS_BE, IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE.
+ * Requests from higher priority queues are served before all the
+ * requests from lower priority queues; among requests of the same
+ * queue requests are served according to B-WF2Q+.
+ * All the fields are protected by the queue lock of the containing bfqd.
+ */
+struct bfq_sched_data {
+ /* entity in service */
+ struct bfq_entity *in_service_entity;
+ /* head-of-the-line entity in the scheduler */
+ struct bfq_entity *next_in_service;
+ /* array of service trees, one per ioprio_class */
+ struct bfq_service_tree service_tree[BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES];
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_entity - schedulable entity.
+ *
+ * A bfq_entity is used to represent a bfq_queue (leaf node in the upper
+ * level scheduler). Each entity belongs to the sched_data of the parent
+ * group hierarchy. Non-leaf entities have also their own sched_data,
+ * stored in @my_sched_data.
+ *
+ * Each entity stores independently its priority values; this would
+ * allow different weights on different devices, but this
+ * functionality is not exported to userspace by now. Priorities and
+ * weights are updated lazily, first storing the new values into the
+ * new_* fields, then setting the @prio_changed flag. As soon as
+ * there is a transition in the entity state that allows the priority
+ * update to take place the effective and the requested priority
+ * values are synchronized.
+ *
+ * The weight value is calculated from the ioprio to export the same
+ * interface as CFQ. When dealing with ``well-behaved'' queues (i.e.,
+ * queues that do not spend too much time to consume their budget
+ * and have true sequential behavior, and when there are no external
+ * factors breaking anticipation) the relative weights at each level
+ * of the hierarchy should be guaranteed. All the fields are
+ * protected by the queue lock of the containing bfqd.
+ */
+struct bfq_entity {
+ /* service_tree member */
+ struct rb_node rb_node;
+
+ /*
+ * flag, true if the entity is on a tree (either the active or
+ * the idle one of its service_tree).
+ */
+ int on_st;
+
+ /* B-WF2Q+ start and finish timestamps [sectors/weight] */
+ u64 start, finish;
+
+ /* tree the entity is enqueued into; %NULL if not on a tree */
+ struct rb_root *tree;
+
+ /*
+ * minimum start time of the (active) subtree rooted at this
+ * entity; used for O(log N) lookups into active trees
+ */
+ u64 min_start;
+
+ /* amount of service received during the last service slot */
+ int service;
+
+ /* budget, used also to calculate F_i: F_i = S_i + @budget / @weight */
+ int budget;
+
+ /* weight of the queue */
+ int weight;
+ /* next weight if a change is in progress */
+ int new_weight;
+
+ /* original weight, used to implement weight boosting */
+ int orig_weight;
+
+ /* parent entity, for hierarchical scheduling */
+ struct bfq_entity *parent;
+
+ /*
+ * For non-leaf nodes in the hierarchy, the associated
+ * scheduler queue, %NULL on leaf nodes.
+ */
+ struct bfq_sched_data *my_sched_data;
+ /* the scheduler queue this entity belongs to */
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sched_data;
+
+ /* flag, set to request a weight, ioprio or ioprio_class change */
+ int prio_changed;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_ttime - per process thinktime stats.
+ */
+struct bfq_ttime {
+ /* completion time of the last request */
+ u64 last_end_request;
+
+ /* total process thinktime */
+ u64 ttime_total;
+ /* number of thinktime samples */
+ unsigned long ttime_samples;
+ /* average process thinktime */
+ u64 ttime_mean;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_queue - leaf schedulable entity.
+ *
+ * A bfq_queue is a leaf request queue; it can be associated with an
+ * io_context or more, if it is async.
+ */
+struct bfq_queue {
+ /* reference counter */
+ int ref;
+ /* parent bfq_data */
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd;
+
+ /* current ioprio and ioprio class */
+ unsigned short ioprio, ioprio_class;
+ /* next ioprio and ioprio class if a change is in progress */
+ unsigned short new_ioprio, new_ioprio_class;
+
+ /* sorted list of pending requests */
+ struct rb_root sort_list;
+ /* if fifo isn't expired, next request to serve */
+ struct request *next_rq;
+ /* number of sync and async requests queued */
+ int queued[2];
+ /* number of requests currently allocated */
+ int allocated;
+ /* number of pending metadata requests */
+ int meta_pending;
+ /* fifo list of requests in sort_list */
+ struct list_head fifo;
+
+ /* entity representing this queue in the scheduler */
+ struct bfq_entity entity;
+
+ /* maximum budget allowed from the feedback mechanism */
+ int max_budget;
+ /* budget expiration (in jiffies) */
+ unsigned long budget_timeout;
+
+ /* number of requests on the dispatch list or inside driver */
+ int dispatched;
+
+ /* status flags */
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ /* node for active/idle bfqq list inside parent bfqd */
+ struct list_head bfqq_list;
+
+ /* associated @bfq_ttime struct */
+ struct bfq_ttime ttime;
+
+ /* bit vector: a 1 for each seeky requests in history */
+ u32 seek_history;
+ /* position of the last request enqueued */
+ sector_t last_request_pos;
+
+ /* Number of consecutive pairs of request completion and
+ * arrival, such that the queue becomes idle after the
+ * completion, but the next request arrives within an idle
+ * time slice; used only if the queue's IO_bound flag has been
+ * cleared.
+ */
+ unsigned int requests_within_timer;
+
+ /* pid of the process owning the queue, used for logging purposes */
+ pid_t pid;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_io_cq - per (request_queue, io_context) structure.
+ */
+struct bfq_io_cq {
+ /* associated io_cq structure */
+ struct io_cq icq; /* must be the first member */
+ /* array of two process queues, the sync and the async */
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq[2];
+ /* per (request_queue, blkcg) ioprio */
+ int ioprio;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bfq_data - per-device data structure.
+ *
+ * All the fields are protected by @lock.
+ */
+struct bfq_data {
+ /* device request queue */
+ struct request_queue *queue;
+ /* dispatch queue */
+ struct list_head dispatch;
+
+ /* root @bfq_sched_data for the device */
+ struct bfq_sched_data sched_data;
+
+ /*
+ * Number of bfq_queues containing requests (including the
+ * queue in service, even if it is idling).
+ */
+ int busy_queues;
+ /* number of queued requests */
+ int queued;
+ /* number of requests dispatched and waiting for completion */
+ int rq_in_driver;
+
+ /*
+ * Maximum number of requests in driver in the last
+ * @hw_tag_samples completed requests.
+ */
+ int max_rq_in_driver;
+ /* number of samples used to calculate hw_tag */
+ int hw_tag_samples;
+ /* flag set to one if the driver is showing a queueing behavior */
+ int hw_tag;
+
+ /* number of budgets assigned */
+ int budgets_assigned;
+
+ /*
+ * Timer set when idling (waiting) for the next request from
+ * the queue in service.
+ */
+ struct hrtimer idle_slice_timer;
+
+ /* bfq_queue in service */
+ struct bfq_queue *in_service_queue;
+ /* bfq_io_cq (bic) associated with the @in_service_queue */
+ struct bfq_io_cq *in_service_bic;
+
+ /* on-disk position of the last served request */
+ sector_t last_position;
+
+ /* beginning of the last budget */
+ ktime_t last_budget_start;
+ /* beginning of the last idle slice */
+ ktime_t last_idling_start;
+ /* number of samples used to calculate @peak_rate */
+ int peak_rate_samples;
+ /*
+ * Peak read/write rate, observed during the service of a
+ * budget [BFQ_RATE_SHIFT * sectors/usec]. The value is
+ * left-shifted by BFQ_RATE_SHIFT to increase precision in
+ * fixed-point calculations.
+ */
+ u64 peak_rate;
+ /* maximum budget allotted to a bfq_queue before rescheduling */
+ int bfq_max_budget;
+
+ /* list of all the bfq_queues active on the device */
+ struct list_head active_list;
+ /* list of all the bfq_queues idle on the device */
+ struct list_head idle_list;
+
+ /*
+ * Timeout for async/sync requests; when it fires, requests
+ * are served in fifo order.
+ */
+ u64 bfq_fifo_expire[2];
+ /* weight of backward seeks wrt forward ones */
+ unsigned int bfq_back_penalty;
+ /* maximum allowed backward seek */
+ unsigned int bfq_back_max;
+ /* maximum idling time */
+ u32 bfq_slice_idle;
+ /* last time CLASS_IDLE was served */
+ u64 bfq_class_idle_last_service;
+
+ /* user-configured max budget value (0 for auto-tuning) */
+ int bfq_user_max_budget;
+ /*
+ * Timeout for bfq_queues to consume their budget; used to
+ * prevent seeky queues from imposing long latencies to
+ * sequential or quasi-sequential ones (this also implies that
+ * seeky queues cannot receive guarantees in the service
+ * domain; after a timeout they are charged for the time they
+ * have been in service, to preserve fairness among them, but
+ * without service-domain guarantees).
+ */
+ unsigned int bfq_timeout;
+
+ /*
+ * Number of consecutive requests that must be issued within
+ * the idle time slice to set again idling to a queue which
+ * was marked as non-I/O-bound (see the definition of the
+ * IO_bound flag for further details).
+ */
+ unsigned int bfq_requests_within_timer;
+
+ /*
+ * Force device idling whenever needed to provide accurate
+ * service guarantees, without caring about throughput
+ * issues. CAVEAT: this may even increase latencies, in case
+ * of useless idling for processes that did stop doing I/O.
+ */
+ bool strict_guarantees;
+
+ /* fallback dummy bfqq for extreme OOM conditions */
+ struct bfq_queue oom_bfqq;
+
+ spinlock_t lock;
+
+ /*
+ * bic associated with the task issuing current bio for
+ * merging. This and the next field are used as a support to
+ * be able to perform the bic lookup, needed by bio-merge
+ * functions, before the scheduler lock is taken, and thus
+ * avoid taking the request-queue lock while the scheduler
+ * lock is being held.
+ */
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bio_bic;
+ /* bfqq associated with the task issuing current bio for merging */
+ struct bfq_queue *bio_bfqq;
+};
+
+enum bfqq_state_flags {
+ BFQQF_busy = 0, /* has requests or is in service */
+ BFQQF_wait_request, /* waiting for a request */
+ BFQQF_non_blocking_wait_rq, /*
+ * waiting for a request
+ * without idling the device
+ */
+ BFQQF_fifo_expire, /* FIFO checked in this slice */
+ BFQQF_idle_window, /* slice idling enabled */
+ BFQQF_sync, /* synchronous queue */
+ BFQQF_budget_new, /* no completion with this budget */
+ BFQQF_IO_bound, /*
+ * bfqq has timed-out at least once
+ * having consumed at most 2/10 of
+ * its budget
+ */
+};
+
+#define BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(name) \
+static void bfq_mark_bfqq_##name(struct bfq_queue *bfqq) \
+{ \
+ __set_bit(BFQQF_##name, &(bfqq)->flags); \
+} \
+static void bfq_clear_bfqq_##name(struct bfq_queue *bfqq) \
+{ \
+ __clear_bit(BFQQF_##name, &(bfqq)->flags); \
+} \
+static int bfq_bfqq_##name(const struct bfq_queue *bfqq) \
+{ \
+ return test_bit(BFQQF_##name, &(bfqq)->flags); \
+}
+
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(busy);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(wait_request);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(non_blocking_wait_rq);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(fifo_expire);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(idle_window);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(sync);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(budget_new);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(IO_bound);
+#undef BFQ_BFQQ_FNS
+
+/* Logging facilities. */
+#define bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, fmt, args...) \
+ blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "bfq%d " fmt, (bfqq)->pid, ##args)
+
+#define bfq_log(bfqd, fmt, args...) \
+ blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "bfq " fmt, ##args)
+
+/* Expiration reasons. */
+enum bfqq_expiration {
+ BFQQE_TOO_IDLE = 0, /*
+ * queue has been idling for
+ * too long
+ */
+ BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT, /* budget took too long to be used */
+ BFQQE_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED, /* budget consumed */
+ BFQQE_NO_MORE_REQUESTS, /* the queue has no more requests */
+ BFQQE_PREEMPTED /* preemption in progress */
+};
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_entity_to_bfqq(struct bfq_entity *entity);
+
+static struct bfq_service_tree *
+bfq_entity_service_tree(struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sched_data = entity->sched_data;
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+ unsigned int idx = bfqq ? bfqq->ioprio_class - 1 :
+ BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_CLASS - 1;
+
+ return sched_data->service_tree + idx;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bic_to_bfqq(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, bool is_sync)
+{
+ return bic->bfqq[is_sync];
+}
+
+static void bic_set_bfqq(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ bool is_sync)
+{
+ bic->bfqq[is_sync] = bfqq;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_data *bic_to_bfqd(struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
+{
+ return bic->icq.q->elevator->elevator_data;
+}
+
+static void bfq_check_ioprio_change(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bio *bio);
+static void bfq_put_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_get_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bio *bio, bool is_sync,
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic);
+static void bfq_exit_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
+
+/*
+ * Array of async queues for all the processes, one queue
+ * per ioprio value per ioprio_class.
+ */
+struct bfq_queue *async_bfqq[2][IOPRIO_BE_NR];
+/* Async queue for the idle class (ioprio is ignored) */
+struct bfq_queue *async_idle_bfqq;
+
+/* Expiration time of sync (0) and async (1) requests, in ns. */
+static const u64 bfq_fifo_expire[2] = { NSEC_PER_SEC / 4, NSEC_PER_SEC / 8 };
+
+/* Maximum backwards seek (magic number lifted from CFQ), in KiB. */
+static const int bfq_back_max = 16 * 1024;
+
+/* Penalty of a backwards seek, in number of sectors. */
+static const int bfq_back_penalty = 2;
+
+/* Idling period duration, in ns. */
+static u64 bfq_slice_idle = NSEC_PER_SEC / 125;
+
+/* Minimum number of assigned budgets for which stats are safe to compute. */
+static const int bfq_stats_min_budgets = 194;
+
+/* Default maximum budget values, in sectors and number of requests. */
+static const int bfq_default_max_budget = 16 * 1024;
+
+/* Default timeout values, in jiffies, approximating CFQ defaults. */
+static const int bfq_timeout = HZ / 8;
+
+static struct kmem_cache *bfq_pool;
+
+/* Below this threshold (in ms), we consider thinktime immediate. */
+#define BFQ_MIN_TT (2 * NSEC_PER_MSEC)
+
+/* hw_tag detection: parallel requests threshold and min samples needed. */
+#define BFQ_HW_QUEUE_THRESHOLD 4
+#define BFQ_HW_QUEUE_SAMPLES 32
+
+#define BFQQ_SEEK_THR (sector_t)(8 * 100)
+#define BFQQ_SECT_THR_NONROT (sector_t)(2 * 32)
+#define BFQQ_CLOSE_THR (sector_t)(8 * 1024)
+#define BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq) (hweight32(bfqq->seek_history) > 32/8)
+
+/* Budget feedback step. */
+#define BFQ_BUDGET_STEP 128
+
+/* Min samples used for peak rate estimation (for autotuning). */
+#define BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES 32
+
+/* Shift used for peak rate fixed precision calculations. */
+#define BFQ_RATE_SHIFT 16
+
+#define BFQ_SERVICE_TREE_INIT ((struct bfq_service_tree) \
+ { RB_ROOT, RB_ROOT, NULL, NULL, 0, 0 })
+
+#define RQ_BIC(rq) ((struct bfq_io_cq *) (rq)->elv.priv[0])
+#define RQ_BFQQ(rq) ((rq)->elv.priv[1])
+
+/**
+ * icq_to_bic - convert iocontext queue structure to bfq_io_cq.
+ * @icq: the iocontext queue.
+ */
+static struct bfq_io_cq *icq_to_bic(struct io_cq *icq)
+{
+ /* bic->icq is the first member, %NULL will convert to %NULL */
+ return container_of(icq, struct bfq_io_cq, icq);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_bic_lookup - search into @ioc a bic associated to @bfqd.
+ * @bfqd: the lookup key.
+ * @ioc: the io_context of the process doing I/O.
+ * @q: the request queue.
+ */
+static struct bfq_io_cq *bfq_bic_lookup(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct io_context *ioc,
+ struct request_queue *q)
+{
+ if (ioc) {
+ unsigned long flags;
+ struct bfq_io_cq *icq;
+
+ spin_lock_irqsave(q->queue_lock, flags);
+ icq = icq_to_bic(ioc_lookup_icq(ioc, q));
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(q->queue_lock, flags);
+
+ return icq;
+ }
+
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Next two macros are just fake loops for the moment. They will
+ * become true loops in the cgroups-enabled variant of the code. Such
+ * a variant, in its turn, will be introduced by next commit.
+ */
+#define for_each_entity(entity) \
+ for (; entity ; entity = NULL)
+
+#define for_each_entity_safe(entity, parent) \
+ for (parent = NULL; entity ; entity = parent)
+
+static int bfq_update_next_in_service(struct bfq_sched_data *sd)
+{
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void bfq_check_next_in_service(struct bfq_sched_data *sd,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+}
+
+static void bfq_update_budget(struct bfq_entity *next_in_service)
+{
+}
+
+/*
+ * Shift for timestamp calculations. This actually limits the maximum
+ * service allowed in one timestamp delta (small shift values increase it),
+ * the maximum total weight that can be used for the queues in the system
+ * (big shift values increase it), and the period of virtual time
+ * wraparounds.
+ */
+#define WFQ_SERVICE_SHIFT 22
+
+/**
+ * bfq_gt - compare two timestamps.
+ * @a: first ts.
+ * @b: second ts.
+ *
+ * Return @a > @b, dealing with wrapping correctly.
+ */
+static int bfq_gt(u64 a, u64 b)
+{
+ return (s64)(a - b) > 0;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_entity_to_bfqq(struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = NULL;
+
+ if (!entity->my_sched_data)
+ bfqq = container_of(entity, struct bfq_queue, entity);
+
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * bfq_delta - map service into the virtual time domain.
+ * @service: amount of service.
+ * @weight: scale factor (weight of an entity or weight sum).
+ */
+static u64 bfq_delta(unsigned long service, unsigned long weight)
+{
+ u64 d = (u64)service << WFQ_SERVICE_SHIFT;
+
+ do_div(d, weight);
+ return d;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_calc_finish - assign the finish time to an entity.
+ * @entity: the entity to act upon.
+ * @service: the service to be charged to the entity.
+ */
+static void bfq_calc_finish(struct bfq_entity *entity, unsigned long service)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+
+ entity->finish = entity->start +
+ bfq_delta(service, entity->weight);
+
+ if (bfqq) {
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+ "calc_finish: serv %lu, w %d",
+ service, entity->weight);
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+ "calc_finish: start %llu, finish %llu, delta %llu",
+ entity->start, entity->finish,
+ bfq_delta(service, entity->weight));
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_entity_of - get an entity from a node.
+ * @node: the node field of the entity.
+ *
+ * Convert a node pointer to the relative entity. This is used only
+ * to simplify the logic of some functions and not as the generic
+ * conversion mechanism because, e.g., in the tree walking functions,
+ * the check for a %NULL value would be redundant.
+ */
+static struct bfq_entity *bfq_entity_of(struct rb_node *node)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = NULL;
+
+ if (node)
+ entity = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+
+ return entity;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_extract - remove an entity from a tree.
+ * @root: the tree root.
+ * @entity: the entity to remove.
+ */
+static void bfq_extract(struct rb_root *root, struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ entity->tree = NULL;
+ rb_erase(&entity->rb_node, root);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_idle_extract - extract an entity from the idle tree.
+ * @st: the service tree of the owning @entity.
+ * @entity: the entity being removed.
+ */
+static void bfq_idle_extract(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+ struct rb_node *next;
+
+ if (entity == st->first_idle) {
+ next = rb_next(&entity->rb_node);
+ st->first_idle = bfq_entity_of(next);
+ }
+
+ if (entity == st->last_idle) {
+ next = rb_prev(&entity->rb_node);
+ st->last_idle = bfq_entity_of(next);
+ }
+
+ bfq_extract(&st->idle, entity);
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ list_del(&bfqq->bfqq_list);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_insert - generic tree insertion.
+ * @root: tree root.
+ * @entity: entity to insert.
+ *
+ * This is used for the idle and the active tree, since they are both
+ * ordered by finish time.
+ */
+static void bfq_insert(struct rb_root *root, struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entry;
+ struct rb_node **node = &root->rb_node;
+ struct rb_node *parent = NULL;
+
+ while (*node) {
+ parent = *node;
+ entry = rb_entry(parent, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+
+ if (bfq_gt(entry->finish, entity->finish))
+ node = &parent->rb_left;
+ else
+ node = &parent->rb_right;
+ }
+
+ rb_link_node(&entity->rb_node, parent, node);
+ rb_insert_color(&entity->rb_node, root);
+
+ entity->tree = root;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_update_min - update the min_start field of a entity.
+ * @entity: the entity to update.
+ * @node: one of its children.
+ *
+ * This function is called when @entity may store an invalid value for
+ * min_start due to updates to the active tree. The function assumes
+ * that the subtree rooted at @node (which may be its left or its right
+ * child) has a valid min_start value.
+ */
+static void bfq_update_min(struct bfq_entity *entity, struct rb_node *node)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *child;
+
+ if (node) {
+ child = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+ if (bfq_gt(entity->min_start, child->min_start))
+ entity->min_start = child->min_start;
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_update_active_node - recalculate min_start.
+ * @node: the node to update.
+ *
+ * @node may have changed position or one of its children may have moved,
+ * this function updates its min_start value. The left and right subtrees
+ * are assumed to hold a correct min_start value.
+ */
+static void bfq_update_active_node(struct rb_node *node)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+
+ entity->min_start = entity->start;
+ bfq_update_min(entity, node->rb_right);
+ bfq_update_min(entity, node->rb_left);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_update_active_tree - update min_start for the whole active tree.
+ * @node: the starting node.
+ *
+ * @node must be the deepest modified node after an update. This function
+ * updates its min_start using the values held by its children, assuming
+ * that they did not change, and then updates all the nodes that may have
+ * changed in the path to the root. The only nodes that may have changed
+ * are the ones in the path or their siblings.
+ */
+static void bfq_update_active_tree(struct rb_node *node)
+{
+ struct rb_node *parent;
+
+up:
+ bfq_update_active_node(node);
+
+ parent = rb_parent(node);
+ if (!parent)
+ return;
+
+ if (node == parent->rb_left && parent->rb_right)
+ bfq_update_active_node(parent->rb_right);
+ else if (parent->rb_left)
+ bfq_update_active_node(parent->rb_left);
+
+ node = parent;
+ goto up;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_active_insert - insert an entity in the active tree of its
+ * group/device.
+ * @st: the service tree of the entity.
+ * @entity: the entity being inserted.
+ *
+ * The active tree is ordered by finish time, but an extra key is kept
+ * per each node, containing the minimum value for the start times of
+ * its children (and the node itself), so it's possible to search for
+ * the eligible node with the lowest finish time in logarithmic time.
+ */
+static void bfq_active_insert(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+ struct rb_node *node = &entity->rb_node;
+
+ bfq_insert(&st->active, entity);
+
+ if (node->rb_left)
+ node = node->rb_left;
+ else if (node->rb_right)
+ node = node->rb_right;
+
+ bfq_update_active_tree(node);
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ list_add(&bfqq->bfqq_list, &bfqq->bfqd->active_list);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_ioprio_to_weight - calc a weight from an ioprio.
+ * @ioprio: the ioprio value to convert.
+ */
+static unsigned short bfq_ioprio_to_weight(int ioprio)
+{
+ return (IOPRIO_BE_NR - ioprio) * BFQ_WEIGHT_CONVERSION_COEFF;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_weight_to_ioprio - calc an ioprio from a weight.
+ * @weight: the weight value to convert.
+ *
+ * To preserve as much as possible the old only-ioprio user interface,
+ * 0 is used as an escape ioprio value for weights (numerically) equal or
+ * larger than IOPRIO_BE_NR * BFQ_WEIGHT_CONVERSION_COEFF.
+ */
+static unsigned short bfq_weight_to_ioprio(int weight)
+{
+ return max_t(int, 0,
+ IOPRIO_BE_NR * BFQ_WEIGHT_CONVERSION_COEFF - weight);
+}
+
+static void bfq_get_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+
+ if (bfqq) {
+ bfqq->ref++;
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "get_entity: %p %d",
+ bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_find_deepest - find the deepest node that an extraction can modify.
+ * @node: the node being removed.
+ *
+ * Do the first step of an extraction in an rb tree, looking for the
+ * node that will replace @node, and returning the deepest node that
+ * the following modifications to the tree can touch. If @node is the
+ * last node in the tree return %NULL.
+ */
+static struct rb_node *bfq_find_deepest(struct rb_node *node)
+{
+ struct rb_node *deepest;
+
+ if (!node->rb_right && !node->rb_left)
+ deepest = rb_parent(node);
+ else if (!node->rb_right)
+ deepest = node->rb_left;
+ else if (!node->rb_left)
+ deepest = node->rb_right;
+ else {
+ deepest = rb_next(node);
+ if (deepest->rb_right)
+ deepest = deepest->rb_right;
+ else if (rb_parent(deepest) != node)
+ deepest = rb_parent(deepest);
+ }
+
+ return deepest;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_active_extract - remove an entity from the active tree.
+ * @st: the service_tree containing the tree.
+ * @entity: the entity being removed.
+ */
+static void bfq_active_extract(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+ struct rb_node *node;
+
+ node = bfq_find_deepest(&entity->rb_node);
+ bfq_extract(&st->active, entity);
+
+ if (node)
+ bfq_update_active_tree(node);
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ list_del(&bfqq->bfqq_list);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_idle_insert - insert an entity into the idle tree.
+ * @st: the service tree containing the tree.
+ * @entity: the entity to insert.
+ */
+static void bfq_idle_insert(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+ struct bfq_entity *first_idle = st->first_idle;
+ struct bfq_entity *last_idle = st->last_idle;
+
+ if (!first_idle || bfq_gt(first_idle->finish, entity->finish))
+ st->first_idle = entity;
+ if (!last_idle || bfq_gt(entity->finish, last_idle->finish))
+ st->last_idle = entity;
+
+ bfq_insert(&st->idle, entity);
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ list_add(&bfqq->bfqq_list, &bfqq->bfqd->idle_list);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_forget_entity - do not consider entity any longer for scheduling
+ * @st: the service tree.
+ * @entity: the entity being removed.
+ * @is_in_service: true if entity is currently the in-service entity.
+ *
+ * Forget everything about @entity. In addition, if entity represents
+ * a queue, and the latter is not in service, then release the service
+ * reference to the queue (the one taken through bfq_get_entity). In
+ * fact, in this case, there is really no more service reference to
+ * the queue, as the latter is also outside any service tree. If,
+ * instead, the queue is in service, then __bfq_bfqd_reset_in_service
+ * will take care of putting the reference when the queue finally
+ * stops being served.
+ */
+static void bfq_forget_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity,
+ bool is_in_service)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+
+ entity->on_st = 0;
+ st->wsum -= entity->weight;
+ if (bfqq && !is_in_service)
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_put_idle_entity - release the idle tree ref of an entity.
+ * @st: service tree for the entity.
+ * @entity: the entity being released.
+ */
+static void bfq_put_idle_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ bfq_idle_extract(st, entity);
+ bfq_forget_entity(st, entity,
+ entity == entity->sched_data->in_service_entity);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_forget_idle - update the idle tree if necessary.
+ * @st: the service tree to act upon.
+ *
+ * To preserve the global O(log N) complexity we only remove one entry here;
+ * as the idle tree will not grow indefinitely this can be done safely.
+ */
+static void bfq_forget_idle(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *first_idle = st->first_idle;
+ struct bfq_entity *last_idle = st->last_idle;
+
+ if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&st->active) && last_idle &&
+ !bfq_gt(last_idle->finish, st->vtime)) {
+ /*
+ * Forget the whole idle tree, increasing the vtime past
+ * the last finish time of idle entities.
+ */
+ st->vtime = last_idle->finish;
+ }
+
+ if (first_idle && !bfq_gt(first_idle->finish, st->vtime))
+ bfq_put_idle_entity(st, first_idle);
+}
+
+static struct bfq_service_tree *
+__bfq_entity_update_weight_prio(struct bfq_service_tree *old_st,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_service_tree *new_st = old_st;
+
+ if (entity->prio_changed) {
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+ unsigned short prev_weight, new_weight;
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = NULL;
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+
+ old_st->wsum -= entity->weight;
+
+ if (entity->new_weight != entity->orig_weight) {
+ if (entity->new_weight < BFQ_MIN_WEIGHT ||
+ entity->new_weight > BFQ_MAX_WEIGHT) {
+ pr_crit("update_weight_prio: new_weight %d\n",
+ entity->new_weight);
+ if (entity->new_weight < BFQ_MIN_WEIGHT)
+ entity->new_weight = BFQ_MIN_WEIGHT;
+ else
+ entity->new_weight = BFQ_MAX_WEIGHT;
+ }
+ entity->orig_weight = entity->new_weight;
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfqq->ioprio =
+ bfq_weight_to_ioprio(entity->orig_weight);
+ }
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfqq->ioprio_class = bfqq->new_ioprio_class;
+ entity->prio_changed = 0;
+
+ /*
+ * NOTE: here we may be changing the weight too early,
+ * this will cause unfairness. The correct approach
+ * would have required additional complexity to defer
+ * weight changes to the proper time instants (i.e.,
+ * when entity->finish <= old_st->vtime).
+ */
+ new_st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
+
+ prev_weight = entity->weight;
+ new_weight = entity->orig_weight;
+ entity->weight = new_weight;
+
+ new_st->wsum += entity->weight;
+
+ if (new_st != old_st)
+ entity->start = new_st->vtime;
+ }
+
+ return new_st;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_bfqq_served - update the scheduler status after selection for
+ * service.
+ * @bfqq: the queue being served.
+ * @served: bytes to transfer.
+ *
+ * NOTE: this can be optimized, as the timestamps of upper level entities
+ * are synchronized every time a new bfqq is selected for service. By now,
+ * we keep it to better check consistency.
+ */
+static void bfq_bfqq_served(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, int served)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+ struct bfq_service_tree *st;
+
+ for_each_entity(entity) {
+ st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
+
+ entity->service += served;
+
+ st->vtime += bfq_delta(served, st->wsum);
+ bfq_forget_idle(st);
+ }
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "bfqq_served %d secs", served);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_bfqq_charge_full_budget - set the service to the entity budget.
+ * @bfqq: the queue that needs a service update.
+ *
+ * When it's not possible to be fair in the service domain, because
+ * a queue is not consuming its budget fast enough (the meaning of
+ * fast depends on the timeout parameter), we charge it a full
+ * budget. In this way we should obtain a sort of time-domain
+ * fairness among all the seeky/slow queues.
+ */
+static void bfq_bfqq_charge_full_budget(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "charge_full_budget");
+
+ bfq_bfqq_served(bfqq, entity->budget - entity->service);
+}
+
+/**
+ * __bfq_activate_entity - activate an entity.
+ * @entity: the entity being activated.
+ * @non_blocking_wait_rq: true if this entity was waiting for a request
+ *
+ * Called whenever an entity is activated, i.e., it is not active and one
+ * of its children receives a new request, or has to be reactivated due to
+ * budget exhaustion. It uses the current budget of the entity (and the
+ * service received if @entity is active) of the queue to calculate its
+ * timestamps.
+ */
+static void __bfq_activate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity,
+ bool non_blocking_wait_rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sd = entity->sched_data;
+ struct bfq_service_tree *st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
+ bool backshifted = false;
+
+ if (entity == sd->in_service_entity) {
+ /*
+ * If we are requeueing the current entity we have
+ * to take care of not charging to it service it has
+ * not received.
+ */
+ bfq_calc_finish(entity, entity->service);
+ entity->start = entity->finish;
+ sd->in_service_entity = NULL;
+ } else if (entity->tree == &st->active) {
+ /*
+ * Requeueing an entity due to a change of some
+ * next_in_service entity below it. We reuse the
+ * old start time.
+ */
+ bfq_active_extract(st, entity);
+ } else {
+ unsigned long long min_vstart;
+
+ /* See comments on bfq_fqq_update_budg_for_activation */
+ if (non_blocking_wait_rq && bfq_gt(st->vtime, entity->finish)) {
+ backshifted = true;
+ min_vstart = entity->finish;
+ } else
+ min_vstart = st->vtime;
+
+ if (entity->tree == &st->idle) {
+ /*
+ * Must be on the idle tree, bfq_idle_extract() will
+ * check for that.
+ */
+ bfq_idle_extract(st, entity);
+ entity->start = bfq_gt(min_vstart, entity->finish) ?
+ min_vstart : entity->finish;
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * The finish time of the entity may be invalid, and
+ * it is in the past for sure, otherwise the queue
+ * would have been on the idle tree.
+ */
+ entity->start = min_vstart;
+ st->wsum += entity->weight;
+ /*
+ * entity is about to be inserted into a service tree,
+ * and then set in service: get a reference to make
+ * sure entity does not disappear until it is no
+ * longer in service or scheduled for service.
+ */
+ bfq_get_entity(entity);
+
+ entity->on_st = 1;
+ }
+ }
+
+ st = __bfq_entity_update_weight_prio(st, entity);
+ bfq_calc_finish(entity, entity->budget);
+
+ /*
+ * If some queues enjoy backshifting for a while, then their
+ * (virtual) finish timestamps may happen to become lower and
+ * lower than the system virtual time. In particular, if
+ * these queues often happen to be idle for short time
+ * periods, and during such time periods other queues with
+ * higher timestamps happen to be busy, then the backshifted
+ * timestamps of the former queues can become much lower than
+ * the system virtual time. In fact, to serve the queues with
+ * higher timestamps while the ones with lower timestamps are
+ * idle, the system virtual time may be pushed-up to much
+ * higher values than the finish timestamps of the idle
+ * queues. As a consequence, the finish timestamps of all new
+ * or newly activated queues may end up being much larger than
+ * those of lucky queues with backshifted timestamps. The
+ * latter queues may then monopolize the device for a lot of
+ * time. This would simply break service guarantees.
+ *
+ * To reduce this problem, push up a little bit the
+ * backshifted timestamps of the queue associated with this
+ * entity (only a queue can happen to have the backshifted
+ * flag set): just enough to let the finish timestamp of the
+ * queue be equal to the current value of the system virtual
+ * time. This may introduce a little unfairness among queues
+ * with backshifted timestamps, but it does not break
+ * worst-case fairness guarantees.
+ */
+ if (backshifted && bfq_gt(st->vtime, entity->finish)) {
+ unsigned long delta = st->vtime - entity->finish;
+
+ entity->start += delta;
+ entity->finish += delta;
+ }
+
+ bfq_active_insert(st, entity);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_activate_entity - activate an entity and its ancestors if necessary.
+ * @entity: the entity to activate.
+ * @non_blocking_wait_rq: true if this entity was waiting for a request
+ *
+ * Activate @entity and all the entities on the path from it to the root.
+ */
+static void bfq_activate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity,
+ bool non_blocking_wait_rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sd;
+
+ for_each_entity(entity) {
+ __bfq_activate_entity(entity, non_blocking_wait_rq);
+
+ sd = entity->sched_data;
+ if (!bfq_update_next_in_service(sd))
+ /*
+ * No need to propagate the activation to the
+ * upper entities, as they will be updated when
+ * the in-service entity is rescheduled.
+ */
+ break;
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * __bfq_deactivate_entity - deactivate an entity from its service tree.
+ * @entity: the entity to deactivate.
+ * @requeue: if false, the entity will not be put into the idle tree.
+ *
+ * Deactivate an entity, independently from its previous state. If the
+ * entity was not on a service tree just return, otherwise if it is on
+ * any scheduler tree, extract it from that tree, and if necessary
+ * and if the caller did not specify @requeue, put it on the idle tree.
+ *
+ * Return %1 if the caller should update the entity hierarchy, i.e.,
+ * if the entity was in service or if it was the next_in_service for
+ * its sched_data; return %0 otherwise.
+ */
+static int __bfq_deactivate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity, int requeue)
+{
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sd = entity->sched_data;
+ struct bfq_service_tree *st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
+ int is_in_service = entity == sd->in_service_entity;
+ int ret = 0;
+
+ if (!entity->on_st)
+ return 0;
+
+ if (is_in_service) {
+ bfq_calc_finish(entity, entity->service);
+ sd->in_service_entity = NULL;
+ } else if (entity->tree == &st->active)
+ bfq_active_extract(st, entity);
+ else if (entity->tree == &st->idle)
+ bfq_idle_extract(st, entity);
+
+ if (is_in_service || sd->next_in_service == entity)
+ ret = bfq_update_next_in_service(sd);
+
+ if (!requeue || !bfq_gt(entity->finish, st->vtime))
+ bfq_forget_entity(st, entity, is_in_service);
+ else
+ bfq_idle_insert(st, entity);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_deactivate_entity - deactivate an entity.
+ * @entity: the entity to deactivate.
+ * @requeue: true if the entity can be put on the idle tree
+ */
+static void bfq_deactivate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity, int requeue)
+{
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sd;
+ struct bfq_entity *parent = NULL;
+
+ for_each_entity_safe(entity, parent) {
+ sd = entity->sched_data;
+
+ if (!__bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, requeue))
+ /*
+ * The parent entity is still backlogged, and
+ * we don't need to update it as it is still
+ * in service.
+ */
+ break;
+
+ if (sd->next_in_service)
+ /*
+ * The parent entity is still backlogged and
+ * the budgets on the path towards the root
+ * need to be updated.
+ */
+ goto update;
+
+ /*
+ * If we get here, then the parent is no more backlogged and
+ * we want to propagate the deactivation upwards.
+ */
+ requeue = 1;
+ }
+
+ return;
+
+update:
+ entity = parent;
+ for_each_entity(entity) {
+ __bfq_activate_entity(entity, false);
+
+ sd = entity->sched_data;
+ if (!bfq_update_next_in_service(sd))
+ break;
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_update_vtime - update vtime if necessary.
+ * @st: the service tree to act upon.
+ *
+ * If necessary update the service tree vtime to have at least one
+ * eligible entity, skipping to its start time. Assumes that the
+ * active tree of the device is not empty.
+ *
+ * NOTE: this hierarchical implementation updates vtimes quite often,
+ * we may end up with reactivated processes getting timestamps after a
+ * vtime skip done because we needed a ->first_active entity on some
+ * intermediate node.
+ */
+static void bfq_update_vtime(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entry;
+ struct rb_node *node = st->active.rb_node;
+
+ entry = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+ if (bfq_gt(entry->min_start, st->vtime)) {
+ st->vtime = entry->min_start;
+ bfq_forget_idle(st);
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_first_active_entity - find the eligible entity with
+ * the smallest finish time
+ * @st: the service tree to select from.
+ *
+ * This function searches the first schedulable entity, starting from the
+ * root of the tree and going on the left every time on this side there is
+ * a subtree with at least one eligible (start >= vtime) entity. The path on
+ * the right is followed only if a) the left subtree contains no eligible
+ * entities and b) no eligible entity has been found yet.
+ */
+static struct bfq_entity *bfq_first_active_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entry, *first = NULL;
+ struct rb_node *node = st->active.rb_node;
+
+ while (node) {
+ entry = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+left:
+ if (!bfq_gt(entry->start, st->vtime))
+ first = entry;
+
+ if (node->rb_left) {
+ entry = rb_entry(node->rb_left,
+ struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+ if (!bfq_gt(entry->min_start, st->vtime)) {
+ node = node->rb_left;
+ goto left;
+ }
+ }
+ if (first)
+ break;
+ node = node->rb_right;
+ }
+
+ return first;
+}
+
+/**
+ * __bfq_lookup_next_entity - return the first eligible entity in @st.
+ * @st: the service tree.
+ *
+ * Update the virtual time in @st and return the first eligible entity
+ * it contains.
+ */
+static struct bfq_entity *__bfq_lookup_next_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+ bool force)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity, *new_next_in_service = NULL;
+
+ if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&st->active))
+ return NULL;
+
+ bfq_update_vtime(st);
+ entity = bfq_first_active_entity(st);
+
+ /*
+ * If the chosen entity does not match with the sched_data's
+ * next_in_service and we are forcedly serving the IDLE priority
+ * class tree, bubble up budget update.
+ */
+ if (unlikely(force && entity != entity->sched_data->next_in_service)) {
+ new_next_in_service = entity;
+ for_each_entity(new_next_in_service)
+ bfq_update_budget(new_next_in_service);
+ }
+
+ return entity;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_lookup_next_entity - return the first eligible entity in @sd.
+ * @sd: the sched_data.
+ * @extract: if true the returned entity will be also extracted from @sd.
+ *
+ * NOTE: since we cache the next_in_service entity at each level of the
+ * hierarchy, the complexity of the lookup can be decreased with
+ * absolutely no effort just returning the cached next_in_service value;
+ * we prefer to do full lookups to test the consistency of the data
+ * structures.
+ */
+static struct bfq_entity *bfq_lookup_next_entity(struct bfq_sched_data *sd,
+ int extract,
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_service_tree *st = sd->service_tree;
+ struct bfq_entity *entity;
+ int i = 0;
+
+ /*
+ * Choose from idle class, if needed to guarantee a minimum
+ * bandwidth to this class. This should also mitigate
+ * priority-inversion problems in case a low priority task is
+ * holding file system resources.
+ */
+ if (bfqd &&
+ jiffies - bfqd->bfq_class_idle_last_service >
+ BFQ_CL_IDLE_TIMEOUT) {
+ entity = __bfq_lookup_next_entity(st + BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES - 1,
+ true);
+ if (entity) {
+ i = BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES - 1;
+ bfqd->bfq_class_idle_last_service = jiffies;
+ sd->next_in_service = entity;
+ }
+ }
+ for (; i < BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES; i++) {
+ entity = __bfq_lookup_next_entity(st + i, false);
+ if (entity) {
+ if (extract) {
+ bfq_check_next_in_service(sd, entity);
+ bfq_active_extract(st + i, entity);
+ sd->in_service_entity = entity;
+ sd->next_in_service = NULL;
+ }
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+
+ return entity;
+}
+
+static bool next_queue_may_preempt(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sd = &bfqd->sched_data;
+
+ return sd->next_in_service != sd->in_service_entity;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Get next queue for service.
+ */
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_get_next_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = NULL;
+ struct bfq_sched_data *sd;
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+
+ if (bfqd->busy_queues == 0)
+ return NULL;
+
+ sd = &bfqd->sched_data;
+ for (; sd ; sd = entity->my_sched_data) {
+ entity = bfq_lookup_next_entity(sd, 1, bfqd);
+ entity->service = 0;
+ }
+
+ bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+static void __bfq_bfqd_reset_in_service(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *in_serv_bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
+ struct bfq_entity *in_serv_entity = &in_serv_bfqq->entity;
+
+ if (bfqd->in_service_bic) {
+ put_io_context(bfqd->in_service_bic->icq.ioc);
+ bfqd->in_service_bic = NULL;
+ }
+
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(in_serv_bfqq);
+ hrtimer_try_to_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+ bfqd->in_service_queue = NULL;
+
+ /*
+ * in_serv_entity is no longer in service, so, if it is in no
+ * service tree either, then release the service reference to
+ * the queue it represents (taken with bfq_get_entity).
+ */
+ if (!in_serv_entity->on_st)
+ bfq_put_queue(in_serv_bfqq);
+}
+
+static void bfq_deactivate_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ int requeue)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+ bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, requeue);
+}
+
+static void bfq_activate_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+ bfq_activate_entity(entity, bfq_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq));
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Called when the bfqq no longer has requests pending, remove it from
+ * the service tree.
+ */
+static void bfq_del_bfqq_busy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ int requeue)
+{
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "del from busy");
+
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_busy(bfqq);
+
+ bfqd->busy_queues--;
+
+ bfq_deactivate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, requeue);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Called when an inactive queue receives a new request.
+ */
+static void bfq_add_bfqq_busy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "add to busy");
+
+ bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_busy(bfqq);
+ bfqd->busy_queues++;
+}
+
+static void bfq_init_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+
+ entity->weight = entity->new_weight;
+ entity->orig_weight = entity->new_weight;
+
+ bfqq->ioprio = bfqq->new_ioprio;
+ bfqq->ioprio_class = bfqq->new_ioprio_class;
+
+ entity->sched_data = &bfqq->bfqd->sched_data;
+}
+
+#define bfq_class_idle(bfqq) ((bfqq)->ioprio_class == IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE)
+#define bfq_class_rt(bfqq) ((bfqq)->ioprio_class == IOPRIO_CLASS_RT)
+
+#define bfq_sample_valid(samples) ((samples) > 80)
+
+/*
+ * Scheduler run of queue, if there are requests pending and no one in the
+ * driver that will restart queueing.
+ */
+static void bfq_schedule_dispatch(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ if (bfqd->queued != 0) {
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "schedule dispatch");
+ blk_mq_run_hw_queues(bfqd->queue, true);
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Lifted from AS - choose which of rq1 and rq2 that is best served now.
+ * We choose the request that is closesr to the head right now. Distance
+ * behind the head is penalized and only allowed to a certain extent.
+ */
+static struct request *bfq_choose_req(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct request *rq1,
+ struct request *rq2,
+ sector_t last)
+{
+ sector_t s1, s2, d1 = 0, d2 = 0;
+ unsigned long back_max;
+#define BFQ_RQ1_WRAP 0x01 /* request 1 wraps */
+#define BFQ_RQ2_WRAP 0x02 /* request 2 wraps */
+ unsigned int wrap = 0; /* bit mask: requests behind the disk head? */
+
+ if (!rq1 || rq1 == rq2)
+ return rq2;
+ if (!rq2)
+ return rq1;
+
+ if (rq_is_sync(rq1) && !rq_is_sync(rq2))
+ return rq1;
+ else if (rq_is_sync(rq2) && !rq_is_sync(rq1))
+ return rq2;
+ if ((rq1->cmd_flags & REQ_META) && !(rq2->cmd_flags & REQ_META))
+ return rq1;
+ else if ((rq2->cmd_flags & REQ_META) && !(rq1->cmd_flags & REQ_META))
+ return rq2;
+
+ s1 = blk_rq_pos(rq1);
+ s2 = blk_rq_pos(rq2);
+
+ /*
+ * By definition, 1KiB is 2 sectors.
+ */
+ back_max = bfqd->bfq_back_max * 2;
+
+ /*
+ * Strict one way elevator _except_ in the case where we allow
+ * short backward seeks which are biased as twice the cost of a
+ * similar forward seek.
+ */
+ if (s1 >= last)
+ d1 = s1 - last;
+ else if (s1 + back_max >= last)
+ d1 = (last - s1) * bfqd->bfq_back_penalty;
+ else
+ wrap |= BFQ_RQ1_WRAP;
+
+ if (s2 >= last)
+ d2 = s2 - last;
+ else if (s2 + back_max >= last)
+ d2 = (last - s2) * bfqd->bfq_back_penalty;
+ else
+ wrap |= BFQ_RQ2_WRAP;
+
+ /* Found required data */
+
+ /*
+ * By doing switch() on the bit mask "wrap" we avoid having to
+ * check two variables for all permutations: --> faster!
+ */
+ switch (wrap) {
+ case 0: /* common case for CFQ: rq1 and rq2 not wrapped */
+ if (d1 < d2)
+ return rq1;
+ else if (d2 < d1)
+ return rq2;
+
+ if (s1 >= s2)
+ return rq1;
+ else
+ return rq2;
+
+ case BFQ_RQ2_WRAP:
+ return rq1;
+ case BFQ_RQ1_WRAP:
+ return rq2;
+ case BFQ_RQ1_WRAP|BFQ_RQ2_WRAP: /* both rqs wrapped */
+ default:
+ /*
+ * Since both rqs are wrapped,
+ * start with the one that's further behind head
+ * (--> only *one* back seek required),
+ * since back seek takes more time than forward.
+ */
+ if (s1 <= s2)
+ return rq1;
+ else
+ return rq2;
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return expired entry, or NULL to just start from scratch in rbtree.
+ */
+static struct request *bfq_check_fifo(struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct request *last)
+{
+ struct request *rq;
+
+ if (bfq_bfqq_fifo_expire(bfqq))
+ return NULL;
+
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_fifo_expire(bfqq);
+
+ rq = rq_entry_fifo(bfqq->fifo.next);
+
+ if (rq == last || ktime_get_ns() < rq->fifo_time)
+ return NULL;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "check_fifo: returned %p", rq);
+ return rq;
+}
+
+static struct request *bfq_find_next_rq(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct request *last)
+{
+ struct rb_node *rbnext = rb_next(&last->rb_node);
+ struct rb_node *rbprev = rb_prev(&last->rb_node);
+ struct request *next, *prev = NULL;
+
+ /* Follow expired path, else get first next available. */
+ next = bfq_check_fifo(bfqq, last);
+ if (next)
+ return next;
+
+ if (rbprev)
+ prev = rb_entry_rq(rbprev);
+
+ if (rbnext)
+ next = rb_entry_rq(rbnext);
+ else {
+ rbnext = rb_first(&bfqq->sort_list);
+ if (rbnext && rbnext != &last->rb_node)
+ next = rb_entry_rq(rbnext);
+ }
+
+ return bfq_choose_req(bfqd, next, prev, blk_rq_pos(last));
+}
+
+static unsigned long bfq_serv_to_charge(struct request *rq,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ return blk_rq_sectors(rq);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_updated_next_req - update the queue after a new next_rq selection.
+ * @bfqd: the device data the queue belongs to.
+ * @bfqq: the queue to update.
+ *
+ * If the first request of a queue changes we make sure that the queue
+ * has enough budget to serve at least its first request (if the
+ * request has grown). We do this because if the queue has not enough
+ * budget for its first request, it has to go through two dispatch
+ * rounds to actually get it dispatched.
+ */
+static void bfq_updated_next_req(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+ struct request *next_rq = bfqq->next_rq;
+ unsigned long new_budget;
+
+ if (!next_rq)
+ return;
+
+ if (bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue)
+ /*
+ * In order not to break guarantees, budgets cannot be
+ * changed after an entity has been selected.
+ */
+ return;
+
+ new_budget = max_t(unsigned long, bfqq->max_budget,
+ bfq_serv_to_charge(next_rq, bfqq));
+ if (entity->budget != new_budget) {
+ entity->budget = new_budget;
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "updated next rq: new budget %lu",
+ new_budget);
+ bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+ }
+}
+
+static int bfq_bfqq_budget_left(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+ return entity->budget - entity->service;
+}
+
+/*
+ * If enough samples have been computed, return the current max budget
+ * stored in bfqd, which is dynamically updated according to the
+ * estimated disk peak rate; otherwise return the default max budget
+ */
+static int bfq_max_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ if (bfqd->budgets_assigned < bfq_stats_min_budgets)
+ return bfq_default_max_budget;
+ else
+ return bfqd->bfq_max_budget;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return min budget, which is a fraction of the current or default
+ * max budget (trying with 1/32)
+ */
+static int bfq_min_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ if (bfqd->budgets_assigned < bfq_stats_min_budgets)
+ return bfq_default_max_budget / 32;
+ else
+ return bfqd->bfq_max_budget / 32;
+}
+
+static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ bool compensate,
+ enum bfqq_expiration reason);
+
+/*
+ * The next function, invoked after the input queue bfqq switches from
+ * idle to busy, updates the budget of bfqq. The function also tells
+ * whether the in-service queue should be expired, by returning
+ * true. The purpose of expiring the in-service queue is to give bfqq
+ * the chance to possibly preempt the in-service queue, and the reason
+ * for preempting the in-service queue is to achieve the following
+ * goal: guarantee to bfqq its reserved bandwidth even if bfqq has
+ * expired because it has remained idle.
+ *
+ * In particular, bfqq may have expired for one of the following two
+ * reasons:
+ *
+ * - BFQQE_NO_MORE_REQUESTS bfqq did not enjoy any device idling
+ * and did not make it to issue a new request before its last
+ * request was served;
+ *
+ * - BFQQE_TOO_IDLE bfqq did enjoy device idling, but did not issue
+ * a new request before the expiration of the idling-time.
+ *
+ * Even if bfqq has expired for one of the above reasons, the process
+ * associated with the queue may be however issuing requests greedily,
+ * and thus be sensitive to the bandwidth it receives (bfqq may have
+ * remained idle for other reasons: CPU high load, bfqq not enjoying
+ * idling, I/O throttling somewhere in the path from the process to
+ * the I/O scheduler, ...). But if, after every expiration for one of
+ * the above two reasons, bfqq has to wait for the service of at least
+ * one full budget of another queue before being served again, then
+ * bfqq is likely to get a much lower bandwidth or resource time than
+ * its reserved ones. To address this issue, two countermeasures need
+ * to be taken.
+ *
+ * First, the budget and the timestamps of bfqq need to be updated in
+ * a special way on bfqq reactivation: they need to be updated as if
+ * bfqq did not remain idle and did not expire. In fact, if they are
+ * computed as if bfqq expired and remained idle until reactivation,
+ * then the process associated with bfqq is treated as if, instead of
+ * being greedy, it stopped issuing requests when bfqq remained idle,
+ * and restarts issuing requests only on this reactivation. In other
+ * words, the scheduler does not help the process recover the "service
+ * hole" between bfqq expiration and reactivation. As a consequence,
+ * the process receives a lower bandwidth than its reserved one. In
+ * contrast, to recover this hole, the budget must be updated as if
+ * bfqq was not expired at all before this reactivation, i.e., it must
+ * be set to the value of the remaining budget when bfqq was
+ * expired. Along the same line, timestamps need to be assigned the
+ * value they had the last time bfqq was selected for service, i.e.,
+ * before last expiration. Thus timestamps need to be back-shifted
+ * with respect to their normal computation (see [1] for more details
+ * on this tricky aspect).
+ *
+ * Secondly, to allow the process to recover the hole, the in-service
+ * queue must be expired too, to give bfqq the chance to preempt it
+ * immediately. In fact, if bfqq has to wait for a full budget of the
+ * in-service queue to be completed, then it may become impossible to
+ * let the process recover the hole, even if the back-shifted
+ * timestamps of bfqq are lower than those of the in-service queue. If
+ * this happens for most or all of the holes, then the process may not
+ * receive its reserved bandwidth. In this respect, it is worth noting
+ * that, being the service of outstanding requests unpreemptible, a
+ * little fraction of the holes may however be unrecoverable, thereby
+ * causing a little loss of bandwidth.
+ *
+ * The last important point is detecting whether bfqq does need this
+ * bandwidth recovery. In this respect, the next function deems the
+ * process associated with bfqq greedy, and thus allows it to recover
+ * the hole, if: 1) the process is waiting for the arrival of a new
+ * request (which implies that bfqq expired for one of the above two
+ * reasons), and 2) such a request has arrived soon. The first
+ * condition is controlled through the flag non_blocking_wait_rq,
+ * while the second through the flag arrived_in_time. If both
+ * conditions hold, then the function computes the budget in the
+ * above-described special way, and signals that the in-service queue
+ * should be expired. Timestamp back-shifting is done later in
+ * __bfq_activate_entity.
+ */
+static bool bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ bool arrived_in_time)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+ if (bfq_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq) && arrived_in_time) {
+ /*
+ * We do not clear the flag non_blocking_wait_rq here, as
+ * the latter is used in bfq_activate_bfqq to signal
+ * that timestamps need to be back-shifted (and is
+ * cleared right after).
+ */
+
+ /*
+ * In next assignment we rely on that either
+ * entity->service or entity->budget are not updated
+ * on expiration if bfqq is empty (see
+ * __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget). Thus both quantities
+ * remain unchanged after such an expiration, and the
+ * following statement therefore assigns to
+ * entity->budget the remaining budget on such an
+ * expiration. For clarity, entity->service is not
+ * updated on expiration in any case, and, in normal
+ * operation, is reset only when bfqq is selected for
+ * service (see bfq_get_next_queue).
+ */
+ entity->budget = min_t(unsigned long,
+ bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq),
+ bfqq->max_budget);
+
+ return true;
+ }
+
+ entity->budget = max_t(unsigned long, bfqq->max_budget,
+ bfq_serv_to_charge(bfqq->next_rq, bfqq));
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq);
+ return false;
+}
+
+static void bfq_bfqq_handle_idle_busy_switch(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct request *rq)
+{
+ bool bfqq_wants_to_preempt,
+ /*
+ * See the comments on
+ * bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation for
+ * details on the usage of the next variable.
+ */
+ arrived_in_time = ktime_get_ns() <=
+ bfqq->ttime.last_end_request +
+ bfqd->bfq_slice_idle * 3;
+
+ /*
+ * Update budget and check whether bfqq may want to preempt
+ * the in-service queue.
+ */
+ bfqq_wants_to_preempt =
+ bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation(bfqd, bfqq,
+ arrived_in_time);
+
+ if (!bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq)) {
+ if (arrived_in_time) {
+ bfqq->requests_within_timer++;
+ if (bfqq->requests_within_timer >=
+ bfqd->bfq_requests_within_timer)
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+ } else
+ bfqq->requests_within_timer = 0;
+ }
+
+ bfq_add_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq);
+
+ /*
+ * Expire in-service queue only if preemption may be needed
+ * for guarantees. In this respect, the function
+ * next_queue_may_preempt just checks a simple, necessary
+ * condition, and not a sufficient condition based on
+ * timestamps. In fact, for the latter condition to be
+ * evaluated, timestamps would need first to be updated, and
+ * this operation is quite costly (see the comments on the
+ * function bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation).
+ */
+ if (bfqd->in_service_queue && bfqq_wants_to_preempt &&
+ next_queue_may_preempt(bfqd))
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqd->in_service_queue,
+ false, BFQQE_PREEMPTED);
+}
+
+static void bfq_add_request(struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+ struct request *next_rq, *prev;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "add_request %d", rq_is_sync(rq));
+ bfqq->queued[rq_is_sync(rq)]++;
+ bfqd->queued++;
+
+ elv_rb_add(&bfqq->sort_list, rq);
+
+ /*
+ * Check if this request is a better next-serve candidate.
+ */
+ prev = bfqq->next_rq;
+ next_rq = bfq_choose_req(bfqd, bfqq->next_rq, rq, bfqd->last_position);
+ bfqq->next_rq = next_rq;
+
+ if (!bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq)) /* switching to busy ... */
+ bfq_bfqq_handle_idle_busy_switch(bfqd, bfqq, rq);
+ else if (prev != bfqq->next_rq)
+ bfq_updated_next_req(bfqd, bfqq);
+}
+
+static struct request *bfq_find_rq_fmerge(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bio *bio,
+ struct request_queue *q)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->bio_bfqq;
+
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ return elv_rb_find(&bfqq->sort_list, bio_end_sector(bio));
+
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+#if 0 /* Still not clear if we can do without next two functions */
+static void bfq_activate_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+
+ bfqd->rq_in_driver++;
+ bfqd->last_position = blk_rq_pos(rq) + blk_rq_sectors(rq);
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "activate_request: new bfqd->last_position %llu",
+ (unsigned long long)bfqd->last_position);
+}
+
+static void bfq_deactivate_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+
+ bfqd->rq_in_driver--;
+}
+#endif
+
+static void bfq_remove_request(struct request_queue *q,
+ struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+ const int sync = rq_is_sync(rq);
+
+ if (bfqq->next_rq == rq) {
+ bfqq->next_rq = bfq_find_next_rq(bfqd, bfqq, rq);
+ bfq_updated_next_req(bfqd, bfqq);
+ }
+
+ if (rq->queuelist.prev != &rq->queuelist)
+ list_del_init(&rq->queuelist);
+ bfqq->queued[sync]--;
+ bfqd->queued--;
+ elv_rb_del(&bfqq->sort_list, rq);
+
+ elv_rqhash_del(q, rq);
+ if (q->last_merge == rq)
+ q->last_merge = NULL;
+
+ if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list)) {
+ bfqq->next_rq = NULL;
+
+ if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq) && bfqq != bfqd->in_service_queue) {
+ bfq_del_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq, 1);
+ /*
+ * bfqq emptied. In normal operation, when
+ * bfqq is empty, bfqq->entity.service and
+ * bfqq->entity.budget must contain,
+ * respectively, the service received and the
+ * budget used last time bfqq emptied. These
+ * facts do not hold in this case, as at least
+ * this last removal occurred while bfqq is
+ * not in service. To avoid inconsistencies,
+ * reset both bfqq->entity.service and
+ * bfqq->entity.budget, if bfqq has still a
+ * process that may issue I/O requests to it.
+ */
+ bfqq->entity.budget = bfqq->entity.service = 0;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (rq->cmd_flags & REQ_META)
+ bfqq->meta_pending--;
+}
+
+static bool bfq_bio_merge(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx, struct bio *bio)
+{
+ struct request_queue *q = hctx->queue;
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+ struct request *free = NULL;
+ /*
+ * bfq_bic_lookup grabs the queue_lock: invoke it now and
+ * store its return value for later use, to avoid nesting
+ * queue_lock inside the bfqd->lock. We assume that the bic
+ * returned by bfq_bic_lookup does not go away before
+ * bfqd->lock is taken.
+ */
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic = bfq_bic_lookup(bfqd, current->io_context, q);
+ bool ret;
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ if (bic)
+ bfqd->bio_bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, op_is_sync(bio->bi_opf));
+ else
+ bfqd->bio_bfqq = NULL;
+ bfqd->bio_bic = bic;
+
+ ret = blk_mq_sched_try_merge(q, bio, &free);
+
+ if (free)
+ blk_mq_free_request(free);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int bfq_request_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request **req,
+ struct bio *bio)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+ struct request *__rq;
+
+ __rq = bfq_find_rq_fmerge(bfqd, bio, q);
+ if (__rq && elv_bio_merge_ok(__rq, bio)) {
+ *req = __rq;
+ return ELEVATOR_FRONT_MERGE;
+ }
+
+ return ELEVATOR_NO_MERGE;
+}
+
+static void bfq_request_merged(struct request_queue *q, struct request *req,
+ enum elv_merge type)
+{
+ if (type == ELEVATOR_FRONT_MERGE &&
+ rb_prev(&req->rb_node) &&
+ blk_rq_pos(req) <
+ blk_rq_pos(container_of(rb_prev(&req->rb_node),
+ struct request, rb_node))) {
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(req);
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+ struct request *prev, *next_rq;
+
+ /* Reposition request in its sort_list */
+ elv_rb_del(&bfqq->sort_list, req);
+ elv_rb_add(&bfqq->sort_list, req);
+
+ /* Choose next request to be served for bfqq */
+ prev = bfqq->next_rq;
+ next_rq = bfq_choose_req(bfqd, bfqq->next_rq, req,
+ bfqd->last_position);
+ bfqq->next_rq = next_rq;
+ /*
+ * If next_rq changes, update the queue's budget to fit
+ * the new request.
+ */
+ if (prev != bfqq->next_rq)
+ bfq_updated_next_req(bfqd, bfqq);
+ }
+}
+
+static void bfq_requests_merged(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
+ struct request *next)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq), *next_bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(next);
+
+ if (!RB_EMPTY_NODE(&rq->rb_node))
+ return;
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqq->bfqd->lock);
+
+ /*
+ * If next and rq belong to the same bfq_queue and next is older
+ * than rq, then reposition rq in the fifo (by substituting next
+ * with rq). Otherwise, if next and rq belong to different
+ * bfq_queues, never reposition rq: in fact, we would have to
+ * reposition it with respect to next's position in its own fifo,
+ * which would most certainly be too expensive with respect to
+ * the benefits.
+ */
+ if (bfqq == next_bfqq &&
+ !list_empty(&rq->queuelist) && !list_empty(&next->queuelist) &&
+ next->fifo_time < rq->fifo_time) {
+ list_del_init(&rq->queuelist);
+ list_replace_init(&next->queuelist, &rq->queuelist);
+ rq->fifo_time = next->fifo_time;
+ }
+
+ if (bfqq->next_rq == next)
+ bfqq->next_rq = rq;
+
+ bfq_remove_request(q, next);
+
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqq->bfqd->lock);
+}
+
+static bool bfq_allow_bio_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
+ struct bio *bio)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+ bool is_sync = op_is_sync(bio->bi_opf);
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->bio_bfqq;
+
+ /*
+ * Disallow merge of a sync bio into an async request.
+ */
+ if (is_sync && !rq_is_sync(rq))
+ return false;
+
+ /*
+ * Lookup the bfqq that this bio will be queued with. Allow
+ * merge only if rq is queued there.
+ */
+ if (!bfqq)
+ return false;
+
+ return bfqq == RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+}
+
+static void __bfq_set_in_service_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ if (bfqq) {
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq);
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_fifo_expire(bfqq);
+
+ bfqd->budgets_assigned = (bfqd->budgets_assigned * 7 + 256) / 8;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+ "set_in_service_queue, cur-budget = %d",
+ bfqq->entity.budget);
+ }
+
+ bfqd->in_service_queue = bfqq;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Get and set a new queue for service.
+ */
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_set_in_service_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_get_next_queue(bfqd);
+
+ __bfq_set_in_service_queue(bfqd, bfqq);
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+/*
+ * bfq_default_budget - return the default budget for @bfqq on @bfqd.
+ * @bfqd: the device descriptor.
+ * @bfqq: the queue to consider.
+ *
+ * We use 3/4 of the @bfqd maximum budget as the default value
+ * for the max_budget field of the queues. This lets the feedback
+ * mechanism to start from some middle ground, then the behavior
+ * of the process will drive the heuristics towards high values, if
+ * it behaves as a greedy sequential reader, or towards small values
+ * if it shows a more intermittent behavior.
+ */
+static unsigned long bfq_default_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ unsigned long budget;
+
+ /*
+ * When we need an estimate of the peak rate we need to avoid
+ * to give budgets that are too short due to previous
+ * measurements. So, in the first 10 assignments use a
+ * ``safe'' budget value. For such first assignment the value
+ * of bfqd->budgets_assigned happens to be lower than 194.
+ * See __bfq_set_in_service_queue for the formula by which
+ * this field is computed.
+ */
+ if (bfqd->budgets_assigned < 194 && bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget == 0)
+ budget = bfq_default_max_budget;
+ else
+ budget = bfqd->bfq_max_budget;
+
+ return budget - budget / 4;
+}
+
+static void bfq_arm_slice_timer(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic;
+ u32 sl;
+
+ /* Processes have exited, don't wait. */
+ bic = bfqd->in_service_bic;
+ if (!bic || atomic_read(&bic->icq.ioc->active_ref) == 0)
+ return;
+
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq);
+
+ /*
+ * We don't want to idle for seeks, but we do want to allow
+ * fair distribution of slice time for a process doing back-to-back
+ * seeks. So allow a little bit of time for him to submit a new rq.
+ */
+ sl = bfqd->bfq_slice_idle;
+ /*
+ * Grant only minimum idle time if the queue is seeky.
+ */
+ if (BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq))
+ sl = min_t(u64, sl, BFQ_MIN_TT);
+
+ bfqd->last_idling_start = ktime_get();
+ hrtimer_start(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer, ns_to_ktime(sl),
+ HRTIMER_MODE_REL);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Set the maximum time for the in-service queue to consume its
+ * budget. This prevents seeky processes from lowering the disk
+ * throughput (always guaranteed with a time slice scheme as in CFQ).
+ */
+static void bfq_set_budget_timeout(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
+ unsigned int timeout_coeff = bfqq->entity.weight /
+ bfqq->entity.orig_weight;
+
+ bfqd->last_budget_start = ktime_get();
+
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq);
+ bfqq->budget_timeout = jiffies +
+ bfqd->bfq_timeout * timeout_coeff;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "set budget_timeout %u",
+ jiffies_to_msecs(bfqd->bfq_timeout * timeout_coeff));
+}
+
+/*
+ * Remove request from internal lists.
+ */
+static void bfq_dispatch_remove(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+
+ /*
+ * For consistency, the next instruction should have been
+ * executed after removing the request from the queue and
+ * dispatching it. We execute instead this instruction before
+ * bfq_remove_request() (and hence introduce a temporary
+ * inconsistency), for efficiency. In fact, should this
+ * dispatch occur for a non in-service bfqq, this anticipated
+ * increment prevents two counters related to bfqq->dispatched
+ * from risking to be, first, uselessly decremented, and then
+ * incremented again when the (new) value of bfqq->dispatched
+ * happens to be taken into account.
+ */
+ bfqq->dispatched++;
+
+ bfq_remove_request(q, rq);
+}
+
+static void __bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ __bfq_bfqd_reset_in_service(bfqd);
+
+ if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list))
+ bfq_del_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq, 1);
+ else
+ bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+}
+
+/**
+ * __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget - try to adapt the budget to the @bfqq behavior.
+ * @bfqd: device data.
+ * @bfqq: queue to update.
+ * @reason: reason for expiration.
+ *
+ * Handle the feedback on @bfqq budget at queue expiration.
+ * See the body for detailed comments.
+ */
+static void __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ enum bfqq_expiration reason)
+{
+ struct request *next_rq;
+ int budget, min_budget;
+
+ budget = bfqq->max_budget;
+ min_budget = bfq_min_budget(bfqd);
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "recalc_budg: last budg %d, budg left %d",
+ bfqq->entity.budget, bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq));
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "recalc_budg: last max_budg %d, min budg %d",
+ budget, bfq_min_budget(bfqd));
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "recalc_budg: sync %d, seeky %d",
+ bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq), BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqd->in_service_queue));
+
+ if (bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq)) {
+ switch (reason) {
+ /*
+ * Caveat: in all the following cases we trade latency
+ * for throughput.
+ */
+ case BFQQE_TOO_IDLE:
+ if (budget > min_budget + BFQ_BUDGET_STEP)
+ budget -= BFQ_BUDGET_STEP;
+ else
+ budget = min_budget;
+ break;
+ case BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT:
+ budget = bfq_default_budget(bfqd, bfqq);
+ break;
+ case BFQQE_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED:
+ /*
+ * The process still has backlog, and did not
+ * let either the budget timeout or the disk
+ * idling timeout expire. Hence it is not
+ * seeky, has a short thinktime and may be
+ * happy with a higher budget too. So
+ * definitely increase the budget of this good
+ * candidate to boost the disk throughput.
+ */
+ budget = min(budget + 8 * BFQ_BUDGET_STEP,
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget);
+ break;
+ case BFQQE_NO_MORE_REQUESTS:
+ /*
+ * For queues that expire for this reason, it
+ * is particularly important to keep the
+ * budget close to the actual service they
+ * need. Doing so reduces the timestamp
+ * misalignment problem described in the
+ * comments in the body of
+ * __bfq_activate_entity. In fact, suppose
+ * that a queue systematically expires for
+ * BFQQE_NO_MORE_REQUESTS and presents a
+ * new request in time to enjoy timestamp
+ * back-shifting. The larger the budget of the
+ * queue is with respect to the service the
+ * queue actually requests in each service
+ * slot, the more times the queue can be
+ * reactivated with the same virtual finish
+ * time. It follows that, even if this finish
+ * time is pushed to the system virtual time
+ * to reduce the consequent timestamp
+ * misalignment, the queue unjustly enjoys for
+ * many re-activations a lower finish time
+ * than all newly activated queues.
+ *
+ * The service needed by bfqq is measured
+ * quite precisely by bfqq->entity.service.
+ * Since bfqq does not enjoy device idling,
+ * bfqq->entity.service is equal to the number
+ * of sectors that the process associated with
+ * bfqq requested to read/write before waiting
+ * for request completions, or blocking for
+ * other reasons.
+ */
+ budget = max_t(int, bfqq->entity.service, min_budget);
+ break;
+ default:
+ return;
+ }
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * Async queues get always the maximum possible
+ * budget, as for them we do not care about latency
+ * (in addition, their ability to dispatch is limited
+ * by the charging factor).
+ */
+ budget = bfqd->bfq_max_budget;
+ }
+
+ bfqq->max_budget = budget;
+
+ if (bfqd->budgets_assigned >= bfq_stats_min_budgets &&
+ !bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget)
+ bfqq->max_budget = min(bfqq->max_budget, bfqd->bfq_max_budget);
+
+ /*
+ * If there is still backlog, then assign a new budget, making
+ * sure that it is large enough for the next request. Since
+ * the finish time of bfqq must be kept in sync with the
+ * budget, be sure to call __bfq_bfqq_expire() *after* this
+ * update.
+ *
+ * If there is no backlog, then no need to update the budget;
+ * it will be updated on the arrival of a new request.
+ */
+ next_rq = bfqq->next_rq;
+ if (next_rq)
+ bfqq->entity.budget = max_t(unsigned long, bfqq->max_budget,
+ bfq_serv_to_charge(next_rq, bfqq));
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "head sect: %u, new budget %d",
+ next_rq ? blk_rq_sectors(next_rq) : 0,
+ bfqq->entity.budget);
+}
+
+static unsigned long bfq_calc_max_budget(u64 peak_rate, u64 timeout)
+{
+ unsigned long max_budget;
+
+ /*
+ * The max_budget calculated when autotuning is equal to the
+ * amount of sectors transferred in timeout at the estimated
+ * peak rate. To get this value, peak_rate is, first,
+ * multiplied by 1000, because timeout is measured in ms,
+ * while peak_rate is measured in sectors/usecs. Then the
+ * result of this multiplication is right-shifted by
+ * BFQ_RATE_SHIFT, because peak_rate is equal to the value of
+ * the peak rate left-shifted by BFQ_RATE_SHIFT.
+ */
+ max_budget = (unsigned long)(peak_rate * 1000 *
+ timeout >> BFQ_RATE_SHIFT);
+
+ return max_budget;
+}
+
+/*
+ * In addition to updating the peak rate, checks whether the process
+ * is "slow", and returns 1 if so. This slow flag is used, in addition
+ * to the budget timeout, to reduce the amount of service provided to
+ * seeky processes, and hence reduce their chances to lower the
+ * throughput. See the code for more details.
+ */
+static bool bfq_update_peak_rate(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ bool compensate)
+{
+ u64 bw, usecs, expected, timeout;
+ ktime_t delta;
+ int update = 0;
+
+ if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) || bfq_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq))
+ return false;
+
+ if (compensate)
+ delta = bfqd->last_idling_start;
+ else
+ delta = ktime_get();
+ delta = ktime_sub(delta, bfqd->last_budget_start);
+ usecs = ktime_to_us(delta);
+
+ /* don't use too short time intervals */
+ if (usecs < 1000)
+ return false;
+
+ /*
+ * Calculate the bandwidth for the last slice. We use a 64 bit
+ * value to store the peak rate, in sectors per usec in fixed
+ * point math. We do so to have enough precision in the estimate
+ * and to avoid overflows.
+ */
+ bw = (u64)bfqq->entity.service << BFQ_RATE_SHIFT;
+ do_div(bw, (unsigned long)usecs);
+
+ timeout = jiffies_to_msecs(bfqd->bfq_timeout);
+
+ /*
+ * Use only long (> 20ms) intervals to filter out spikes for
+ * the peak rate estimation.
+ */
+ if (usecs > 20000) {
+ if (bw > bfqd->peak_rate) {
+ bfqd->peak_rate = bw;
+ update = 1;
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "new peak_rate=%llu", bw);
+ }
+
+ update |= bfqd->peak_rate_samples == BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES - 1;
+
+ if (bfqd->peak_rate_samples < BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES)
+ bfqd->peak_rate_samples++;
+
+ if (bfqd->peak_rate_samples == BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES &&
+ update && bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget == 0) {
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget =
+ bfq_calc_max_budget(bfqd->peak_rate,
+ timeout);
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "new max_budget=%d",
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget);
+ }
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * A process is considered ``slow'' (i.e., seeky, so that we
+ * cannot treat it fairly in the service domain, as it would
+ * slow down too much the other processes) if, when a slice
+ * ends for whatever reason, it has received service at a
+ * rate that would not be high enough to complete the budget
+ * before the budget timeout expiration.
+ */
+ expected = bw * 1000 * timeout >> BFQ_RATE_SHIFT;
+
+ /*
+ * Caveat: processes doing IO in the slower disk zones will
+ * tend to be slow(er) even if not seeky. And the estimated
+ * peak rate will actually be an average over the disk
+ * surface. Hence, to not be too harsh with unlucky processes,
+ * we keep a budget/3 margin of safety before declaring a
+ * process slow.
+ */
+ return expected > (4 * bfqq->entity.budget) / 3;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return the farthest past time instant according to jiffies
+ * macros.
+ */
+static unsigned long bfq_smallest_from_now(void)
+{
+ return jiffies - MAX_JIFFY_OFFSET;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bfq_bfqq_expire - expire a queue.
+ * @bfqd: device owning the queue.
+ * @bfqq: the queue to expire.
+ * @compensate: if true, compensate for the time spent idling.
+ * @reason: the reason causing the expiration.
+ *
+ *
+ * If the process associated with the queue is slow (i.e., seeky), or
+ * in case of budget timeout, or, finally, if it is async, we
+ * artificially charge it an entire budget (independently of the
+ * actual service it received). As a consequence, the queue will get
+ * higher timestamps than the correct ones upon reactivation, and
+ * hence it will be rescheduled as if it had received more service
+ * than what it actually received. In the end, this class of processes
+ * will receive less service in proportion to how slowly they consume
+ * their budgets (and hence how seriously they tend to lower the
+ * throughput).
+ *
+ * In contrast, when a queue expires because it has been idling for
+ * too much or because it exhausted its budget, we do not touch the
+ * amount of service it has received. Hence when the queue will be
+ * reactivated and its timestamps updated, the latter will be in sync
+ * with the actual service received by the queue until expiration.
+ *
+ * Charging a full budget to the first type of queues and the exact
+ * service to the others has the effect of using the WF2Q+ policy to
+ * schedule the former on a timeslice basis, without violating the
+ * service domain guarantees of the latter.
+ */
+static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ bool compensate,
+ enum bfqq_expiration reason)
+{
+ bool slow;
+ int ref;
+
+ /*
+ * Update device peak rate for autotuning and check whether the
+ * process is slow (see bfq_update_peak_rate).
+ */
+ slow = bfq_update_peak_rate(bfqd, bfqq, compensate);
+
+ /*
+ * As above explained, 'punish' slow (i.e., seeky), timed-out
+ * and async queues, to favor sequential sync workloads.
+ */
+ if (slow || reason == BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT)
+ bfq_bfqq_charge_full_budget(bfqq);
+
+ if (reason == BFQQE_TOO_IDLE &&
+ bfqq->entity.service <= 2 * bfqq->entity.budget / 10)
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+ "expire (%d, slow %d, num_disp %d, idle_win %d)", reason,
+ slow, bfqq->dispatched, bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq));
+
+ /*
+ * Increase, decrease or leave budget unchanged according to
+ * reason.
+ */
+ __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget(bfqd, bfqq, reason);
+ ref = bfqq->ref;
+ __bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq);
+
+ /* mark bfqq as waiting a request only if a bic still points to it */
+ if (ref > 1 && !bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq) &&
+ reason != BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT &&
+ reason != BFQQE_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED)
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Budget timeout is not implemented through a dedicated timer, but
+ * just checked on request arrivals and completions, as well as on
+ * idle timer expirations.
+ */
+static bool bfq_bfqq_budget_timeout(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ if (bfq_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq) ||
+ time_is_after_jiffies(bfqq->budget_timeout))
+ return false;
+ return true;
+}
+
+/*
+ * If we expire a queue that is actively waiting (i.e., with the
+ * device idled) for the arrival of a new request, then we may incur
+ * the timestamp misalignment problem described in the body of the
+ * function __bfq_activate_entity. Hence we return true only if this
+ * condition does not hold, or if the queue is slow enough to deserve
+ * only to be kicked off for preserving a high throughput.
+ */
+static bool bfq_may_expire_for_budg_timeout(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+ "may_budget_timeout: wait_request %d left %d timeout %d",
+ bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq),
+ bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq) >= bfqq->entity.budget / 3,
+ bfq_bfqq_budget_timeout(bfqq));
+
+ return (!bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq) ||
+ bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq) >= bfqq->entity.budget / 3)
+ &&
+ bfq_bfqq_budget_timeout(bfqq);
+}
+
+/*
+ * For a queue that becomes empty, device idling is allowed only if
+ * this function returns true for the queue. And this function returns
+ * true only if idling is beneficial for throughput.
+ */
+static bool bfq_bfqq_may_idle(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+ bool idling_boosts_thr;
+
+ if (bfqd->strict_guarantees)
+ return true;
+
+ /*
+ * The value of the next variable is computed considering that
+ * idling is usually beneficial for the throughput if:
+ * (a) the device is not NCQ-capable, or
+ * (b) regardless of the presence of NCQ, the request pattern
+ * for bfqq is I/O-bound (possible throughput losses
+ * caused by granting idling to seeky queues are mitigated
+ * by the fact that, in all scenarios where boosting
+ * throughput is the best thing to do, i.e., in all
+ * symmetric scenarios, only a minimal idle time is
+ * allowed to seeky queues).
+ */
+ idling_boosts_thr = !bfqd->hw_tag || bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+
+ /*
+ * We have now the components we need to compute the return
+ * value of the function, which is true only if both the
+ * following conditions hold:
+ * 1) bfqq is sync, because idling make sense only for sync queues;
+ * 2) idling boosts the throughput.
+ */
+ return bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) && idling_boosts_thr;
+}
+
+/*
+ * If the in-service queue is empty but the function bfq_bfqq_may_idle
+ * returns true, then:
+ * 1) the queue must remain in service and cannot be expired, and
+ * 2) the device must be idled to wait for the possible arrival of a new
+ * request for the queue.
+ * See the comments on the function bfq_bfqq_may_idle for the reasons
+ * why performing device idling is the best choice to boost the throughput
+ * and preserve service guarantees when bfq_bfqq_may_idle itself
+ * returns true.
+ */
+static bool bfq_bfqq_must_idle(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+
+ return RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list) && bfqd->bfq_slice_idle != 0 &&
+ bfq_bfqq_may_idle(bfqq);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Select a queue for service. If we have a current queue in service,
+ * check whether to continue servicing it, or retrieve and set a new one.
+ */
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_select_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+ struct request *next_rq;
+ enum bfqq_expiration reason = BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT;
+
+ bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
+ if (!bfqq)
+ goto new_queue;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "select_queue: already in-service queue");
+
+ if (bfq_may_expire_for_budg_timeout(bfqq) &&
+ !bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq) &&
+ !bfq_bfqq_must_idle(bfqq))
+ goto expire;
+
+check_queue:
+ /*
+ * This loop is rarely executed more than once. Even when it
+ * happens, it is much more convenient to re-execute this loop
+ * than to return NULL and trigger a new dispatch to get a
+ * request served.
+ */
+ next_rq = bfqq->next_rq;
+ /*
+ * If bfqq has requests queued and it has enough budget left to
+ * serve them, keep the queue, otherwise expire it.
+ */
+ if (next_rq) {
+ if (bfq_serv_to_charge(next_rq, bfqq) >
+ bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq)) {
+ /*
+ * Expire the queue for budget exhaustion,
+ * which makes sure that the next budget is
+ * enough to serve the next request, even if
+ * it comes from the fifo expired path.
+ */
+ reason = BFQQE_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED;
+ goto expire;
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * The idle timer may be pending because we may
+ * not disable disk idling even when a new request
+ * arrives.
+ */
+ if (bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq)) {
+ /*
+ * If we get here: 1) at least a new request
+ * has arrived but we have not disabled the
+ * timer because the request was too small,
+ * 2) then the block layer has unplugged
+ * the device, causing the dispatch to be
+ * invoked.
+ *
+ * Since the device is unplugged, now the
+ * requests are probably large enough to
+ * provide a reasonable throughput.
+ * So we disable idling.
+ */
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq);
+ hrtimer_try_to_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+ }
+ goto keep_queue;
+ }
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * No requests pending. However, if the in-service queue is idling
+ * for a new request, or has requests waiting for a completion and
+ * may idle after their completion, then keep it anyway.
+ */
+ if (bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq) ||
+ (bfqq->dispatched != 0 && bfq_bfqq_may_idle(bfqq))) {
+ bfqq = NULL;
+ goto keep_queue;
+ }
+
+ reason = BFQQE_NO_MORE_REQUESTS;
+expire:
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, false, reason);
+new_queue:
+ bfqq = bfq_set_in_service_queue(bfqd);
+ if (bfqq) {
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "select_queue: checking new queue");
+ goto check_queue;
+ }
+keep_queue:
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "select_queue: returned this queue");
+ else
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "select_queue: no queue returned");
+
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Dispatch next request from bfqq.
+ */
+static struct request *bfq_dispatch_rq_from_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct request *rq = bfqq->next_rq;
+ unsigned long service_to_charge;
+
+ service_to_charge = bfq_serv_to_charge(rq, bfqq);
+
+ bfq_bfqq_served(bfqq, service_to_charge);
+
+ bfq_dispatch_remove(bfqd->queue, rq);
+
+ if (!bfqd->in_service_bic) {
+ atomic_long_inc(&RQ_BIC(rq)->icq.ioc->refcount);
+ bfqd->in_service_bic = RQ_BIC(rq);
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Expire bfqq, pretending that its budget expired, if bfqq
+ * belongs to CLASS_IDLE and other queues are waiting for
+ * service.
+ */
+ if (bfqd->busy_queues > 1 && bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
+ goto expire;
+
+ return rq;
+
+expire:
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, false, BFQQE_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED);
+ return rq;
+}
+
+static bool bfq_has_work(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = hctx->queue->elevator->elevator_data;
+
+ /*
+ * Avoiding lock: a race on bfqd->busy_queues should cause at
+ * most a call to dispatch for nothing
+ */
+ return !list_empty_careful(&bfqd->dispatch) ||
+ bfqd->busy_queues > 0;
+}
+
+static struct request *__bfq_dispatch_request(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = hctx->queue->elevator->elevator_data;
+ struct request *rq = NULL;
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = NULL;
+
+ if (!list_empty(&bfqd->dispatch)) {
+ rq = list_first_entry(&bfqd->dispatch, struct request,
+ queuelist);
+ list_del_init(&rq->queuelist);
+
+ bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+
+ if (bfqq) {
+ /*
+ * Increment counters here, because this
+ * dispatch does not follow the standard
+ * dispatch flow (where counters are
+ * incremented)
+ */
+ bfqq->dispatched++;
+
+ goto inc_in_driver_start_rq;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * We exploit the put_rq_private hook to decrement
+ * rq_in_driver, but put_rq_private will not be
+ * invoked on this request. So, to avoid unbalance,
+ * just start this request, without incrementing
+ * rq_in_driver. As a negative consequence,
+ * rq_in_driver is deceptively lower than it should be
+ * while this request is in service. This may cause
+ * bfq_schedule_dispatch to be invoked uselessly.
+ *
+ * As for implementing an exact solution, the
+ * put_request hook, if defined, is probably invoked
+ * also on this request. So, by exploiting this hook,
+ * we could 1) increment rq_in_driver here, and 2)
+ * decrement it in put_request. Such a solution would
+ * let the value of the counter be always accurate,
+ * but it would entail using an extra interface
+ * function. This cost seems higher than the benefit,
+ * being the frequency of non-elevator-private
+ * requests very low.
+ */
+ goto start_rq;
+ }
+
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "dispatch requests: %d busy queues", bfqd->busy_queues);
+
+ if (bfqd->busy_queues == 0)
+ goto exit;
+
+ /*
+ * Force device to serve one request at a time if
+ * strict_guarantees is true. Forcing this service scheme is
+ * currently the ONLY way to guarantee that the request
+ * service order enforced by the scheduler is respected by a
+ * queueing device. Otherwise the device is free even to make
+ * some unlucky request wait for as long as the device
+ * wishes.
+ *
+ * Of course, serving one request at at time may cause loss of
+ * throughput.
+ */
+ if (bfqd->strict_guarantees && bfqd->rq_in_driver > 0)
+ goto exit;
+
+ bfqq = bfq_select_queue(bfqd);
+ if (!bfqq)
+ goto exit;
+
+ rq = bfq_dispatch_rq_from_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+
+ if (rq) {
+inc_in_driver_start_rq:
+ bfqd->rq_in_driver++;
+start_rq:
+ rq->rq_flags |= RQF_STARTED;
+ }
+exit:
+ return rq;
+}
+
+static struct request *bfq_dispatch_request(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = hctx->queue->elevator->elevator_data;
+ struct request *rq;
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ rq = __bfq_dispatch_request(hctx);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ return rq;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Task holds one reference to the queue, dropped when task exits. Each rq
+ * in-flight on this queue also holds a reference, dropped when rq is freed.
+ *
+ * Scheduler lock must be held here. Recall not to use bfqq after calling
+ * this function on it.
+ */
+static void bfq_put_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ if (bfqq->bfqd)
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "put_queue: %p %d",
+ bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+
+ bfqq->ref--;
+ if (bfqq->ref)
+ return;
+
+ kmem_cache_free(bfq_pool, bfqq);
+}
+
+static void bfq_exit_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ if (bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue) {
+ __bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq);
+ bfq_schedule_dispatch(bfqd);
+ }
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "exit_bfqq: %p, %d", bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq); /* release process reference */
+}
+
+static void bfq_exit_icq_bfqq(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, bool is_sync)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, is_sync);
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd;
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfqd = bfqq->bfqd; /* NULL if scheduler already exited */
+
+ if (bfqq && bfqd) {
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ spin_lock_irqsave(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ bfq_exit_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+ bic_set_bfqq(bic, NULL, is_sync);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ }
+}
+
+static void bfq_exit_icq(struct io_cq *icq)
+{
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic = icq_to_bic(icq);
+
+ bfq_exit_icq_bfqq(bic, true);
+ bfq_exit_icq_bfqq(bic, false);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Update the entity prio values; note that the new values will not
+ * be used until the next (re)activation.
+ */
+static void
+bfq_set_next_ioprio_data(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
+{
+ struct task_struct *tsk = current;
+ int ioprio_class;
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+
+ if (!bfqd)
+ return;
+
+ ioprio_class = IOPRIO_PRIO_CLASS(bic->ioprio);
+ switch (ioprio_class) {
+ default:
+ dev_err(bfqq->bfqd->queue->backing_dev_info->dev,
+ "bfq: bad prio class %d\n", ioprio_class);
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_NONE:
+ /*
+ * No prio set, inherit CPU scheduling settings.
+ */
+ bfqq->new_ioprio = task_nice_ioprio(tsk);
+ bfqq->new_ioprio_class = task_nice_ioclass(tsk);
+ break;
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_RT:
+ bfqq->new_ioprio = IOPRIO_PRIO_DATA(bic->ioprio);
+ bfqq->new_ioprio_class = IOPRIO_CLASS_RT;
+ break;
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_BE:
+ bfqq->new_ioprio = IOPRIO_PRIO_DATA(bic->ioprio);
+ bfqq->new_ioprio_class = IOPRIO_CLASS_BE;
+ break;
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE:
+ bfqq->new_ioprio_class = IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE;
+ bfqq->new_ioprio = 7;
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+ break;
+ }
+
+ if (bfqq->new_ioprio >= IOPRIO_BE_NR) {
+ pr_crit("bfq_set_next_ioprio_data: new_ioprio %d\n",
+ bfqq->new_ioprio);
+ bfqq->new_ioprio = IOPRIO_BE_NR;
+ }
+
+ bfqq->entity.new_weight = bfq_ioprio_to_weight(bfqq->new_ioprio);
+ bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+}
+
+static void bfq_check_ioprio_change(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bio *bio)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bic_to_bfqd(bic);
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+ int ioprio = bic->icq.ioc->ioprio;
+
+ /*
+ * This condition may trigger on a newly created bic, be sure to
+ * drop the lock before returning.
+ */
+ if (unlikely(!bfqd) || likely(bic->ioprio == ioprio))
+ return;
+
+ bic->ioprio = ioprio;
+
+ bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, false);
+ if (bfqq) {
+ /* release process reference on this queue */
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+ bfqq = bfq_get_queue(bfqd, bio, BLK_RW_ASYNC, bic);
+ bic_set_bfqq(bic, bfqq, false);
+ }
+
+ bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, true);
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfq_set_next_ioprio_data(bfqq, bic);
+}
+
+static void bfq_init_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic, pid_t pid, int is_sync)
+{
+ RB_CLEAR_NODE(&bfqq->entity.rb_node);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bfqq->fifo);
+
+ bfqq->ref = 0;
+ bfqq->bfqd = bfqd;
+
+ if (bic)
+ bfq_set_next_ioprio_data(bfqq, bic);
+
+ if (is_sync) {
+ if (!bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_sync(bfqq);
+ } else
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_sync(bfqq);
+
+ /* set end request to minus infinity from now */
+ bfqq->ttime.last_end_request = ktime_get_ns() + 1;
+
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+
+ bfqq->pid = pid;
+
+ /* Tentative initial value to trade off between thr and lat */
+ bfqq->max_budget = bfq_default_budget(bfqd, bfqq);
+ bfqq->budget_timeout = bfq_smallest_from_now();
+ bfqq->pid = pid;
+
+ /* first request is almost certainly seeky */
+ bfqq->seek_history = 1;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue **bfq_async_queue_prio(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ int ioprio_class, int ioprio)
+{
+ switch (ioprio_class) {
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_RT:
+ return &async_bfqq[0][ioprio];
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_NONE:
+ ioprio = IOPRIO_NORM;
+ /* fall through */
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_BE:
+ return &async_bfqq[1][ioprio];
+ case IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE:
+ return &async_idle_bfqq;
+ default:
+ return NULL;
+ }
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_get_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bio *bio, bool is_sync,
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
+{
+ const int ioprio = IOPRIO_PRIO_DATA(bic->ioprio);
+ const int ioprio_class = IOPRIO_PRIO_CLASS(bic->ioprio);
+ struct bfq_queue **async_bfqq = NULL;
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+
+ rcu_read_lock();
+
+ if (!is_sync) {
+ async_bfqq = bfq_async_queue_prio(bfqd, ioprio_class,
+ ioprio);
+ bfqq = *async_bfqq;
+ if (bfqq)
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ bfqq = kmem_cache_alloc_node(bfq_pool,
+ GFP_NOWAIT | __GFP_ZERO | __GFP_NOWARN,
+ bfqd->queue->node);
+
+ if (bfqq) {
+ bfq_init_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, bic, current->pid,
+ is_sync);
+ bfq_init_entity(&bfqq->entity);
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "allocated");
+ } else {
+ bfqq = &bfqd->oom_bfqq;
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "using oom bfqq");
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Pin the queue now that it's allocated, scheduler exit will
+ * prune it.
+ */
+ if (async_bfqq) {
+ bfqq->ref++;
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+ "get_queue, bfqq not in async: %p, %d",
+ bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+ *async_bfqq = bfqq;
+ }
+
+out:
+ bfqq->ref++; /* get a process reference to this queue */
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "get_queue, at end: %p, %d", bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+ rcu_read_unlock();
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+static void bfq_update_io_thinktime(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_ttime *ttime = &bfqq->ttime;
+ u64 elapsed = ktime_get_ns() - bfqq->ttime.last_end_request;
+
+ elapsed = min_t(u64, elapsed, 2ULL * bfqd->bfq_slice_idle);
+
+ ttime->ttime_samples = (7*bfqq->ttime.ttime_samples + 256) / 8;
+ ttime->ttime_total = div_u64(7*ttime->ttime_total + 256*elapsed, 8);
+ ttime->ttime_mean = div64_ul(ttime->ttime_total + 128,
+ ttime->ttime_samples);
+}
+
+static void
+bfq_update_io_seektime(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct request *rq)
+{
+ sector_t sdist = 0;
+
+ if (bfqq->last_request_pos) {
+ if (bfqq->last_request_pos < blk_rq_pos(rq))
+ sdist = blk_rq_pos(rq) - bfqq->last_request_pos;
+ else
+ sdist = bfqq->last_request_pos - blk_rq_pos(rq);
+ }
+
+ bfqq->seek_history <<= 1;
+ bfqq->seek_history |= sdist > BFQQ_SEEK_THR &&
+ (!blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue) ||
+ blk_rq_sectors(rq) < BFQQ_SECT_THR_NONROT);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Disable idle window if the process thinks too long or seeks so much that
+ * it doesn't matter.
+ */
+static void bfq_update_idle_window(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
+{
+ int enable_idle;
+
+ /* Don't idle for async or idle io prio class. */
+ if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) || bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
+ return;
+
+ enable_idle = bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+
+ if (atomic_read(&bic->icq.ioc->active_ref) == 0 ||
+ bfqd->bfq_slice_idle == 0 ||
+ (bfqd->hw_tag && BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq)))
+ enable_idle = 0;
+ else if (bfq_sample_valid(bfqq->ttime.ttime_samples)) {
+ if (bfqq->ttime.ttime_mean > bfqd->bfq_slice_idle)
+ enable_idle = 0;
+ else
+ enable_idle = 1;
+ }
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "update_idle_window: enable_idle %d",
+ enable_idle);
+
+ if (enable_idle)
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+ else
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Called when a new fs request (rq) is added to bfqq. Check if there's
+ * something we should do about it.
+ */
+static void bfq_rq_enqueued(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic = RQ_BIC(rq);
+
+ if (rq->cmd_flags & REQ_META)
+ bfqq->meta_pending++;
+
+ bfq_update_io_thinktime(bfqd, bfqq);
+ bfq_update_io_seektime(bfqd, bfqq, rq);
+ if (bfqq->entity.service > bfq_max_budget(bfqd) / 8 ||
+ !BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq))
+ bfq_update_idle_window(bfqd, bfqq, bic);
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+ "rq_enqueued: idle_window=%d (seeky %d)",
+ bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq), BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq));
+
+ bfqq->last_request_pos = blk_rq_pos(rq) + blk_rq_sectors(rq);
+
+ if (bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue && bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq)) {
+ bool small_req = bfqq->queued[rq_is_sync(rq)] == 1 &&
+ blk_rq_sectors(rq) < 32;
+ bool budget_timeout = bfq_bfqq_budget_timeout(bfqq);
+
+ /*
+ * There is just this request queued: if the request
+ * is small and the queue is not to be expired, then
+ * just exit.
+ *
+ * In this way, if the device is being idled to wait
+ * for a new request from the in-service queue, we
+ * avoid unplugging the device and committing the
+ * device to serve just a small request. On the
+ * contrary, we wait for the block layer to decide
+ * when to unplug the device: hopefully, new requests
+ * will be merged to this one quickly, then the device
+ * will be unplugged and larger requests will be
+ * dispatched.
+ */
+ if (small_req && !budget_timeout)
+ return;
+
+ /*
+ * A large enough request arrived, or the queue is to
+ * be expired: in both cases disk idling is to be
+ * stopped, so clear wait_request flag and reset
+ * timer.
+ */
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq);
+ hrtimer_try_to_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+
+ /*
+ * The queue is not empty, because a new request just
+ * arrived. Hence we can safely expire the queue, in
+ * case of budget timeout, without risking that the
+ * timestamps of the queue are not updated correctly.
+ * See [1] for more details.
+ */
+ if (budget_timeout)
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, false,
+ BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT);
+ }
+}
+
+static void __bfq_insert_request(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+
+ bfq_add_request(rq);
+
+ rq->fifo_time = ktime_get_ns() + bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[rq_is_sync(rq)];
+ list_add_tail(&rq->queuelist, &bfqq->fifo);
+
+ bfq_rq_enqueued(bfqd, bfqq, rq);
+}
+
+static void bfq_insert_request(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx, struct request *rq,
+ bool at_head)
+{
+ struct request_queue *q = hctx->queue;
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ if (blk_mq_sched_try_insert_merge(q, rq)) {
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ return;
+ }
+
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ blk_mq_sched_request_inserted(rq);
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ if (at_head || blk_rq_is_passthrough(rq)) {
+ if (at_head)
+ list_add(&rq->queuelist, &bfqd->dispatch);
+ else
+ list_add_tail(&rq->queuelist, &bfqd->dispatch);
+ } else {
+ __bfq_insert_request(bfqd, rq);
+
+ if (rq_mergeable(rq)) {
+ elv_rqhash_add(q, rq);
+ if (!q->last_merge)
+ q->last_merge = rq;
+ }
+ }
+
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+}
+
+static void bfq_insert_requests(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx,
+ struct list_head *list, bool at_head)
+{
+ while (!list_empty(list)) {
+ struct request *rq;
+
+ rq = list_first_entry(list, struct request, queuelist);
+ list_del_init(&rq->queuelist);
+ bfq_insert_request(hctx, rq, at_head);
+ }
+}
+
+static void bfq_update_hw_tag(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ bfqd->max_rq_in_driver = max_t(int, bfqd->max_rq_in_driver,
+ bfqd->rq_in_driver);
+
+ if (bfqd->hw_tag == 1)
+ return;
+
+ /*
+ * This sample is valid if the number of outstanding requests
+ * is large enough to allow a queueing behavior. Note that the
+ * sum is not exact, as it's not taking into account deactivated
+ * requests.
+ */
+ if (bfqd->rq_in_driver + bfqd->queued < BFQ_HW_QUEUE_THRESHOLD)
+ return;
+
+ if (bfqd->hw_tag_samples++ < BFQ_HW_QUEUE_SAMPLES)
+ return;
+
+ bfqd->hw_tag = bfqd->max_rq_in_driver > BFQ_HW_QUEUE_THRESHOLD;
+ bfqd->max_rq_in_driver = 0;
+ bfqd->hw_tag_samples = 0;
+}
+
+static void bfq_completed_request(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ bfq_update_hw_tag(bfqd);
+
+ bfqd->rq_in_driver--;
+ bfqq->dispatched--;
+
+ bfqq->ttime.last_end_request = ktime_get_ns();
+
+ /*
+ * If this is the in-service queue, check if it needs to be expired,
+ * or if we want to idle in case it has no pending requests.
+ */
+ if (bfqd->in_service_queue == bfqq) {
+ if (bfq_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq))
+ bfq_set_budget_timeout(bfqd);
+
+ if (bfq_bfqq_must_idle(bfqq)) {
+ bfq_arm_slice_timer(bfqd);
+ return;
+ } else if (bfq_may_expire_for_budg_timeout(bfqq))
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, false,
+ BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT);
+ else if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list) &&
+ (bfqq->dispatched == 0 ||
+ !bfq_bfqq_may_idle(bfqq)))
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, false,
+ BFQQE_NO_MORE_REQUESTS);
+ }
+}
+
+static void bfq_put_rq_priv_body(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ bfqq->allocated--;
+
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+}
+
+static void bfq_put_rq_private(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+
+
+ if (likely(rq->rq_flags & RQF_STARTED)) {
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ spin_lock_irqsave(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+
+ bfq_completed_request(bfqq, bfqd);
+ bfq_put_rq_priv_body(bfqq);
+
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * Request rq may be still/already in the scheduler,
+ * in which case we need to remove it. And we cannot
+ * defer such a check and removal, to avoid
+ * inconsistencies in the time interval from the end
+ * of this function to the start of the deferred work.
+ * This situation seems to occur only in process
+ * context, as a consequence of a merge. In the
+ * current version of the code, this implies that the
+ * lock is held.
+ */
+
+ if (!RB_EMPTY_NODE(&rq->rb_node))
+ bfq_remove_request(q, rq);
+ bfq_put_rq_priv_body(bfqq);
+ }
+
+ rq->elv.priv[0] = NULL;
+ rq->elv.priv[1] = NULL;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Allocate bfq data structures associated with this request.
+ */
+static int bfq_get_rq_private(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
+ struct bio *bio)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic = icq_to_bic(rq->elv.icq);
+ const int is_sync = rq_is_sync(rq);
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ bfq_check_ioprio_change(bic, bio);
+
+ if (!bic)
+ goto queue_fail;
+
+ bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, is_sync);
+ if (!bfqq || bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq) {
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+ bfqq = bfq_get_queue(bfqd, bio, is_sync, bic);
+ bic_set_bfqq(bic, bfqq, is_sync);
+ }
+
+ bfqq->allocated++;
+ bfqq->ref++;
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "get_request %p: bfqq %p, %d",
+ rq, bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+
+ rq->elv.priv[0] = bic;
+ rq->elv.priv[1] = bfqq;
+
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ return 0;
+
+queue_fail:
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ return 1;
+}
+
+static void bfq_idle_slice_timer_body(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+ enum bfqq_expiration reason;
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ spin_lock_irqsave(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq);
+
+ if (bfqq != bfqd->in_service_queue) {
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ return;
+ }
+
+ if (bfq_bfqq_budget_timeout(bfqq))
+ /*
+ * Also here the queue can be safely expired
+ * for budget timeout without wasting
+ * guarantees
+ */
+ reason = BFQQE_BUDGET_TIMEOUT;
+ else if (bfqq->queued[0] == 0 && bfqq->queued[1] == 0)
+ /*
+ * The queue may not be empty upon timer expiration,
+ * because we may not disable the timer when the
+ * first request of the in-service queue arrives
+ * during disk idling.
+ */
+ reason = BFQQE_TOO_IDLE;
+ else
+ goto schedule_dispatch;
+
+ bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, true, reason);
+
+schedule_dispatch:
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ bfq_schedule_dispatch(bfqd);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Handler of the expiration of the timer running if the in-service queue
+ * is idling inside its time slice.
+ */
+static enum hrtimer_restart bfq_idle_slice_timer(struct hrtimer *timer)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = container_of(timer, struct bfq_data,
+ idle_slice_timer);
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
+
+ /*
+ * Theoretical race here: the in-service queue can be NULL or
+ * different from the queue that was idling if a new request
+ * arrives for the current queue and there is a full dispatch
+ * cycle that changes the in-service queue. This can hardly
+ * happen, but in the worst case we just expire a queue too
+ * early.
+ */
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfq_idle_slice_timer_body(bfqq);
+
+ return HRTIMER_NORESTART;
+}
+
+static void __bfq_put_async_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue **bfqq_ptr)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = *bfqq_ptr;
+
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "put_async_bfqq: %p", bfqq);
+ if (bfqq) {
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "put_async_bfqq: putting %p, %d",
+ bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+ *bfqq_ptr = NULL;
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Release the extra reference of the async queues as the device
+ * goes away.
+ */
+static void bfq_put_async_queues(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ int i, j;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < 2; i++)
+ for (j = 0; j < IOPRIO_BE_NR; j++)
+ __bfq_put_async_bfqq(bfqd, &async_bfqq[i][j]);
+
+ __bfq_put_async_bfqq(bfqd, &async_idle_bfqq);
+}
+
+static void bfq_exit_queue(struct elevator_queue *e)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data;
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq, *n;
+
+ hrtimer_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ list_for_each_entry_safe(bfqq, n, &bfqd->idle_list, bfqq_list)
+ bfq_deactivate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, false);
+ bfq_put_async_queues(bfqd);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ hrtimer_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+
+ kfree(bfqd);
+}
+
+static int bfq_init_queue(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_type *e)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd;
+ struct elevator_queue *eq;
+ int i;
+
+ eq = elevator_alloc(q, e);
+ if (!eq)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ bfqd = kzalloc_node(sizeof(*bfqd), GFP_KERNEL, q->node);
+ if (!bfqd) {
+ kobject_put(&eq->kobj);
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ }
+ eq->elevator_data = bfqd;
+
+ /*
+ * Our fallback bfqq if bfq_find_alloc_queue() runs into OOM issues.
+ * Grab a permanent reference to it, so that the normal code flow
+ * will not attempt to free it.
+ */
+ bfq_init_bfqq(bfqd, &bfqd->oom_bfqq, NULL, 1, 0);
+ bfqd->oom_bfqq.ref++;
+ bfqd->oom_bfqq.new_ioprio = BFQ_DEFAULT_QUEUE_IOPRIO;
+ bfqd->oom_bfqq.new_ioprio_class = IOPRIO_CLASS_BE;
+ bfqd->oom_bfqq.entity.new_weight =
+ bfq_ioprio_to_weight(bfqd->oom_bfqq.new_ioprio);
+ /*
+ * Trigger weight initialization, according to ioprio, at the
+ * oom_bfqq's first activation. The oom_bfqq's ioprio and ioprio
+ * class won't be changed any more.
+ */
+ bfqd->oom_bfqq.entity.prio_changed = 1;
+
+ bfqd->queue = q;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES; i++)
+ bfqd->sched_data.service_tree[i] = BFQ_SERVICE_TREE_INIT;
+
+ hrtimer_init(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer, CLOCK_MONOTONIC,
+ HRTIMER_MODE_REL);
+ bfqd->idle_slice_timer.function = bfq_idle_slice_timer;
+
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bfqd->active_list);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bfqd->idle_list);
+
+ bfqd->hw_tag = -1;
+
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget = bfq_default_max_budget;
+
+ bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[0] = bfq_fifo_expire[0];
+ bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[1] = bfq_fifo_expire[1];
+ bfqd->bfq_back_max = bfq_back_max;
+ bfqd->bfq_back_penalty = bfq_back_penalty;
+ bfqd->bfq_slice_idle = bfq_slice_idle;
+ bfqd->bfq_class_idle_last_service = 0;
+ bfqd->bfq_timeout = bfq_timeout;
+
+ bfqd->bfq_requests_within_timer = 120;
+
+ spin_lock_init(&bfqd->lock);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bfqd->dispatch);
+
+ q->elevator = eq;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void bfq_slab_kill(void)
+{
+ kmem_cache_destroy(bfq_pool);
+}
+
+static int __init bfq_slab_setup(void)
+{
+ bfq_pool = KMEM_CACHE(bfq_queue, 0);
+ if (!bfq_pool)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static ssize_t bfq_var_show(unsigned int var, char *page)
+{
+ return sprintf(page, "%u\n", var);
+}
+
+static ssize_t bfq_var_store(unsigned long *var, const char *page,
+ size_t count)
+{
+ unsigned long new_val;
+ int ret = kstrtoul(page, 10, &new_val);
+
+ if (ret == 0)
+ *var = new_val;
+
+ return count;
+}
+
+#define SHOW_FUNCTION(__FUNC, __VAR, __CONV) \
+static ssize_t __FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, char *page) \
+{ \
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data; \
+ u64 __data = __VAR; \
+ if (__CONV == 1) \
+ __data = jiffies_to_msecs(__data); \
+ else if (__CONV == 2) \
+ __data = div_u64(__data, NSEC_PER_MSEC); \
+ return bfq_var_show(__data, (page)); \
+}
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_sync_show, bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[1], 2);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_async_show, bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[0], 2);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_back_seek_max_show, bfqd->bfq_back_max, 0);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_back_seek_penalty_show, bfqd->bfq_back_penalty, 0);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_show, bfqd->bfq_slice_idle, 2);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_max_budget_show, bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget, 0);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_timeout_sync_show, bfqd->bfq_timeout, 1);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_strict_guarantees_show, bfqd->strict_guarantees, 0);
+#undef SHOW_FUNCTION
+
+#define USEC_SHOW_FUNCTION(__FUNC, __VAR) \
+static ssize_t __FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, char *page) \
+{ \
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data; \
+ u64 __data = __VAR; \
+ __data = div_u64(__data, NSEC_PER_USEC); \
+ return bfq_var_show(__data, (page)); \
+}
+USEC_SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_us_show, bfqd->bfq_slice_idle);
+#undef USEC_SHOW_FUNCTION
+
+#define STORE_FUNCTION(__FUNC, __PTR, MIN, MAX, __CONV) \
+static ssize_t \
+__FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, const char *page, size_t count) \
+{ \
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data; \
+ unsigned long uninitialized_var(__data); \
+ int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count); \
+ if (__data < (MIN)) \
+ __data = (MIN); \
+ else if (__data > (MAX)) \
+ __data = (MAX); \
+ if (__CONV == 1) \
+ *(__PTR) = msecs_to_jiffies(__data); \
+ else if (__CONV == 2) \
+ *(__PTR) = (u64)__data * NSEC_PER_MSEC; \
+ else \
+ *(__PTR) = __data; \
+ return ret; \
+}
+STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_sync_store, &bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[1], 1,
+ INT_MAX, 2);
+STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_async_store, &bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[0], 1,
+ INT_MAX, 2);
+STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_back_seek_max_store, &bfqd->bfq_back_max, 0, INT_MAX, 0);
+STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_back_seek_penalty_store, &bfqd->bfq_back_penalty, 1,
+ INT_MAX, 0);
+STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_store, &bfqd->bfq_slice_idle, 0, INT_MAX, 2);
+#undef STORE_FUNCTION
+
+#define USEC_STORE_FUNCTION(__FUNC, __PTR, MIN, MAX) \
+static ssize_t __FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, const char *page, size_t count)\
+{ \
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data; \
+ unsigned long uninitialized_var(__data); \
+ int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count); \
+ if (__data < (MIN)) \
+ __data = (MIN); \
+ else if (__data > (MAX)) \
+ __data = (MAX); \
+ *(__PTR) = (u64)__data * NSEC_PER_USEC; \
+ return ret; \
+}
+USEC_STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_us_store, &bfqd->bfq_slice_idle, 0,
+ UINT_MAX);
+#undef USEC_STORE_FUNCTION
+
+static unsigned long bfq_estimated_max_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ u64 timeout = jiffies_to_msecs(bfqd->bfq_timeout);
+
+ if (bfqd->peak_rate_samples >= BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES)
+ return bfq_calc_max_budget(bfqd->peak_rate, timeout);
+ else
+ return bfq_default_max_budget;
+}
+
+static ssize_t bfq_max_budget_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
+ const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data;
+ unsigned long uninitialized_var(__data);
+ int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count);
+
+ if (__data == 0)
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget = bfq_estimated_max_budget(bfqd);
+ else {
+ if (__data > INT_MAX)
+ __data = INT_MAX;
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget = __data;
+ }
+
+ bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget = __data;
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Leaving this name to preserve name compatibility with cfq
+ * parameters, but this timeout is used for both sync and async.
+ */
+static ssize_t bfq_timeout_sync_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
+ const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data;
+ unsigned long uninitialized_var(__data);
+ int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count);
+
+ if (__data < 1)
+ __data = 1;
+ else if (__data > INT_MAX)
+ __data = INT_MAX;
+
+ bfqd->bfq_timeout = msecs_to_jiffies(__data);
+ if (bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget == 0)
+ bfqd->bfq_max_budget = bfq_estimated_max_budget(bfqd);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static ssize_t bfq_strict_guarantees_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
+ const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+ struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data;
+ unsigned long uninitialized_var(__data);
+ int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count);
+
+ if (__data > 1)
+ __data = 1;
+ if (!bfqd->strict_guarantees && __data == 1
+ && bfqd->bfq_slice_idle < 8 * NSEC_PER_MSEC)
+ bfqd->bfq_slice_idle = 8 * NSEC_PER_MSEC;
+
+ bfqd->strict_guarantees = __data;
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+#define BFQ_ATTR(name) \
+ __ATTR(name, 0644, bfq_##name##_show, bfq_##name##_store)
+
+static struct elv_fs_entry bfq_attrs[] = {
+ BFQ_ATTR(fifo_expire_sync),
+ BFQ_ATTR(fifo_expire_async),
+ BFQ_ATTR(back_seek_max),
+ BFQ_ATTR(back_seek_penalty),
+ BFQ_ATTR(slice_idle),
+ BFQ_ATTR(slice_idle_us),
+ BFQ_ATTR(max_budget),
+ BFQ_ATTR(timeout_sync),
+ BFQ_ATTR(strict_guarantees),
+ __ATTR_NULL
+};
+
+static struct elevator_type iosched_bfq_mq = {
+ .ops.mq = {
+ .get_rq_priv = bfq_get_rq_private,
+ .put_rq_priv = bfq_put_rq_private,
+ .exit_icq = bfq_exit_icq,
+ .insert_requests = bfq_insert_requests,
+ .dispatch_request = bfq_dispatch_request,
+ .next_request = elv_rb_latter_request,
+ .former_request = elv_rb_former_request,
+ .allow_merge = bfq_allow_bio_merge,
+ .bio_merge = bfq_bio_merge,
+ .request_merge = bfq_request_merge,
+ .requests_merged = bfq_requests_merged,
+ .request_merged = bfq_request_merged,
+ .has_work = bfq_has_work,
+ .init_sched = bfq_init_queue,
+ .exit_sched = bfq_exit_queue,
+ },
+
+ .uses_mq = true,
+ .icq_size = sizeof(struct bfq_io_cq),
+ .icq_align = __alignof__(struct bfq_io_cq),
+ .elevator_attrs = bfq_attrs,
+ .elevator_name = "bfq",
+ .elevator_owner = THIS_MODULE,
+};
+
+static int __init bfq_init(void)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ ret = -ENOMEM;
+ if (bfq_slab_setup())
+ goto err_pol_unreg;
+
+ ret = elv_register(&iosched_bfq_mq);
+ if (ret)
+ goto err_pol_unreg;
+
+ return 0;
+
+err_pol_unreg:
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static void __exit bfq_exit(void)
+{
+ elv_unregister(&iosched_bfq_mq);
+ bfq_slab_kill();
+}
+
+module_init(bfq_init);
+module_exit(bfq_exit);
+
+MODULE_AUTHOR("Paolo Valente");
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
+MODULE_DESCRIPTION("MQ Budget Fair Queueing I/O Scheduler");